Multimedia Systems by Sahil Punni

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DIGITAL AUDIO AND VIDEO Sahil Punni 0 5 / 0 9 / 2 0 2 2 1 Multimedia Systems

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This slide on Multimedia Systems is an ongoing effort to put together my lectures and notes compiled over several years of studying the Multimedia Systems at one of the most reputed university in the country. I realized it is a more natural fit for my thinking on the matter of books. I do not care to make money off of a "student". The knowledge contained in these lectures is not my invention, it may have the imprint of my interpretation and to that extent is my creation with all its flaws. Therefore, I see myself as merely a conduit of this knowledge. It is for you the reader to decide what this is worth to you. If this is worth something to you then hopefully you will participate in similar acts of knowledge dissemination as you are able. Most of the topics are complete with some that I plan to fill with time. For each topic that I already have content there is my audio that goes with the powerpoint slides. The pdfs are simply prints of the powerpoint slides. On some lectures I have notes associated with the powerpoint slides. Also where relevant I used animation in powerpoint when I felt it served as an aid towards comprehension.

Transcript of Multimedia Systems by Sahil Punni

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Sahil Punni



Multimedia Systems

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CONTENTS Audio How we hear Sound? Basic Sound Concepts Computer Representation of Audio Audio Encoding Audio Formats Video Encoding Video Formats Conclusion Additionals : Digital Audio and Video Editing

Softwares Explained



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AUDIO Sound is a continuous wave that travels

through the air. The wave is made up of pressure differences.



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BASIC SOUND CONCEPTS Frequency represents the number of

periods in a second (measured in hertz, cycles/second)

Human hearing frequency range: 20 Hz - 20 kHz (audio), voice is about 500 Hz to 2 kHz.

Amplitude of a sound is the measure of displacement of the air pressure wave from its mean.


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• Speech is analog in nature and it is converted to digital form by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

• A transducer converts pressure to voltage levels. • Convert analog signal into a digital stream by

discrete sampling • Discretization both in time and amplitude




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Audio Waves Converted to Digital• electrical voltage input• sample voltage levels at intervals to get a vector of values: (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.1, 1.5,

2.3, 2.5, 3.1, 3.0, 2.4,...) • A computer measures the amplitude of the waveform at regular time intervals to

produce a series of numbers (samples). • The ADC process is governed by various factors such as sample rate and

quantization: binary number as output



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• Sampling Rate: rate at which a continuous wave is sampled (measured in Hertz)

• Examples: CD standard - 44100 Hz, Telephone quality - 8000 Hz

• The audio industry uses 5.0125 kHz, 11.025 kHz, 22.05 kHz, and 44.1 kHz as the standard sampling frequencies. These frequencies are supported by most sound cards.



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AUDIO ENCODING (3) The best-known technique for voice digitization

is Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM). Voice 4000 Hz

What is the PCM sampling rate? PCM provides analog samples which must be

converted to digital representation. Each of these analog samples must be assigned a binary code. Each sample is approximated by being quantized as explained next.



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AUDIO ENCODING (4) Quantization (sample precision): the

resolution of a sample value. Samples are typically stored as raw numbers

(linear PCM format) or as logarithms (u-law or A-law)

Quantization depends on the number of bits used measuring the height of the waveform

Example: 16-bit CD quality quantization results in over 65536 values



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AUDIO FORMATS (1) 04/07/2023


• Audio Formats are described by the sample rate and quantization • Voice quality: 8-bit quantization, 8000 Hz u-law

mono (8kBytes/s) • 22 kHz 8-bit linear mono (22 kBytes/second) and

stereo (44 kBytes/s) • CD quality 16-bit quantization, 44100 Hz linear

stereo (176.4 kBytes/s = 44100 samples x 16 bits/sample x 2 (two channels)/8000)

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AUDIO FORMATS (2) Available formats on SUN

au - Sun File Format wav - Microsoft RIFF/waveform Format al - Raw A-law Data Format u - Raw u-law Data Format snd - NeXT File Format

Available formats on Microsoft-Windows-based systems ( RIFF formats): Waveform audio file format for digital audio hardware MIDI file format for standard MIDI files Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) Indeo file format



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AUDIO FORMATS (3)• RIFF (Resource Interchange File Format)

forms the basis of a number of file formats. RIFF (similarly to TIFF - Tagged Image File Format) is a tagged file format. Tags allow applications capable of reading RIFF files to read RIFF files by another application, hence the word interchange in RIFF.

• Other Formats/Players - RealPlayer 7 (Windows NT) with RealAudio, MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3) audio, Midi players; MP3 players (



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VIDEO ENCODING (1) 04/07/2023


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VIDEO (COLOR) ENCODING (2)• During the scanning, a camera creates three

signals: RGB (red, greed and blue) signals.

• For compatibility with black-and-white video and because of the fact that the three color signals are highly correlated, a new set of signals of different space are generated.

• The color systems correspond to the standards such as NTSC, PAL, SECAM (conventional systems).



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VIDEO ENCODING (3)• For transmission of the visual signal we use

three signals: 1 luminance (brightness- basic signal) and 2 chrominance (color signals).

• In NTSC signal the luminance and chrominance signals are interleaved;

• The goal at the receiver is : (1) separate luminance from chrominance components, and (2) avoid interference between them (cross-color, cross luminance)



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VIDEO FORMAT (1) NTSC (National Television Systems Committee)

TV Format (USA TV Standard) Analog video format Color carrier 4.429 MHz; refresh rate 30 Hz (29.92Hz); 4.2 MHz

for luminance, 1.5 MHz for eac of the two chrominance channels Resolution: 833x635 picture elements Refresh Rate: 30 Hz Aspect Ratio: 4:3 Interlaced format :

Each frame is composed of two consecutive fields, each containing half the scanning lines of a picture, which are scanned and presented in interlaced mode.



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VIDEO FORMATS (2) High Definition TV (HDTV)

Research on HDTV started in Japan 1968 Current TV standard

Resolution: twice as many horizontal and vertical columns and lines than

conventional systems (NTSC) Two resolution systems

High 1440 Level with 1,440x1,152 pixels High Level with 1,920x1,152 pixels

Frame rate: 50 or 60 frames per second Aspect Ratio: 16:9 Interlaced and/or progressive scanning formats

Conventional systems use interlaced (alternation of scanning lines) format

HDTV similar to computer displays, uses progressive scanning



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SUMMARY • Audio and Video Encoding principles are very

important, set the basis for digitization• Different Digital Audio, Image and Video

Formats, not much standardization across continents/countries, hence difficult to build multimedia systems

• Multimedia systems are behind other systems such as web systems, grid systems, operating systems, …… due to the large space in audio and video formats.



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SPECIAL ADDITIONALS Adobe Audition Magix Music Maker Media Player Classic PhotoDesk Pro Show Windows Media Player VLC Player AV Karaoke Maker Converters : flv to mp3 converter



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