Motivation & Morale

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  • 8/8/2019 Motivation & Morale




  • 8/8/2019 Motivation & Morale



    Motivation is a psychologicalMotivation is a psychologicalstatestate

    Understanding motivation help inUnderstanding motivation help inunderstanding individualunderstanding individualbehaviorbehavior

    Motivation depends on individualMotivation depends on individualas well as the situationas well as the situation

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    Stephen P. Robbins The willingness to exert high

    levels of effort towards

    organizational goals, conditionedby the efforts ability to satisfy

    some individual need

    Definitions ofMotivationDefinitions ofMotivation

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    Motivation means a process ofstimulating

    people to action to accomplish desiredgoals.

    W.G. Scott

    Morale is the capacity ofa group ofpeople

    to pull together persistently and

    consistently in pursuit ofa purpose.


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    Definitions ofMotivationDefinitions ofMotivation

    Motivation is also defined as aMotivation is also defined as acondition that is initiated by thecondition that is initiated by the

    need in an individual.need in an individual. Motivation consists of threeMotivation consists of three

    interacting and interdependentinteracting and interdependent

    elementselements needs, drives andneeds, drives andincentives.incentives.

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    Motivation ProcessMotivation Process


    Individualbehaves in acertainmanner(DRIVE)

    Achieves aparticulargoal(INCENTIVE)

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    Imbalance between physiologicalImbalance between physiologicalor psychological imbalance leadsor psychological imbalance leads

    to a need. E,g, Food and a need. E,g, Food and water. Need may arise even withoutNeed may arise even without

    physiological need e.g. to bephysiological need e.g. to be


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    Propel individuals to attain ones goalPropel individuals to attain ones goal

    Drives constitute the core element inDrives constitute the core element in


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    Anything that mitigate a need andAnything that mitigate a need anddecrease the intensity of a drive isdecrease the intensity of a drive is

    called an incentive.called an incentive.

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    Classification ofMotivesClassification ofMotives

    Primary MotivesPrimary Motives -- they arethey arephysiologically basedphysiologically based hunger, thirst, sexhunger, thirst, sexetc.etc.

    Secondary MotivesSecondary Motives -- are those whichare those whichare learned over a period of time.are learned over a period of time.-- fastingfastingfor religious cause etc.for religious cause etc.

    General MotivesGeneral Motives which cannot bewhich cannot be

    classified as the above two. Also calledclassified as the above two. Also calledstimulus motivesstimulus motives curiosity,curiosity,manipulation etc.manipulation etc.

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    General MotivesGeneral Motives

    The curiosity, manipulation and

    activity motives

    The affection motive

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    Secondary MotivesSecondary Motives

    The Power motiveThe Power motive Alfred Adler Vs. SigmundAlfred Adler Vs. SigmundFreudFreud (Inferiority & Competition)(Inferiority & Competition)

    The achievement motiveThe achievement motive Thematic Apperception test / Degree of Risk Taking e.q.Thematic Apperception test / Degree of Risk Taking e.q.Ring Toss Game;Ring Toss Game; Need for immediate feedbackNeed for immediate feedback Satisfaction of accomplishing than material rewardsSatisfaction of accomplishing than material rewards

    The affiliation motiveThe affiliation motive -- The security motiveThe security motive -- The status motiveThe status motive --

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    Meaning & DefinitionMeaning & Definition

    Integral part of the process ofIntegral part of the process ofdirectiondirection

    Instrument for inspiring workforceInstrument for inspiring workforce

    and creating confidence.and creating confidence.

    Deals with actuating people to workDeals with actuating people to workfor accomplishment of goals.for accomplishment of goals.

    It is a performance factor in IndustryIt is a performance factor in Industry

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    Performance of an industy isdetermined by two factors:

    1.Level of ability to do certain work

    2.Level of motivation expressed as:

    Performance = Ability X Motivation

    Performance will be high if both thesefactors are high.

    Motivation is governed by humanbehaviour in the organisation

    Ability to do work is governed byEducation and Training.

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    Motivation - act of energizing people tosatisfy their needs.

    Has its roots in motives which induce aperson to behave in a certain manner.

    Motive is defined more often as needs,

    wants, drives, impulses etc. within theindividual.

    There is a Stimulus behind every

    behaviour.Stimulus depend on the motive.

    Motive can be known by studying the

    needs & desires.

