Module 4 module 2 structural layout & details

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Content Standard Performance Standard The learner demonstrates understanding of concepts and underlying principles in drafting structural layout and details. The learner independently drafts structural layout and details following the job requirements. Quarter III Time Allotment: 20 hrs. MODULE 4 Drafting Structural Layout and Details Introduction Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the nomenclature in the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) composed of four components namely: Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and Information and Communications Technology (ICT). In this module, the focus is on Drafting Structural Layout and Details . In this course, you will be introduced to different learning activities that will prepare you to be skillful before you take the plunge into the world of work as a draftsman and to feel more confident while providing support where needed. This module is specifically crafted to focus on Process and Delivery enriched with hands- on activities that will assess your level in terms of skills and knowledge. Learning procedures are 165

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Transcript of Module 4 module 2 structural layout & details

  1. 1. 165 Content Standard Performance Standard The learner demonstrates understanding of concepts and underlying principles in drafting structural layout and details. The learner independently drafts structural layout and details following the job requirements. Quarter III Time Allotment: 20 hrs. MODULE 4 Drafting Structural Layout and Details Introduction Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the nomenclature in the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) composed of four components namely: Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and Information and Communications Technology (ICT). In this module, the focus is on Drafting Structural Layout and Details. In this course, you will be introduced to different learning activities that will prepare you to be skillful before you take the plunge into the world of work as a draftsman and to feel more confident while providing support where needed. This module is specifically crafted to focus on Process and Delivery enriched with hands- on activities that will assess your level in terms of skills and knowledge. Learning procedures are divided into different sections such as: What to Know, What to Process, What to Reflect and Understand and What to Transfer. So, explore and experience the lessons in Structural Layout and details and be a step closer to being a draftsman.
  2. 2. 166 At this point, you are heading into meaningful activities and learning encounters. Complete the exercises and answer the suggested worksheets to experience lifelong, practical learning that awaits at the end of this module. ENJOY YOUR JOURNEY! Objectives: At the end of this module, you are expected to: draft foundation plans draft structural floor and roof framing plans *****
  3. 3. 167 Pre-assessment: You will be challenged to dig deeper into your prior knowledge and previous experiences about Technical Drafting. This Phase will guide you in assessing yourself by answering the questions below. As you go through the pre-assessment, you will be exploring the basics of structural lay-outing and detailing. Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answer in the space provided to each number. _______1. Distributes the weight of a building over large area. a. footing b. lintel c. pier d. walls _______2. A footing which supports a wall by extending along the entire length of the wall. a. cantilever footing c. isolated footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______3. Footing which supports two column loads or sometimes three column loads not in a row. a. cantilever footing c. isolated footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______4. A footing which supports a row of three or more columns. a. cantilever footing c. continuous footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______5. Are wooden sticks or post driven to the ground. a. batter board b. level c. stake d. string _______6. Is a footing which supports a wall by extending along the entire length of the wall. a. cantilever footing c. isolated footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______7. Is amorphous silica cement that hardens as silica gel by reacting chemically with alkali in water. a. pozzolan cement c. union cement b. northern cement d. standard cement _______8. Is the most common type of reinforced concrete floor system. a. flat slab b. one way solid slab c. ribbed floor d. two way solid slab _______9. Is for establishing reference point. a. batter board b. level c. stake d. string
  4. 4. 168 ______10. Usually built after the completion of the main structural framework of the dwelling unit. a. ceiling b. post c. stairway d. wall construction ______11. Is a wood member fastened to the beam by anchor bolts. a. girder b. plywood c. purlins d. sill ______12. Part of the floor system that carries an end portion of a header in a stairwell. a. girder b. header c. sill d. trimmer ______13. Is transparent and measures filled with water to establish level of horizontal lines. a. level b. plastic water hose c. stake d. string ______14. Is one which supports two column loads and consists of two footings connected together by a beam often called a strap. a. cantilever footing b. combined footing c. isolated footing d. wall footing ______15. Refers to the load (combined total weight) of people. a. dead load b. live load c. load bearing d. wind load ______16. This type of roof has the sides sloping and used in modern houses. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______17. The type of roof which is the most commonly used because it is economical. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______18. A roof where its sides slope steeply on each side. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______19. This type is a two shed combined. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______20. It is the frame between the hip rafter and the girt. a. common rafter b. hip rafter c. jack rafter d. valley rafter ______21. This type of rafter doesnt extend from the plate or girts to the ridge. a. common rafter b. hip rafter c. jack rafter d. valley rafter ______22. Rafter are laid diagonally from the corners of a plate to the ridge. a. common rafter b. hip rafter c. jack rafter d. valley rafter ______23. The height of a flight of stairs or the height of successive treads. a. flight b. rise c. run d. tread ______24. The series of steps from one landing to another. a. flight b. rise c. run d. tread ______25. The horizontal distance from the first to the last riser of stair flight. a. flight b. rise c. run d. tread
  5. 5. 169 LearningGoalsandTargets: After reading the introduction and carefully answering the pre assessment skills test, you might have ideas of what you will be dealing with in this module. Now prepare to set your goals and targets for this module by completing the activity below. Write your answer in your notebook. My goals are: My targets are: Goal 4 Goal 3 Goal 2 Goal 1 Target 1 Target 2 Target 3
  6. 6. 170 Introduction Every structure needs a foundation. The function of a foundation is to provide a level and uniformly distribute support for the structure. The foundation must be strong enough to support and distribute the load of the structure. The foundation helps prevent cold air and dampness from entering the house. It waterproofs the basement and forms the supporting walls of the basement. It helps prevent the walls from cracking and the doors and windows from sticking. The basic principles of constructing building foundation are the same, regardless of the situation. The methods and materials used in constructing foundation vary greatly in different parts of the country and are continually changing. The structural members of the foundation vary according to the design and size of the foundation. The knowledge brought about by the science of soil mechanics confirms that rock beds are the most stable medium for foundations. Practically, the soil where the building stands, serves as the foundation, although it is weaker than any other construction material. To be able to carry satisfactorily the load of the building, the steel and other materials used, as foundation is needed to transmit these loads to the soil. Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking Not much, if you are not so familiar yet, A little and/or A lot, if you are already familiar with the skills. Dont feel bad if you checked Not Much in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in Architectural Job Requirements Not Much A little A lot I know how to draft foundation plans. I can draft structural floors and roof framing plans. After raising your awareness of what are the learning goals and targets that you are supposed to do, are you ready to move on with this module? This will include topics on the preparation of drafts in foundation plans and drafts in structural floors and roof
  7. 7. 171 framing plans. Enjoy reading and have fun while performing the activities prepared for you. Lesson 1: Draft Foundation Plans This lesson is designed in order that student may recognize the most appropriate design, proper locations in doing such foundation plans (wall footing and columns) and to be familiar to the different materials needed in making a concrete House or Building foundations. Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking Not much, if you are not so familiar yet, A little and/or A lot, if you are already familiar with the skills. Dont feel bad if you checked Not Much in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in Drafting Foundation Plans Not Much A little A lot I know how to indicate locations of wall footings, footing and columns in the floor plan. I can draw larger scale details of wall footings and columns. Technical Terms Encountered in Foundation Plans Foundation - is the part of the building below the surface of the ground which is sometimes called the substructure. Footing - is an expansion at the lower end of a wall, pier or column to distribute the load into the ground.
