MSC 258 Multimedia Presentations Color Photography With Excerpts and examples from: Color...
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Transcript of MSC 258 Multimedia Presentations Color Photography With Excerpts and examples from: Color...
MSC 258Multimedia PresentationsColor PhotographyWith Excerpts and examples from:Color Photography: A Working ManualHenry Horenstein, Little, Brown & Company, USA, 1995Photography8th. Ed., London, Upton, Stone, Kobr, Brill, Prentice Hall,Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005
Photographing in ColorMore than 95 percent of all photographs taken are in color.Not that long ago, color photography was looked upon with skepticism by many creative and professional photographers.Whatever materials and processes are used, its still the individual who creates the final result.
Shooting color film is in most ways similar to shooting black-and-white film.Load the camera.Adjust the film speed.Set the lens aperture, shutter speed and focus. (or let the camera do any of these things for you)Naturally, you also have to consider the content, composition, and subject lighting.Press the shutter button to make the exposure.
Color: Additive or SubtractiveAll colors can be created by mixing three primary colors.Additive primaries (red, green, and blue)RGB used in television sets and computer monitors.The additive process mixes red, green, & blue light in varying proportions to produce any color.Mixed together at full strength, all three primaries produce white light.Additive mixing requires three separate light sources.RGB
Color: Additive or SubtractiveAll colors can be created by mixing three primary colors.Subtractive primaries (cyan, magenta, and yellow)CMYK used in all modern color films, as well as in printing.These colors absorb red, green, and blue wavelengths, thus subtracting them from white light.The subtractive primaries are the complementary colors to the three additive primaries.Mixed all together at full strength, the subtractive primaries absorb all colors of light, producing black (K). Mixed in varying proportions, they can produce any color in the spectrum. R G B
Color Photographs: Three Image LayersA color photograph begins as three superimposed black-and-white negatives.Color film consists of three layers of emulsion, with each layer basically the same as in B & W film, but responding to different parts of the spectrum.The top layer is only sensitive to blue light.The middle layer records the green light.The bottom layer is exposed only by red light.Colors are created during development.The developer converts the light-sensitive silver halides in the layers to metallic silver.As it does so, the developer oxidizes and combines with dye couplers that are either built into the layers of emulsion or added during developmentA color transparency, for example, has three layers of dye images superimposed on a transparent support.
Choosing A Color FilmDifferent types and/or brands of color film vary in their color rendition, sharpness, contrast, graininess, and other characteristics.
Negative films, also called print films.Produce an image that is opposite in colors and density of the original scene.Designed to be printed to create a positive image, usually on paper but occasionally on a clear film base for overheads, etc.Color negatives contain an overall orange mask which is formed during processing to help control color balance and contrast in printing.Usually identified by the suffix color attached to the manufacturers name.Agfacolor, Ektacolor, Fujicolor, Kodacolor, etc.
Choosing A Color FilmReversal films, also called transparency film.The film exposed in the camera is processed so that the negative image is reversed to make a positive transparency with the same colors and density as the scene.Designed to be projected or viewed directly and can also be printed or scanned.35mm transparency films also are called slide films. A slide is a transparency framed in cardboard or plastic mount. Generally identified by the suffix chrome attached to the manufacturers name.Agfachrome, Ektachrome, Fujichrome, Kodachrome, etc.
Choosing A Color FilmProfessional films are designed for professional photographers, who often have exacting standards, especially for color balance.Professional films are shipped to the camera store when they are at their peak in terms of:Color balanceSpeedContrastProfessional films have a shorter expiration date and should be used immediately and/or kept refrigerated.Other characteristics of professional films may include:A heavier film base and a more durable emulsion.More flexibility in push and pull processing.Generally more expensive than comparable amateur films.
Choosing A Color FilmConsumer oriented films are typically designed and manufactured to different color specifications.Amateur films are shipped before they reach their peak so they will reach their optimum color balance some time after they reach the retailer.Amateur films have a longer expiration date and can be stored at room-temperature.*An amateur version of a certain film may have more highly saturated color and higher contrast for added impact.The professional version of the same film may have less intense color & lower contrast for more accurate skin tones & greater subject detail.Nonprofessionals are more likely to accept some variation in color balance from one roll of film to the next.