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    Need & Importance of MotivationNeed & Importance of Motivation

    Helps in realizing OrganizationalHelps in realizing Organizationalgoalsgoals

    Helps in increasing productivityHelps in increasing productivity Reduce turnover & absenteeismReduce turnover & absenteeism

    Maintain good industrial relationsMaintain good industrial relations

    Helps in getting right personnelHelps in getting right personnel

    Reduce employee grievancesReduce employee grievances

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    Content Theories ofContent Theories of

    Motivation (What Motivates)Motivation (What Motivates) Theories based onTheories based on

    human needs:human needs:

    MaslowMaslow, Hertzberg and, Hertzberg andMcClellandMcClelland

    Theories based onTheories based onhuman nature:human nature:

    McGregor.McGregor. Theories based onTheories based on

    expectancy of humanexpectancy of humanbeings:beings:


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    Masl ws ee e r Masl ws ee e r






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    Needs may not follow definiteNeeds may not follow definite

    hierarchical orderhierarchical order

    Need priority model may not beNeed priority model may not be

    applicable at all times.applicable at all times.

    Behaviour is guided by multiplicityBehaviour is guided by multiplicity

    of behaviour. Satisfying one need atof behaviour. Satisfying one need at

    a time may not be valid.a time may not be valid.

    In many level of motivation is lowIn many level of motivation is low


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    Hertzbergs T o factor TheoryHertzbergs T o factor TheoryInterview 200 - Two important incidents in their


    1.When did they feel particularly good about theirjob?

    2.When did they feel exceptionally bad about their

    job?Results interesting & consistent.

    Good feelings were associated with Job Satisfaction

    Bad feelings were associated with Job


    Job satisfiers were labeled MOTIVATORS factors

    Job dissatisfiers were labeled HYGIENE factors

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    Hygiene :Hygiene :

    Job DissatisfactionJob Dissatisfaction


    Job satisfaction



    Work itself



    Company Policy & AdmnSupervision

    Interpersonal Relations

    Working Conditions




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    People tend to takePeople tend to takecredit when thingscredit when thingsgo well & blamego well & blameothers when goesothers when goesbad.bad.

    Theory basically onTheory basically onJob satisfactionJob satisfaction not on motivation.not on motivation.

    Job satisfaction notJob satisfaction notmeasured on overallmeasured on overall

    basisbasis Neglects situationalNeglects situational

    variable invariable inmotivation.motivation.

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    McClellands Need TheoryMcClellands Need Theory Closely associated withClosely associated with

    learning theorylearning theory sincesinceneeds are learned orneeds are learned oracquired fromacquired from

    environment & cultureenvironment & culture People who acquirePeople who acquire

    particular need behaveparticular need behavedifferently.differently.

    His theory focuses on 3His theory focuses on 3needs:needs:


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    Need for AchievementNeed for Achievement

    Drive to excelDrive to excel against standards setagainst standards set

    People with high need for achievementPeople with high need for achievementperform betterperform better

    3 Characters:3 Characters:

    a) High need achieversa) High need achievers--assumeassumeresponsibilityresponsibility

    b) set moderately difficult goals/calculatedb) set moderately difficult goals/calculatedrisk.risk.

    c) Have desire for performance feedbackc) Have desire for performance feedback

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    Need for Po erNeed for Po er Concerned withConcerned with

    impressing others/desireimpressing others/desireto influence others/theto influence others/theurge to changeurge to change

    people/desire to make apeople/desire to make life.

    3 Characters:3 Characters: a) Desire toa) Desire toinfluence & direct othersinfluence & direct others

    b) desire to control othersb) desire to control othersc) maintain leaderc) maintain leader--follower relationfollower relation

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    Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation

    Desire to establish &Desire to establish &maintain warm relationsmaintain warm relationswith others. Similar towith others. Similar to

    Maslows social needs.Maslows social needs. 3 Characters:3 Characters: a) Stronga) Strong

    desire for acceptance &desire for acceptance &approvalapproval b) Confirm tob) Confirm to

    the wishes of thosethe wishes of thosewhom they valuewhom they value

    c) Value feelings ofc) Value feelings of


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    Alderfers ERG TheoryAlderfers ERG Theory Extension ofHertzbergs & MaslowsExtension ofHertzbergs & Maslows

    TheoryTheory Identified lower level & higher level needsIdentified lower level & higher level needs

    Three Basic group of core needs:Three Basic group of core needs:11. Existence needs. Existence needs survival &survival &physiological well beingphysiological well being

    2.2. Relatedness needsRelatedness needs social &social &

    interpersonal needsinterpersonal needs3.3. Growth needsGrowth needs inner need forinner need forpersonal growthpersonal growth