  8. 8. 172 Design of Foundation The design of a foundation is solely based on site investigation. It is the result of determining the soil surface and the condition of the soil. The topography of the surface has to be considered prior to construction, as this might affect the construction investigation. A site with a uniform condition is less likely to require extensive investigation as a site for big projects. Drillingis the most suitable way of determining soil condition. Sample of soil extracted from the site is examined as to its consistency and relative density. The area bored or drilled is called test pits. There are varied kinds of boring methods and equipment as there are varied methods of soil testing. The National Building Code requires a sole bearing capacity of the soil at 2ft. per ton or less than twice the maximum bearing capacity desired for use. To transmit the building load to the soil is the purpose of a foundation, without overloading or over stressing the soil. A structural foundation performs properly if the soil also behaves properly. For the building to last, its foundation should be designed for the worst times. Laying-Out and Staking The process of establishing the point of building outline or perimeter on the ground is known to be laying and staking. Prior to construction this process is done which includes demolition, clearing and establishing building measurement on the ground. Before a foundation for a construction begins, the perimeter of the house or building should be laid out on the ground. Please refer to the given illustrations below.
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  10. 10. 174 The materials and tools used in laying out are the following: 1. Stake are wooden sticks or post driven to the ground. 2. Batter Boards are wood stick nailed horizontally to the stake. 3. Level transit - is for establishing reference point. 4. Plastic water hose - which is transparent and filled with water to establish level of horizontal lines. 5. String or chord - for connecting established point. Excavation and Backfilling Excavation work in construction of residences is of two categories namely, the shallow excavation and the deep excavation. 1. Shallow excavation - includes wall footing, and column footings, whether they are independent, or combined wherein digging of the soil extends to 1.50 meters.
  11. 11. 175 2. Deep excavation - is for large building projects as this requires almost total extraction of the soil at the site. This requires sheeting and shoring of the ground to project adjoining properties. The process is defined as providing temporary support to the structure or ground during excavation. Backfilling on the one hand is the filling in of the excavated portion after the foundation has been laid out.
  12. 12. 176 The design of a foundation always includes the following: 1. The dead load plus the live load 2. Load effects of wind, head, water, earthquakes 3. Explosive blasts As in excavation, a foundation is also categorized as shallow foundation which includes matt and spread footing, and deep foundation which also includes piles, piers and caissons. The earth provides ultimate support of the structure against all elements of nature. Automatically, the soil where the building stands is a material of construction. But physically, the soil is weaker than any other material of construction like steel, concrete and wood. Loads carried by steel, concrete, and wood is transmitted to the ground, hence there is a foundation to transmit that collective load to the soil in such a manner as the soil will not be over stressed to cause serious deformation. The performance of a structural foundation is dependent on soil behavior. Where soil foundation provides lifetime support for a building all forces that act over time shall be considered and that foundation is designed for worst conditions that may develop. There are instances wherein foundation may settle or move. The movement of the foundation may be due to the following causes. Refer to the sample pictures below. 1. Soil bearing capacity failure
  13. 13. 177 2. Failure or deflection of the foundation structure 3. Shear distortion of the soil
  14. 14. 178 4. Compression of the soil There are other factors that contribute to the settlement of the foundation but these are indirectly related to the superstructure load imposed on the soil. How did you find the given information? Which among the information matters to you most? Well, you are just starting, move forward to enrich your understanding. Enjoy this simple activity. Have fun! Suggested Activity 1 A. Directions: Read each item carefully. Identify the correct answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. __________ 1.The process of establishing the perimeters of a house.
  15. 15. 179 __________ 2. They are wooden sticks or post driven to the ground. __________ 3. They are wood stick nailed horizontally to the stake. __________ 4.It provides ultimate support of the structure. __________ 5.It is the most suitable way of determining the soil condition. B. Directions: Enumerate the following and write the answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Give the Five (5) materials and tools used in laying out? 2. Give the Four (4) causes of foundation movement? Suggested Activity 2 Directions: 1. Read and answer honestly in a separate sheet of paper the questions below. You can visit a site (construction) and see for yourself the importance of foundation in building high rise structures and residential houses. 2. For the whole class: 2.1 Let the students group themselves into 3-5 depending upon the number of students in the class. 2.2 Let them discuss among themselves the importance of having a solid foundation for a building or a residential unit. 2.3 Let the group leaders report their reasons and answers to the class.
