My approach to PNH Management - Learning is Hope PNH Management.pdf · 7/17/2017 1 Paroxysmal...

8
7/17/2017 1 Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria David Dingli, MD, PhD, FRCP, FRCPEd, FACP Professor of Medicine Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN [email protected] The origin of the name…. PNH – Some history First description - J Schmidt (1648) Important description - Dr P. Strubing (1882) Constant hemosiderinuria – Marchiafava (1911) PNH - Ennekin (1925) Complement mediated hemolysis – Rosse/Dacie (1964) PNH is clonal – Luzzatto (1970) GPI biosynthesis – Kinoshita (1993) Eculizumab (2004) Epidemiology Rare Different test sensitivities Different definitions Maybe 5-20/million in USA Incidence may be higher in other countries Membrane proteins

Transcript of My approach to PNH Management - Learning is Hope PNH Management.pdf · 7/17/2017 1 Paroxysmal...

7/17/2017

1

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

David Dingli, MD, PhD, FRCP, FRCPEd, FACP

Professor of Medicine

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

[email protected]

The origin of the name….

PNH – Some history

• First description - J Schmidt (1648)

• Important description - Dr P. Strubing (1882)

• Constant hemosiderinuria – Marchiafava (1911)

• PNH - Ennekin (1925)

• Complement mediated hemolysis – Rosse/Dacie(1964)

• PNH is clonal – Luzzatto (1970)

• GPI biosynthesis – Kinoshita (1993)

• Eculizumab (2004)

Epidemiology

• Rare

• Different test sensitivities

• Different definitions

• Maybe 5-20/million in USA

• Incidence may be higher in other countries

Membrane proteins

7/17/2017

2

LectinPathogenic surfaces

ClassicalImmune complexes

AlternativeConstitutively active via spontaneous

hydrolysis (“tick-over”)

Pro

xim

al

Amplification

C3C3

C3bC3b

C3 convertaseC3 convertase

Te

rmin

al

Inflammation

Endothelial activation

Leukocyte activation

Platelet activation

Thrombosis

Inflammation

Endothelial activation

Leukocyte activation

Platelet activation

Thrombosis

C5aC5aC5C5

C5bC5b C5b-9C5b-9

ConsequencesConsequencesConsequencesConsequences+ C6,C7,C8,C9+ C6,C7,C8,C9

C5 convertaseC5 convertase

Potent anaphylatoxinMembrane Attack Complex

(MAC)

Surface-bound complement

regulatory proteinsCD55

CD59

Complement system Pathophysiology of PNH

Clonal expansion in PNH

RBCs

Monocytes

Platelets

Granulocytes

Lymphocytes

Step 1 Step 2

Hematopoietic

stem cells

Presence of GPI-AP-

deficient stem cellsSelected cells*

Somatic mutation in PIG-A

Immunologic attackClonal expansion by

immuno-selectionBenign tumor-like expansion

GPI-AP deficient

Intact

From Inoue N, et al. Int J Hematol. 2003;77(2):107-112.

Immune attack hypothesis

Clonal expansion in PNH

Second mutation

Clonal expansion – neutral drift

Dingli et al, PNAS 2008

Types of PNH cells

7/17/2017

3

Often there is a delay in diagnosis

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

<1 1 2 3 4-10

Cas

es

of

PN

H D

iagn

ose

d

Years

<2007 >2007

Symptoms

PNH AA

Shortness of breath

(dyspnoea)2,4,5

Anaemia4,5

Fatigue4,5

Renal failure4

Pulmonary hypertension2,4

Haemoglobinuria3

Dysphagia3,4

Erectile dysfunction3,4

Thrombosis1,3,4

Easy bruising5

Bleeding5

Headache5

Fever5

Infections5

Pancytopenia5

PNH phenotype cells in BMF

26.3%

5.5% 5.7% 6.0%

0

25

50

AA MDS UnexplainedCytopenia

Pancytopenia

7/17/2017

4

PNH and overlap syndromes Suspect PNH

• Coombs negative hemolytic anemia

• Intravascular hemolysis

• Cytopenias

• Thrombosis

• Hemoglobinuria

• Unexplained iron deficiency, fatigue, abdominal pain, chest pain, ED, renal insufficiency, etc

Clinical evaluation: PNH/BMF

• Symptoms

• PMH

• Medication exposure

• Occupation

• Signs– Thrombosis – splenomegaly, hepatomegaly

– Inherited marrow failure syndromes

• Family history– FA, DK, SDS, Gata-2……

Diagnostic evaluation (1)

• Flow cytometry (CD55, CD59)• Morphology of blood smear• Reticulocyte count • Coombs test• Ferritin, transferrin saturation,

sTfR• Folate • Vitamin B12• LDH• Haptoglobin• Bilirubin (direct and indirect)• Liver function• Creatinine/eGFR

• Urinalysis

• Urine hemosiderin

• Bone marrow biopsy

• D dimer

• NT-proBNP

• Erythropoietin

• Echocardiography

• Imaging– Abdomen

– Chest

Diagnostic evaluation (2)

• Chromosome studies

• DEB testing (Fanconi anemia)

• Telomere length (screen for DK)

• BMF mutation panel (if indicated)