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    Theory based on Human NatureTheory based on Human Nature

    (Process theories(Process theories H

    o )H

    o )McGregors Participation Theory

    Based on participation of workers

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    Theory XTheory X Two distinct views of human beingsTwo distinct views of human beings X Theory is negative:X Theory is negative:

    a) People by nature indolenta) People by nature indolent

    b) They lack ambition/dislikeb) They lack ambition/dislike

    responsibility/prefer directedresponsibility/prefer directed

    c) Selfc) Self--centered/indifferent tocentered/indifferent to

    Organisational goalsOrganisational goals

    d) Generally gullible/not sharp ord) Generally gullible/not sharp or


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    Theory YTheory Y Y Theory is positive:Y Theory is positive:a) People by nature are quitea) People by nature are quite

    active and not resistant toactive and not resistant to

    Organisational goalsOrganisational goalsb) They want to assumeb) They want to assume


    c) Want organisation toc) Want organisation tosucceed.succeed.

    d) Have need for achievementd) Have need for achievement

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    It is actually the boundary limits

    of extremes within which theorganizational man is seen tobehave.

    The fact is, no actual man willbelong to either of the two fully.There will always be overlapping.They will swing from one toanother with changes in moodand environment

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    Ur icks TheoryUr icks Theory Each individual should know theEach individual should know the

    organisational goals precisely andorganisational goals precisely andthe amount of contribution throughthe amount of contribution throughhis effortshis efforts

    Each individual should also know thatEach individual should also know thatthe realisation of organisational goalsthe realisation of organisational goalsis going to satisfy his/her going to satisfy his/her needs.

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    Ouchis Theory ZOuchis Theory Z

    Strong Bond betweenStrong Bond betweenOrganization andOrganization andEmployeesEmployees

    Employee Participation andEmployee Participation andInvolvementInvolvement

    No Formal OrganizationNo Formal OrganizationStructureStructure

    Human ResourceHuman ResourceDepartmentDepartment

    This theory representsThis theory representsJapanese managementJapanese managementpractices (Group decision,practices (Group decision,Social cohesion, holisticSocial cohesion, holisticconcern for employees etc)concern for employees etc)

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    Vrooms Expectancy TheoryVrooms Expectancy Theory

    Most accepted explanation onMost accepted explanation onmotivationmotivation

    Founded on basic notion that peopleFounded on basic notion that peoplewill be motivated to high level ofwill be motivated to high level ofeffort when they believe there iseffort when they believe there isrelationship between effort they putrelationship between effort they put

    in, performance they achive andin, performance they achive andreward they receive.reward they receive.

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    Effort Reward

    Will my effortimprove myperformance


    Will performancelead to rewards?

    Will rewardssatisfy my

    individual goals?

    Vrooms Expectancy Model of Motivation


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    Key constructs in expectancyKey constructs in expectancy


    VALANCE:VALANCE: Value or strength one placesValue or strength one placeson a particular outcome or rewardon a particular outcome or reward

    EXPECTANCY:EXPECTANCY: Relates efforts toRelates efforts to

    performanceperformance INSTRUMENTALITY:INSTRUMENTALITY: Belief thatBelief that

    performance is related to rewards.performance is related to rewards.

    Expressed as: M=VxExIExpressed as: M=VxExI

    Being multiplicative, all values mustBeing multiplicative, all values musthave high +ve value. If any onehave high +ve value. If any oneapproaches 0, performance alsoapproaches 0, performance alsotouches 0touches 0

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    The PorterThe Porter--La ler ModelLa ler Model

    Assumption is that Happy worker is aAssumption is that Happy worker is aproductive workerproductive worker

    Studies prove that there is remote

    Studies prove that there is remoterelationship between level ofrelationship between level of

    satisfaction and level of productivitysatisfaction and level of productivity

    Complex relationship betweenComplex relationship betweenmotivation, satisfaction andmotivation, satisfaction andperformanceperformance

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    1. Valueofreward





    & Traits







    Porter-Lawler Model

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    Performance depends on 3 factors:Performance depends on 3 factors:

    Employee should haveEmployee should have desiredesire to performto perform Employee should have theEmployee should have the skillskill andand

    abilities to do the jobabilities to do the job

    Employee should haveEmployee should have clear perceptionclear perception

    of his role in the organization and jobof his role in the organization and jobrequirements.requirements.