  16. 16. 180 Questions to Ponder: 1. Why is soil testing an important aspect to consider in the design and construction of a building? 2. How does having a good and suitable foundation affect the building design and its strength? 3. Why is having out the corners and squaring it important prior to construction? Note: Rate yourself honestly using the assessment tool prepared for you below. Criteria: Performance Level and Description Remarks E 5 VS 4 S 3 Poor 2 NI 1 Clarity of content Completeness of the required data Sequence of thought: a. inductive b. deductive Delivery/Presentation Total: How did you find the given activity? Which among the elements in designing foundation matters to you most? Well, you are just starting, move forward to enrich your understanding. Enjoy reading. Have fun!
  17. 17. 181 Foundation Foundations are important components in the construction of a building. It is the foundation that carries the load of the building. Types of foundations: 1. Spread Foundation - includes all those types where the load is distributed into the soil by slender vertical members of timber, concrete or steel called piles. Sample Spread Foundation
  18. 18. 182 2. Pier Foundation - is one where the load is distributed into the soil by slender vertical members of timber, concrete, or steel called piles. It is in this foundation where concrete piers are carried down through the soil of inadequate bearing power until a satisfactory foundation bed is reached. 3. Slab Foundation - is a solid slab of concrete poured directly on the ground with footings placed where extra support is needed.
  19. 19. 183 4. T- Foundation - consists of a footing upon which is placed a concrete wall or a concrete block wall forming an inverted T and foundation is popular in structures with basement. 6. Mat Foundation - assembles a mat in that the foundation is spread over the entire area of the building floor. Foundation Members The structural members of the foundation vary according to the design and size of the foundation 1. Footing is a portion of the foundation of a structure which directly distributes the weight of a building over large area. Concrete is commonly used for footings because it can be poured to maintain a firm contact with the supporting soil.
  20. 20. 184 2. Foundation walls - the function of the foundation wall is to support the load of the building above the ground line and to transmit the weight of the house to the footing. 2. Piers and Columns Piers and columns - are vertical members usually made of concrete, brick, steel or wood. They are used to support the floor systems and can be used as sole support of the structure. Footings and columns carry the load of the building resting on the foundation. Kinds of Footings 1. Wall footing - is a footing which supports a wall by extending along the entire length of the wall. Wall Footing
  21. 21. 185 2. Isolated footing - is one which supports a single column, post, pier or other concentrated load. Isolated Column Footing 3. Combined footing - is one which supports two column loads or sometimes three column loads not in a row. Combined Column Footing 4. Cantilever footing - is one which supports two column loads and consists of two footings connected together by a beam often called a strap. Cantilever Footing
  22. 22. 186 5. Continuous footing - is one which supports a row of three or more columns. Continuous Footing 6. Raft or mat footing - is one which extends under the entire building area and supports all the wall and column loads from the building. Raft or Mat Footing 7. Trapezoidal footing Trapezoidal Footing
  23. 23. 187 DETAIL OF WALL FOOTING
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  26. 26. 190 Suggested Activity 3 Directions: Read each item carefully. Identify the correct answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. __________ 1. A footing which supports a wall. __________ 2. The part of the building below the surface of the ground. __________ 3. A footing which supports a single column. __________ 4. A kind of foundation wherein concrete is poured directly to the ground with footings placed where extra support is needed. __________ 5. A wall that supports or carries a load. B. Directions: Enumerate the following and write the answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. What are the two (2) types of walls? 2. Give the three (3) kinds of loads? 3. Enumerate the seven (7) classes of footings according to load. 4. What are the six (6) types of foundations?
  27. 27. 191 Suggested Activity 4 Draft Foundation Plan Follow the given Procedure: 1. Locate position of wall footings, columns and column footings on the Floor Plan. 2. Indicate sizes of columns and footings to be used based on accepted architectural and structural requirements ( in this case we may simply assume). 3. Indicate width of wall footings and thickness of wall (4 THK CHB and 0.40) width of footing. 4. Draw outlines of footings and columns based on accepted architectural drawing practices. 5. Finalize the drawing by completing the specifications for the detail drawing of footings and columns. Suggested Activity 5 Drafting Detail of Columns and Footings Procedure: 1. From the foundation plan drawn in the preceding operation, determine the types of columns used. (for every type, a detail drawing must be drawn) 2. Determine the sizes of footings and columns used in the foundation plan. 3. Layout the plan of the foundation with the corresponding sizes used. 4. Layout the column section following the measurement used. 5. Draw the reinforcing bars and label.
  28. 28. 192 Note: Your output will be evaluated according to the following criteria below. The teacher will assigned the percentage rating accordingly: 1. Accuracy of: a. lines used according to standards b. scaled measurements c. notations and specifications 2. Work Values: a. work attitude/behavior b. safe work habits c. housekeeping and maintenance d. time management How did you find the given activities? Are they challenging?Now, after knowing all the theories, concepts and practices in drafting structural layout and details, you are going to assess yourself how far your understanding about the topic is. Perform the activity below to measure if you already acquired the needed skills by performing the given assessment. Good luck!! Suggested Activity 6 Summative Assessment: Lesson 1 You are now going to prove yourself how much learning you had acquired. This is also to test your skills in precise measurements and proper notationsGo! Directions: Draft the following. Use appropriate drawing tools and materials. A. Foundation Plan B. Detail of Columns and Footings Note: Use the given floor plan on page 47 of module 1. Your output will be evaluated according to the given sample rubrics below.