* Although they are not expected to be refrigerated, they too keep better when kept cool.
Film CharacteristicsDifferent types of color film vary in their color rendition, sharpness, contrast, graininess, and other characteristics.Color quality varies widely from film to film.Some films have a warm bias others dont.Some films produce more saturated (intense) colors than others.Dyes used by different manufacturers vary.Film speed (ISO)has an important effect on how film renders a subject.Slower films generally produce:Greater sharpness.Richer ColorsOften more contrast.A less grainy appearance.Higher resolution.Practical considerations always come into play.
Exposing Color FilmsCorrect film exposure is the primary factor in determining whether or not you will get good negatives and transparencies.For the most part, techniques for exposing B & W films also apply to exposing color films.Its easier to get good exposures (prints) with negative films than with transparency films.Negative films have more exposure latitude (margin for error).Transparency films tolerate very little under or overexposure (1/2 to 2/3 stop).Unlike negatives, transparencies become lighter with more exposure and darker with less.Theres more margin for error (latitude) when the lighting is soft (low contrast) than when its hard (high contrast).
Exposure Latitude: How Much Can Exposures Vary?Color Negatives Uncorrected Contact SheetTransparenciesCorrected PrintCorrected Print-1 stop-2 stops-3 stops-4 stops-1 stop-2 stops-3 stops-4 stops+1 stop+2 stops+3 stops+4 stops+1 stop+2 stops+3 stops+4 stops
Color films and lighting must be balanced for neutral color.Color film records slight shifts in color balance that result from different types of light bulbs or color shifts in daylight.Unlike black & white films, color films allow relatively little contrast control.Subject lighting is a critical factor in determining color balance and contrast.The balance of colors in light is measured as color temperature on the Kelvin scale.Different color films are made for different color temperatures.
Color Balance: Color Temperature10,000K9,000K8,000K7,000K6,000K5,000K4,000K3,000K2,000K1,000KCool Colors or Hues Warm Colors or Hues
5500K } Daylight Film3200K } Tungsten FilmDaylight: Clear Skylight/No Direct Sun+Daylight: Dull, Foggy WeatherDaylight: Overcast SkyElectronic FlashDaylight: Noon, Direct SunIndustrial Smog75 Watt Household BulbCandlelight3400K3200KPhotoflood BulbPhotoflood Bulb
Color Balance and the Light SourceDaylight Color Film, White Background, Gray ShirtMidday SunlightSunsetOpen Shade OutdoorsTelevisionMonitorComputerMonitorBlue NeonFluorescentTubeTungstenBulb Candlelight
Filters for Black & White FilmWith black-and-white films, colored filters are used to control the relative lightness and darkness of tones (contrast).Actual SceneIn ColorB & WNo FilterB & W#8 YellowFilterB & W#25 RedFilter
Filters for B & W and Color FilmsSkylight or UltravioletNeutral DensityPolarizingDarkens Blue SkyReduces ReflectionsWithout Polarizing FilterWith Polarizing Filter
Filters to Balance ColorFilters can correct the color balance.Daylight film Tungsten light.Tungsten film DaylightDaylight film Fluorescent lightVery long exposures can change color balance.Color balance is more important when making color slides than it is with color negatives.
Filters to Balance Color Filter 85B Filter 80A Filter FLDaylight Film inFluorescent LightDaylight Film inFluorescent LightWith FL FilterDaylight Film in Natural DaylightTungsten Film in Tungsten LightTungsten Film in DaylightDaylight Film in Tungsten LightTungsten Film in Natural Daylightwith 85B FilterDaylight Film in Tungsten Lightwith 80A Filter
Natural light wont always provide the color and contrast you want.Varies enormously depending on factors such as:Weather (and other atmospheric conditions)Time of dayLocationSeason
Time of day affects color: Specifics may vary with other factors, but typically changes as shown.6:30 A.M.7:00 A.M.Noon3:45 P.M.6:00 P.M.8:30 P.M.Light is very cool before dawn.Light warms as the sun rises.Light becomes neutral laterin the morning And stays neutral through theearly afternoon.As the sun goes down, the resultinglight warms up again Then cools down after sunset.
Season affects color: From season to season color may change (leaves in the fall or snow in the winter), as does the color temperature of outdoor light.Winte