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    Variables in the model:Variables in the model:

    EffortEffort Energy expanded to do the jobEnergy expanded to do the job-- depends on attractiveness of thedepends on attractiveness of the


    PerformancePerformance Motivation leads to effortMotivation leads to effort

    -- effort does not deliver effectiveeffort does not deliver effectiveperformanceperformance

    -- performance depends on skillsperformance depends on skills

    and abilitiesand abilities-- no perfect match between effortno perfect match between effort

    and performanceand performance

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    Rewards : Reward is based onRewards : Reward is based onperformanceperformance

    IntrinsicIntrinsic What employee gives himselfWhat employee gives himself

    ExtrinsicExtrinsic What others giveWhat others give

    PerformancePerformance satisfaction depends onsatisfaction depends onperceptionperception

    Satisfaction :Depends on whether theSatisfaction :Depends on whether theactual reward offeredactual reward offeredfall short, match orfall short, match or


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    Contemporary TheoriesContemporary Theories

    Equity TheoryEquity Theory J. Stacy AdamsJ. Stacy Adams

    -- the degree of equity/inequitythe degree of equity/inequity

    perceived by an employee withperceived by an employee withreference to his work situation playsreference to his work situation playsa major role in work performancea major role in work performanceand satisfactionand satisfaction

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    Equity :Equity :

    Persons outcomesPersons outcomes == others outcomes]others outcomes]Persons inputs others inputsPersons inputs others inputs


    Persons outcomesPersons outcomes > Others outcomesOthers outcomesPersons inputs Others inputsPersons inputs Others inputs

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    ReferentsReferents SelfSelf--insideinside : Compare others within the: Compare others within the

    organization in similar positionorganization in similar position

    SelfSelf--outside:outside: Compares others outside theCompares others outside the

    organization in a similar positionorganization in a similar position

    OtherOther--InsideInside : Compares present position: Compares present position

    with others in another organizationwith others in another organization

    Other outsideOther outside : Comparing self with others: Comparing self with othersin other organization in a different positionin other organization in a different position

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    Variable that influence reference:Variable that influence reference:

    GenderGender Length or tenureLength or tenure

    Level of jobLevel of job

    Level of Education / professionalLevel of Education / professionalqualificationqualification

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    After comparisonAfter comparison choices one makechoices one make

    Change in inputsChange in inputs increase/decreaseincrease/decrease Change in outcomesChange in outcomes increase/decreaseincrease/decrease

    Distort perception of selfDistort perception of self

    Choose a different referentChoose a different referent

    Leave the fieldLeave the field

    People relate not only their rewardsPeople relate not only their rewardswith effort but also rewards withwith effort but also rewards with

    those of others. If he finds inequitythose of others. If he finds inequityhe gets tensed.he gets tensed.

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    Four methods by which employeeFour methods by which employeeovercome perceived inequity:overcome perceived inequity:

    Over rewarded:Over rewarded: Hourly based wagesHourly based wages :If Rewards exceed their:If Rewards exceed their

    input tend to produce more.input tend to produce more.

    Piece rate wagesPiece rate wages: Over rewarded employees: Over rewarded employees

    tend to increase output either in quality ortend to increase output either in quality orquantity.quantity.

    Under rewarded :Under rewarded : Will try toWill try to restore equityrestore equity by reducing theby reducing the

    efforts they put in by reducing quality orefforts they put in by reducing quality orquantity.quantity.

    If payment is on the basis of no. of unitsIf payment is on the basis of no. of units reduce equityreduce equity by producing producing more.

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    Inequity due to overpayment does notInequity due to overpayment does notaffect muchaffect much

    Not only pay is considered but otherNot only pay is considered but otherfactors are also considered like jobfactors are also considered like job

    designation, fringe benefits etc.designation, fringe benefits etc. Distributive justice vs. procedural justice.Distributive justice vs. procedural justice.

    This theory demonstrates that employeesThis theory demonstrates that employeesare motivated by bothare motivated by both absolute rewardsabsolute rewards

    andand relative rewardsrelative rewards

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    Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory

    Different from other theoriesDifferent from other theories

    Identifies attributions made by people forIdentifies attributions made by people fortheir motivation. Common assumptionstheir motivation. Common assumptions

    are:are: Give logical explanation for the happeningGive logical explanation for the happening

    Attribute actions to internal/external causesAttribute actions to internal/external causes

    Individuals follow fairly logical approach inIndividuals follow fairly logical approach in

    making attributions.making attributions.