  29. 29. 193 Sample Rubrics Criteria 5 points 3 points 1 point Line Technique Application of (all) various lines was used according to standards At least 3-5 lines were used not according to standards More than 5 lines were used not according to standards Accuracy All measurements and notations needed were accurately done At least 3-5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done More than 5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done Layout/Proportion All drawings were drawn proportionately and was layout properly Layout was good but 1-2 drawing were out of proportion More than 2 drawings were drawn out of proportion and improperly layout Neatness Finished output was neatly done, no erasures nor any smudges Erasures/smudges are observable on the finished output Finished output has so many erasures/ smudges present Time Management Finish the task ahead of the given time/date Finish the task on the given time/date Unable to finish the task on the given time/date RATING SCALE: Points earned Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating 21 - 25 91 - 100 Outstanding 16 - 20 86 - 90 Very Good 11- 15 81 - 85 Good 6 - 10 76 - 80 Fair 1 - 5 71 - 75 Needs Improvement Teachers Comments: Teachers Signature: _____________________ Date: _____________ Congratulations! You have done a great job! After gaining knowledge from previous activities, you are about to learn new topic, and this is the preparation of floor plans. Lets proceed to another learning experiences. Enjoy and have fun!
  30. 30. 194 Lesson 2: Draft Structural Floor and Roof Framing Plans This lesson is design so that students will become more knowledgeable on how to draft a proper layout of structural floor and roof framing plans based on the considerations of the shapes, sizes and detailed connections. Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking Not much, if you are not so familiar yet, A little and/or A lot, if you are already familiar with the skills. Dont feel bad if you checked Not Much in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in Drafting Structural Floors and Roof Framing Plans Not Much A little A lot I can draft structural floor and roof framing plans based on floor and foundation plans using timber, concrete or steel construction. I know how to draft structural floor and roof beams showing sizes, shapes and detailed connections. Listed below are technical terms that you may encounter while preparing the details of the plan. Compression Test - determines behavior of materials under crushing loads. Concrete Slump Test - is an empirical test that measures the workability of fresh concrete. It measures the consistency of the concrete in that specific batch. The test is popular due to the simplicity of apparatus used and simple procedure. Dead Load - refers to all the weight in a structure made up of immovable materials. Framing - is the wood skeleton of a building constructed one level on top of another.
  31. 31. 195 Girder - is the horizontal beam which supports the floor joints. Heel Plate - is the plate at the end of a truss. Hip Roof - is a roof with four sloping sides. Jack Rafter - is a short rafter, usually used on hip roofs. Joist - is a horizontal structural member that supports the floor system or ceiling system. Lally Column - is a steel column used to support girders and beams. Pier - is a block of concrete supporting the floor of a building. Pilaster - is a decorative column attached to a wall. Piles - are long posts driven into the soil in swampy locations upon which the foundation footing is laid. Pillar - is a column used for supporting parts of a structure. Purlins - are horizontal structural members which hold rafters together. Ridge - is the top edge of the roof where rafters meet. Slab - is a foundation reinforced concrete and foundation floor. Span - is the distance between structural supports. Valley - is the internal angle formed by two slopes of a roof. Valley Jacks - is a rafter that run from a ridge board to a valley rafter. Valley Rafters - is the diagonal rafter forming the intersection of two sloping roofs.
  32. 32. 196 Concrete The structural members of a building are constructed using concrete, which is an artificial stone. It is a result of mixing cement, fine and coarse aggregates and water. This is known as plain concrete. If there is a reinforcement embedded in order that they act together in resisting forces it is called a reinforced concrete. Cement is the bonding agent that reacts with water to form a stone-hard substance. It is of two types; the hydraulic cement and the Portland cement. Joseph Aydin introduced Portland cement in 1824. Portland cement is categorized as to its type, whether for general construction or where high early strength or resistance is required. Pozzolana cement is amorphous silica that hardens as silica gel by reacting chemically with alkali in water. The name is derived from Pozzolona, Italy where this was found. Water suitable for drinking is satisfactory for concrete mixing. Admixture, on the other hand is a material other than cement that is used as ingredient in concrete, before or during mixing. The ability of concrete to flow freely and fill all voids is known as workability of the concrete mixture. Workability is sometimes described as consistency, plasticity and mobility. Consistency is the degree or wetness or slump while plasticity refers to the ease with which fresh concrete is molded and mobility refers to the flow or movement of the mixture. Concrete should be proportioned correctly to obtain a good mixture required for a particular work. The strength of concrete is measured in its ability to resist stresses such as compressive, tensile flexural and shearing stress. Concrete Proportion: The right proportioning of the ingredients in concrete provides a balance for economy, workability, strength, durability and appearance. Class of Mixture Cement 40 kg. Sand Gravel Cu.Ft. Cu.M. Cu.Ft. Cu.M. AA 1 1 .043 3 .085 A 1 2.0 .057 4 .113 B 1 2 .071 5 .142 C 1 3.0 .085 6 .170 Concrete for building construction is mixed in two different ways:
  33. 33. 197 1. On the job site hand mixing 2. Ready mixed concrete by mobile or stationary mixers Concrete hardens or settles at about two to three hours after the concrete has been mixed. The hardening of concrete depends upon the chemical reaction between the cement and water. The building code provides that concrete shall be maintained above 10c temperature for at least 7 days after placing and three days for high early strength concrete. Reinforced Concrete It is a concrete with reinforcement bars embedded. The columns and the footings are the most common examples of a reinforced concrete. The main purpose of a column is to support a beam or girder, floor or roof. Reinforced concrete columns are of two kinds. 1. Short column unsupported height is not greater than 10 times the shortest lateral dimension of the cross section. 2. Long column unsupported height is more than 10 times. Columns are classified according to the types of reinforcement: 1. Tied column reinforcement 2. Spiral reinforcement 3. Composite reinforcement 4. Combined reinforcement 5. Lally column reinforcement
  34. 34. 198 A tied column has reinforcement called lateral ties, of which the ACI code provides a specific size of ties as follows: 1. A 10mm ties for column reinforcement of 10mm or smaller bar 2. A 12mm tie if column reinforcement is no.11, 14 or 18 steel bars Also, spacing of tied columns is as follows: 1. That the distance should not be more than 16 times the diameter of the main reinforcing bar. 2. That the spacing should not be more than 48 times the diameter of the lateral ties. 3. That the spacing should not be more than the shortest dimension of the cross section of the column. The Reinforced Concrete Floor The floor system of a building refers to the girders, beams and the floor slab. The floor slab carries both the live and dead load, that is the human occupants and all unmovable objects. These are transmitted to the beams then to the columns. A beam supports the transverse load with each end resting on a support while girder is a beam that supports one or more smaller beams. Beams are classified as simple, continuous and semi-continuous beam while cantilever beams are supported on one end and the other projecting beyond the support. A concrete beam even if forced from carrying live or concentrated load has to carry its own weight. This is the distributed load and its gravitational effect of its own weight will cause the structure to sag or bend. On the other hand, a bending moment is the tendency of a force to cause rotation at an axis. It is classified as positive and negative bending. The Reinforced Concrete Slab
  35. 35. 199 Reinforced concrete slab is classified as: 1. One way solid slab 2. Two way solid slab 3. Ribbed floor 4. Flat slab or Girder less floor. The type of floor system has its advantages depending on these considerations: 1. Spacing of column 2. The magnitude of the loads to be supported 3. The length of the span 4. Cost of construction A one way slab is the most common type of reinforced concrete floor system. This is supported by two parallel beams. Unlike beams and girders, floor slab needs no web reinforcements. The bending moment of a slab at the center is equal hence the same quantity of reinforcement should be at the center and at support.