• Hepatitis B, C, HIV, Parvovirus B19

• TCR

• Copper

• HLA typing

Classification

• Hemolytic PNH

• PNH with bone marrow failure (AA, MDS)

• Subclinical

7/17/2017

5

Therapy: Hemolytic PNH (1)

• Education of patient and family– Natural history– Risks

• Thrombosis• Evolution to Aplastic anemia/MDS/AML

– Indications for therapy• Supportive therapy

– Folate, iron, RBC transfusion

• Therapy for marrow failure• Eculizumab

– Immunizations• Hepatitis B• Neisseria, Pneumococcus, Haemophilus

Therapy: Hemolytic PNH (2)

• Observation– Mild compensated hemolysis

– LDH < 2 ULN

– No thrombosis

– Small clone size

– No other significant cytopenias

– Folate supplementation (1 - 2mg daily)

– Monitor iron stores (supplement as needed)

– ? Anticoagulation

Therapy: Hemolytic PNH (3)

• Complement inhibitory therapy– Persistent high reticulocyte count and anemia

(<10g/dL)

– LDH > 2xULN

– Large clone size >20% (neutrophils or monocytes)

– RBC transfusion requirements

– Progressive renal insufficiency

– Thrombosis

– Other symptoms related to PNH – fatigue, abdominal pain, dysphagia

Therapy: Hemolytic PNH (4)

• Follow up

– New symptoms

– Transfusion requirements

– Markers of hemolysis

– PNH clone size

– Iron stores

• Frequency

Eculizumab ‘failure’

• Intravascular hemolysis => extravascular hemolysis

• Iron deficiency

• Folate

• ? Increase dose/frequency of eculizumab

• ? Indication for BMT

Natural history of PNH

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

Years After Diagnosis

Pat

ien

ts S

urv

ivin

g, % Age- and gender-

matched controls

Patients with PNH

2 4 6 8 10

20

40

60

80

100

Time (years)

Cu

mu

lati

ve S

urv

ivin

g, %

00

N= 153

Age- and gender-matched normal population

Numbers at Risk:153 93 45 43 12

Soliris Treated PNH Population

7/17/2017

6

Thrombosis in PNH

PNH*(n=126)

PNH + severe AA‡

(n=24)

PNH + AA†

(n=96)

22

15

13

30

20

10

0

Inci

den

ce o

f TE

s (%

)

Mechanisms of thrombosis

• Endothelial (blood vessel dysfunction)

– Nitric oxide depletion

• Platelet dysfunction

• Iron deficiency

• Complement activation

Thrombosis

• Venous– Lower extremity/Pulmonary embolism

– Mesenteric

– Portal

– Hepatic (Budd Chiari syndrome)

– Cerebral sinus

• Arterial (<10%)– Coronary

– Cerebrovascular

Pulmonary embolism

Mesenteric thrombosis

• Venous

– Vague abdominal pain

– Nausea/vomiting

• Arterial

– Severe abdominal pain with minimal tenderness

Budd Chiari syndrome

• Abdominal pain

• Right upper quadrant tenderness

• Abdominal swelling (ascites)

• Jaundice

7/17/2017

7

Risk of thrombosis

• Partly dependent on clone size

• Other precipitating factors

– Surgery

– Infection

– Immobility/travel

– Pregnancy

– Birth control pills

Prevention

• Standard precautions in high risk situations

• Prophylaxis in patients with large clone size

– Concomitant AA?

• Eculizumab

• No data on newer anticoagulants specifically in PNH

Thrombosis - Therapy

• Anticoagulation– Heparin, LMWH– Coumadin

• Thrombolysis– tPA

• Anticomplement therapy– Eculizumab

• Multidisciplinary approach– Interventional radiology– Hepatology– Vascular surgery

Renal complications

• Hemosiderin deposition

• Microthrombosis

• Nitric oxide depletion

• Papillary necrosis

• Stabilization/improvement with anti-complement therapy

Pulmonary hypertension

• Thromboembolism

• Vascular endothelial dysfunction

• Anemia

PNH/BMF

• Aplastic anemia

– Eliminate potential causes/confounders

– Observation

– IST/androgens/eltrombopag

– BMT

• Donor selection

• Conditioning regimen

7/17/2017

8

Therapy of PNH/BMF

• CsA/ATG/Prednisone

• Eculizumab

• BMT

– If AA is predominant problem

– Transfusion dependence/ongoing hemolysis

– Evolution to MDS/AML

– Recurrent, severe thrombosis

Eculizimab

• Often effective– ~ 70% transfusion independent

• Will not improve WBC and PLT

• Does not alter risk of evolution

• Generally well tolerated

• Dose may be adjusted in some patients

• Look for other causes of fatigue– Iron deficiency

LT complications

• ATG/CsA– Immunosuppression

– Renal toxicity, hypertension

– Risk of tumors

• BMT– Immunosuppression

– CsA toxicity

– GVHD

– Tumors

Special considerations

• Pregnancy

– High risk of thrombosis

– Eculizumab

• Surgery

– Prophylaxis

– Eculizumab

• Air travel

– Prophylaxis

In development

• Other C5 inhibitors

– Mab, Si-RNA, Aptamers

• C3 inhibitors

• C3 convertase inhibitors

• AP inhibitors

– Si-RNA, Aptamers, FH based proteins

Thank you

[email protected]