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    This theory deals with cognitiveThis theory deals with cognitive

    processprocess It tries to answer why aspect ofIt tries to answer why aspect of

    motivation and behavior.motivation and behavior.


    Heider Behavior is determined byBehavior is determined byboth personality attributes ( ability,both personality attributes ( ability,

    effort and fatigue) and externaleffort and fatigue) and externalforces (rules, regulations)forces (rules, regulations)

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    Locus ofControl Attribution TheoryLocus ofControl Attribution Theory

    It is the chief source of factors thatIt is the chief source of factors thatcreates a result to an outcome in thecreates a result to an outcome in theemployees perception.employees perception.

    Depends on Internal/External factorsDepends on Internal/External factors

    An employees perceived locus ofAn employees perceived locus ofcontrol controls his/her owncontrol controls his/her own

    performance and satisfaction levelperformance and satisfaction level

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    Other AttributionsOther Attributions

    Bernard WeinerBernard Weiner Employees withEmployees withlonger work experiencelonger work experience

    have stable internal attributionshave stable internal attributions aboutabouttheir abilities andtheir abilities and

    unstable internal attributionsunstable internal attributions regardingregardingeffect.effect.

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    Kelly : Consensus, consistency &Kelly : Consensus, consistency &distinctiveness have impact ondistinctiveness have impact onattributions.attributions.

    ConsensusConsensus extent to which othersextent to which othersbehave in a similar manner in the samebehave in a similar manner in the samesituationsituation -- pertains to other peoplepertains to other people

    ConsistencyConsistency pattern of behavior whichpattern of behavior whichmay be relatively stable or unstablemay be relatively stable or unstable pertains to timepertains to time

    DistinctivenessDistinctiveness whether the behaviorwhether the behavioris similar for all similar for all tasks. pertains topertains totaskstasks

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    Findings:Findings: BadBad--luck attributionsluck attributions blamingblaming

    external causes like bad luck, fateexternal causes like bad luck, fateetc. for failureetc. for failure

    GoodGood--luckluck reduces the happinessreduces the happinessassociated with the success.associated with the success.

    Internal factorsInternal factors

    expectations high for success in future.expectations high for success in future.

    Set Challenging goals for performanceSet Challenging goals for performance

    Greater desire for achievement.Greater desire for achievement.

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    Other Emerging TheoriesOther Emerging Theories

    Control TheoryControl Theory Cognitive phenomenonCognitive phenomenon

    Control functionControl function

    Agency TheoryAgency Theory Principal engages another person to actPrincipal engages another person to act

    on his behalf. Helps understand howon his behalf. Helps understand howprincipals can reduce conflicts betweenprincipals can reduce conflicts betweentheir interests and those of agents.their interests and those of agents.

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    Motivating thru Job design andMotivating thru Job design and

    Goal settingGoal setting

    Job DesignJob Design Fredrick TaylorFredrick Taylor --Structuring tasks and responsibilitiesStructuring tasks and responsibilitiesinto a job to make the job a moreinto a job to make the job a moremeaningful, significant and satisfyingmeaningful, significant and satisfying

    Approaches to job design:Approaches to job design:

    Job EngineeringJob Engineering plant layout, designplant layout, design

    of product, processes & tools,of product, processes & tools,measurement and standardization.measurement and standardization.

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    Job enlargementJob enlargement horizontalhorizontal

    expansion of jobsexpansion of jobs increasing theincreasing thenumber of jobs.number of jobs. less monotonousless monotonous

    Job rotationJob rotation Switching of jobsSwitching of jobs

    Job enrichmentJob enrichment vertical expansionvertical expansionof jobsof jobs increase in the content ofincrease in the content ofworkwork

    Quality of Work LifeQuality of Work Life --

    M ti ti P f th hM ti ti P f th h

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    Motivating Performance throughMotivating Performance through

    Goal SettingGoal Setting

    Originated by Theory ofScientificOriginated by Theory ofScientificManagementManagement

    GoalGoal end towards which efforts areend towards which efforts are


    Guide organization and motivateGuide organization and motivateemployeesemployees

    Primary attributes of goalsPrimary attributes of goals contentcontent&&intensityintensity

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    Application of GS to OrganizationalApplication of GS to Organizational

    System PerformanceSystem Performance The ProcessThe Process MBOMBO

    Consensus on key goals and objectivesConsensus on key goals and objectives

    Sketch plan of actionSketch plan of action

    Control of behaviorControl of behavior

    Periodic appraisal and reviewsPeriodic appraisal and reviews

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