  36. 36. 200 The American Concrete Institute code provides that the thickness of the slab shall not be less than 10cm nor less than the perimeter of the slab divided by 180. The reinforcement shall not be more than 3 times the slab thickness and the ratio of reinforcement shall be at least 0.0025. The other most common type of slab used in building residential dwelling is the two way slab where all four sides are supported, either by beams or girders, the reinforcement bars at placed in two directions at right angle to each other. The reinforcement transmits the load of the floor to the side support.
  37. 37. 201 Reinforced Concrete Stairways The inclined slab supported at the end by beams is the simplest form of a concrete stairway. Reinforcement is placed at only one direction and a transverse one bar per tread. The unsupported span of the stairway shall be short and no break in flight between floors. If the stair is divided into two or more flights, intermediate beams should be used to support the landing. The building code provides that all stairs shall be so designed to give safety and convenience to climbing. Here are standard dimensions provided for by the code: 1. The minimum width of any stair slab and the minimum dimensions of any landing shall be 110 cm. 2. The maximum rise of the step as about 18 cm. and the tread exclusive of the nosing is 25 cm. 3. The minimum height of straight flight between landing is 360cm.
  38. 38. 202 Stairway constructions are usually built after the completion of the main structural framework of the dwelling unit. LAY-OUT THE STAIRWAY Suggested Activity 1 A. Directions: Fill the blank with the correct answer. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. __________ 1. It is a material other than cement that is used as ingredient in concrete. __________ 2. It is the bonding agent that reacts with water to form a stone hard substance. __________ 3. It is an artificial stone as a result of mixing cement, fine and coarse aggregates and water. __________ 4. Supports the transverse load with each end resting on a support. __________ 5. The minimum width of any stair slab. __________ 6. It is the most common type of reinforced concrete floor system.
  39. 39. 203 __________ 7. It is a concrete with reinforcement embedded. __________ 8. It is a column with unsupported height of not greater than 10 times the lateral dimension __________ 9. Introduced Portland cement in 1824. __________ 10. It is the simplest form of a concrete stairway. Suggested Activity 2 Procedure: 1. Draft Reinforced concrete floor based from the given floor plan. Indicate the detail of a concrete slab with the corresponding dimensions. Note: You will be provided with a copy of the plan. 2. Indicate elevations of floor and finish ground line to know the thickness of gravel bedding. 3. Indicate size and distances of reinforcing bars as per standard specification on the national building code. 4. Draw a portion of the floor plan indicating bar distances and bar sizes. 5. Draw a sectional detail of the plan and label the drawing. Sample Rubrics Criteria 5 points 3 points 1 point Line Technique Application of (all) various lines was used according to standards At least 3-5 lines were used not according to standards More than 5 lines were used not according to standards Accuracy All measurements and notations needed were accurately done At least 3-5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done More than 5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done
  40. 40. 204 Layout/Proportion All drawings were drawn proportionately and was layout properly Layout was good but 1-2 drawing were out of proportion More than 2 drawings were drawn out of proportion and improperly layout Neatness Finished output was neatly done, no erasures nor any smudges Erasures/smudges are observable on the finished output Finished output has so many erasures/ smudges present Time Management Finish the task ahead of the given time/date Finish the task on the given time/date Unable to finish the task on the given time/date RATING SCALE: Points earned Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating 21 - 25 91 - 100 Outstanding 16 - 20 86 - 90 Very Good 11- 15 81 - 85 Good 6 - 10 76 - 80 Fair 1 - 5 71 - 75 Needs Improvement Teachers Comments: Teachers Signature: _____________________ Date: _____________ Congratulations! You have done a great job! Reinforced Steel Bars The most common reinforcement for most construction is the steel bar. It is designed to act together with concrete in carrying the building load even in simultaneous deformation; otherwise it might skip out from the concrete if there is no sufficient bond.
  41. 41. 205 Steel can be structurally used in two ways; as reinforcement wherein it is pre- assembled before concrete pouring; and as stressed steel, where heavy tension forces are applied before pouring. Originally, steel bars were in English measure and that their diameters were standardized from , 3/8, ,3/4 . etc. for convenience, a number is assigned for each size such as no. 2 for and so on. Bar Spacing The spacing of bars shall be in accordance with the provisions of the American Concrete I: 1. The minimum clear distances between adjacent steel bars shall not be less than 25 mm. 2. When beam reinforcement are placed in two layers the clear distance shall be 25 mm. 3. Lateral ties shall be no.3 bars spaced 16 times the longitudinal bar diameter. 4. The clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 7.5 or less than 2.5 cm. 10 mm minimum diameter. Bar Splicing, Cutting and Bending In building construction, tension bars may be spliced by: 1. Welding 2. Tying 3. Sleeves 4. Mechanical devices w/c provides full positive connection between bars. Compression bars are spliced by using the following process: 1. Lapping 2. Direct and bearing 3. Welding 4. Mechanical device w/c provides full positive connection.
  42. 42. 206 Minimum diameters of bend for Standards Hook BAR SIZE MINIMUM DIAMETER No. 3 to 8 6 Bars Diameter No. 9 to 11 8 Bar Diameter No. 14 to 18 10 Bar Diameter For simple concrete beams and girders, the steel reinforcement consists of 4 longitudinal bars and stirrups, either of the closed type or the U-type stirrups is secured by wires. The stirrups take care of the diagonal tension and also keep the steel reinforcement in their proper position.
  43. 43. 207 Concrete Floor Slabs They are common as flooring and usually reinforced with deformed reinforcing bars. Most codes require the top of the slab to be at least 6 to 8(0.15 to 0.20) thick above grade for the ground floor specifications that are to be included. Slabs plans include the thickness of the slab, size and spacing of reinforcing bars and concrete pounds per square inch (PSI).
  44. 44. 208 Steel Reinforcing Bars Steel reinforcing bars or rebars are incorporated in concrete and other masonry constructions. They are used to prevent cracking when tension, compression and other forces are applied. Round rebars are most common in reinforced concrete construction. They may be plain or deformed. Deformed bars have lugs on their surface for increased bond between concrete and steel. The end of the bars are bent to determine the hooks. Deformed and plain rebars are commercially sold in length of 6.0 meters. Other lengths may also be made available by manufacturers to meet specific needs of consumers. Sizes of Bars. Rebars are bought or sold specifically by their diameter. The most common sizes of rebars for residential units are 0.9mm and 0.10mm for stirrups and 0.12mm and 0.16mm for vertical members. See the Table of Specifications below. TABLE 1. Steel bar designations and their English equivalent and metric sizes (diameters). BAR ENGLISH METRIC Designation Size (Diameter) Size (Diameter)
  45. 45. 209 No. 2 8mm 3 3/8 10 4 12 5 5/8 16 6 20 8 1 25 10 1 32 12 1 40 Figure 1. Shows how a 12 mm. rebars are bent. Guide for bending and cutting of rebars based on its diameter 12 mm. Figure 2. Detail of one span RCB (Reinforced Concrete Beam) with four rebars.
  46. 46. 210 Figure 3. Sample arrangement of steel reinforcing bars in concrete footings.
  47. 47. 211 ISOMETRY ISOMETRY Kinds of Loads: 1. Live load - refers to the load (combined total weight) of people. 2. Dead load - is the load of wood, steel, and furniture. 3. Wind load - is the load or strength of wind. Kinds of Walls: Walls are important components of a building; they may be made of wood, or concrete. 1. Load Bearing Wall walls that support or carry loads as in exterior walls. 2. Non-Load Bearing Wall does not carry or support a load as in partitions or interior walls.
  48. 48. 212 Suggested Activity 3 Directions: I. TRUE or FALSE. Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if it is wrong. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. __________ 1. The most common reinforcement for construction is the Steel Bar. __________ 2. For simple concrete beams, the steel reinforcement consists of 6-8 steel bars. __________ 3. The minimum clear distance between adjacent steel bars shall not be less than 25mm. __________ 4. Live load refers to the combined weight of people. __________ 5. Rebars are sold or bought specifically by their length. __________ 6. Load bearing walls are exterior walls. __________ 7. Square bars are common reinforcement for concrete. __________ 8. Deformed bars are sold commercially in length of 10 meters. __________ 9. Plain bars used as reinforcement have lugs on their surface. __________ 10. The designation of a 3/8 bar in Metric is 10mm . Drafting a concrete Two-way slab Suggested Activity 4 Procedure: 1. This activity will be done by the class individually to assess their learning. The duration of this activity will be for four meetings or four hours. The students will be provided a copy of the plan.
  49. 49. 213 From the plan, indicate the measurement of the floor to be provided with concrete slab. Refer to the table for standard specifications of reinforcement bars. For this, the rebars sizes would be 12mm spaced at 0.20 or center bothways as this is a two-way slab.
  50. 50. 214 2. The students will decide if they are going to draw the framing on the whole plan or select only a portion wherein to draw a detail section of the rebars on the floor and the floor beam.
  51. 51. 215 3. Draw the detail plan of the section of the two-way concrete slab by indicating the distances of the bars from both sides of the floor beam 4. Draw the detail longitudinal section of the two-way concrete slab and indicate the position and bend of the tension bar.
  52. 52. 216 5. Label the drawing and finalize it by writing down specifications of rebars and their distances.
  53. 53. 217 Lumber Steel is becoming a trend in building construction today. This is because it is more economical and easier to work on and there is always available supply. Wood is still sometimes preferred, most specially for low cost housing units. Technically, wood is known as xylem. The following as the properties of wood as building material: 1. Strong material 2. Durable 3. Light in weight 4. Ease of working and fastening 5. With artistic and natural beauty Wood has some advantages over that of steel that most people prefer to use it despite that it has become costly and scarce. Physical Properties of Wood 1. Wood is resistant to compression 2. Wood has the ability to resist bending stress 3. It has the ability to resist lengthwise stress 4 It has the ability to resist rupture along or across the grain. Wood which is classified as good lumber for building constructions should be prepared and seasoned well from the logging or harvesting to the lumberyard for seasoning. Natural or Air seasoning is one of the best methods although it takes a longer period. In artificial seasoning, a drying kiln is used and the lumber subjected to hot air pressure. Measuring Lumber The board foot is the unit of measure for measuring wood. It means one square foot of wood one inch thick or 1444 cw. Meters.
  54. 54. 218 The formula for board foot is: Bdft. = Thickness X Width X Length 12 Where: Thickness in inches Width in inches Length is in feet Wood related products such as veneer and plywood are common building materials. Hardboard and particle board are the other products common nowadays. Plywood is classified as soft, hardwood and exterior or marine plywood. The Wood Floor System The use of lumber in building construction today has been limited to floor framing, roof framing ceiling and as panels due to the introduction of reinforce concrete and steel. And also lumber material has become scarce. The wood floor system includes: 1. Girders 2. Floor joist 3. Joist bridging 4. Wood plate 5. Header 6. Trimmer 7. Beam 8. Flooring 9. Stop plate 10. Ledger strip
  55. 55. 219 The girder is a beam from wall to wall and supports the floor joist. They may either be solid or built girder.
  56. 56. 220 A sill is a wood member fastened to the beam by anchor bolts. It may also be fastened to a foundation wall.
  57. 57. 221 A trimmer carries an end portion of a header in a stairwell while a header supports the cut-off joist at a stairwell hole. The flooring refers to the tongue and groove wood common as flooring materials.
  58. 58. 222 Suggested Activity 5 A. Directions: Identify the following. Use a separate sheet for your answer. __________ 1. The unit of measure for wood or lumber. __________ 2. It is known technically as xylem. __________ 3. A beam from wall to wall which supports the floor joist. __________ 4. The minimum height of straight flight between landing. __________ 5. The method of drying lumber in a seasoning. B. Directions. Compute for the board feet of the following lumber or wood. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Find the total number of Bdft. for 10 pcs. 2 x 4 x 12 to be used for rafters. 2. Find the number of Bdft. for 24 pcs. purlins with dimensions of 2 x 3 x 12. Suggested Activity 6 Drafting a Structural Timber Floor Plan Procedure: 1. Study the floor plan already drawn and make an assessment as to the location of stairwells, opening columns and girders. 2. Locate girders along the major beams and set off floor joists at standard spacing of 0.30m on center. 3. Locate position of headers on stairwell. 4. Draw solid bridging on joists alternately offsetting at the center. 5. Finalize drawing by darkening or inking the lines. 6. Label the materials or structural members of the floor plan.
  59. 59. 223 Sample Wooden Floor Plan
  60. 60. 224 Sample Wooden Floor Plan
  61. 61. 225 Sample Wooden Floor Plan
  62. 62. 226 The Roof System The roof system has numerous types according to construction. These shapes are referred to as: 1. Shed or Lean-to type 2. Gable or Pitch roof 3. Saw tooth roof 4. Double gable 5. Hip roof 6. Hip and Valley 7. Pyramid roof 8. Gambrel 9. Ogee roof 10. Mansard roof 11. Dome 12. Conical roof 13. Butterfly roof 14. French or Concave roof The most commonly used type of roof system for a residential houses are the following: Shed or Lean- to - is the simplest form. Gable or pitch - is the most common type and economical. Saw-tooth roof - is an adaptation of a series of lean-to roofs. A double gable - is a gable roof modified. Hip roof - has the sides sloping and used in modern houses. Hip and valley roof - is a combination of hip and gable. Pyramid roof - is a modification of the hip. A gambrel roof - is a modified gable roof having two slopes.
  63. 63. 227 A mansard roof - where the sides of the roof slope steeply on each side. Ogee roof - is a pyramid having steep sides sloping to the center. Examples of Types of Roof: Sample Types of Roof Dome - is a hemispherical type of roof used in observatory buildings. French or concave mansard roof - is a modified mansard roof where the sides are concave.
  64. 64. 228 Butterfly roof - is a two shed roof and a conical roof is a steep circular roof that tapers to a point. Sample Types of Roof The Roof Frame The roof framing in a residential dwelling is of three types commonly used which are: 1. Rafter type 2. Truss type 3. Laminated Rafters used for the framing are also classified as: 1. Common rafter - extend at right angles from the plate to the ridge. 2. Hip rafter - are laid diagonally from the corners of a plate to the ridge. 3. Valley rafter - doesnt extend from the plate or girts to the ridge. 4. Octagonal rafter - are those placed on an octagonal. 5. Jack rafters - is the frame between the hip rafter and the girt.
  65. 65. 229 Jack Rafter is of two (2) types: valley jack and cripple jack. a. Valley jack - is the frame between the ridge and the valley rafter. b. Cripple jack - is that between the hip and valley rafter. The Truss The truss is a material that is important in a roof plan. It is a built-up frame used on an unsupported long span roof system. It is designed with a series of triangles to stiffer the structure and distribute the roof load and to stay rigid and with flexibility and strength. Trusses used in building construction are of two types: 1. Light trusses which includes the following: a. Pitched truss b. Howe truss c. Scissor truss d. Raised chord truss e. Saw tooth f. 1 storey frame g. Utility
  66. 66. 230 h. Flat i. Bow string 1. Heavy trusses include the following which are used in industrial buildings and they are longer: a. Howe truss b. Belgian truss c. Fink truss d. Pratt truss e. Scissors truss f. Cambered truss g. Saw tooth truss h. Flat pratt truss i. Flat howe truss j. Warren truss
  67. 67. 231 Suggested Activity 7 A. Directions: TRUE or FALSE. Write T if the statement is correct and F if it is wrong. __________ 1. Shed or Lean - to is the most complex type of roof. __________ 2. Dome is a hemispherical shape of roof used in observatory. __________ 3. The saw tooth roof is an adaptation of a series of lean to roofs. __________ 4. A modified gable roof is the gambrel roof. __________ 5. A two shed roof is known as gable roof. __________ 6. Hip rafters are laid diagonally from the corners of a plate to the ridge. __________ 7. Jack rafter is the frame between the hip rafter and the girt. __________ 8. The truss is designed as a series of triangles. __________ 9. The truss is a built-up frame used on a supported span. __________ 10. Heavy trusses are used for low-cost housing units.
  68. 68. 232 B. Directions: Enumerate the following. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. The three (3) types of Roof Framing commonly used in residential houses. 2. The five (5) common types of rafters used for roof framing. Suggested Activity 8 Draft a Roof Framing Plan Direction: From the given floor plan, draw roof framing plan following the given procedures. Note: The same floor plan will be used. 1. From the floor plan shown, determine extent of roof eave and draft the roof framing layout. 2. Locate position of main truss and secondary trusses, hip trusses and rafters. 3. Determine distance of purlins. 4. Finalize drawing by darkening or inking the lines. 5. Label the roof frame members, title of the plan, and scale used.
  69. 69. 233 Suggested Activity 9 Draft a Truss Detail Direction: From the given floor plan, draw the truss detail following the given procedures. Note: The same floor plan will be used. 1. Determine length of bottom chord from end of wall. Add the width of the eaves. 2. Determine rise of truss. Normally for hip gable is 1.80 3. Draft the truss diagram and the location of the queen post and web member. 4. Determine sizes of lumber to be used. Normally, timber truss bottom chord is 2 X 5 and top chord is 2 x 6 5. Darken lines and label the drawing.
  70. 70. 234 Detail of Gutter and Downspout
  71. 71. 235 Details of Gutter (Types: Exposed and Concealed)
  72. 72. 236 Detail of Connection of Purlins and Gutter
  73. 73. 237 Detail of Top Chord to King Post and Detail of Ridge Roll
  74. 74. 238 Detail of Splice and Detail of Connection of Top Chord to Web Member
  75. 75. 239 The Wooden Stair The stair has the steps wherein to ascend or descend from one-storey to another. It is the most intricate part of the dwelling unit to build. Not all carpenters have the skill to construct one; those who have the knowledge in the use of the steel stair are a cut above the rest. In laying out the stair, the planner must study a cross sectional drawing of the proposed stair that comprises the stringer, tread, riser, the run and the rise. After you have known the number of tread and the height per rise of the steps, the length of the stringer could be determined by the formula: L = ( Rise ) 2 + (Run) 2 Some carpenters do not have the skill to build a stair; those carpenters who have tried and succeeded have found that building the stair is an art in itself. There are several stairway designs or types. Some of these are the straight vein, where the stair steps ascend in one direction, the L-shaped, U-shaped, circular stair and the spiral stairway. Parts of a Stair: (Refer to the following illustrations below). Tread the horizontal part of a step including the nosing Baluster the small post supporting the handrail Flight the series of steps from one landing to another. Handrail a rail parallel with the inclination of the stair that hold the balusters. Pitch the angle of inclination of the horizontal of the stair. Rise the height of a flight of stairs or the height of successive treads. Riser the vertical face of a stair step. Run the horizontal distance from the first to the last riser of stair flight. Stairwell the vertical shaft containing the staircase. Winders are steps not parallel with each other.
  76. 76. 240 Types of Stringers for Stairs: There are different kinds of stringers according to method of attaching riser to treads. 1. Cut stringer used in modern building design. 2. Cleated stringer used for very rough work. 3. Robbeted stringer adopted for fine work. 4. Built up Stringer with blocks cut from outside stringers.
  77. 77. 241 LAYING OUT THE WOODEN STAIR
  78. 78. 242
  79. 79. 243 Detail of Handrails
  80. 80. 244 Details of Allowed Openings along Corridors and Distance between Landings
  81. 81. 245
  82. 82. 246
  83. 83. 247 Suggested Activity 10 Directions: Fill in the blank with the correct answer. Use a separate sheet of paper. 1. The ____________ is the horizontal floor as resting place in a flight. 2. The ____________ are the steps where to ascend and descend in a building. 3. The ____________ is the vertical face of a stair step. 4. The steps that are not parallel to each other are ___________. 5. A ___________ stinger is used for modern buildings. 6. The ___________ is the horizontal part of a step including the nosing. 7. The ___________ is the horizontal distance from the first to the last riser of the flight. 8. The ____________ stinger is used for very rough work. 9. The ____________ stairwell is the shaft containing the staircase. 10. The ___________ is the angle of inclination of the stair. Summative Assessment Drafting a Stair Procedure: 1. Determine the clear height of the rise. Rise per step is 17 to 18 centimeters and minimum tread is 25 centimeters is normally accepted standard 2. Divide the rise height in meters by 0.17 or 0.18 to determine number of steps. 3. If the result is a fraction or decimal, it is not right and adjust to a whole number next lower or greater. 4. Divide the rise by the number to determine height per rise of each step
  84. 84. 248 5. Chose the number of step which will not be less than 17 cm nor more than 19 centimeters for an ideal stair.
  85. 85. 249 Post-assessment: You will be challenged to dig deeper into your prior knowledge and previous experiences about Technical Drafting. This Phase will guide you in assessing yourself by answering questions below you further explore the basics of structural lay-outing and detailing. Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answer in the space provided to each number. _______1. Distributes the weight of a building over large area. a. footing b. lintel c. pier d. walls _______2. A footing which supports a wall by extending along the entire length of the wall. a. cantilever footing c. isolated footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______3. Footing which supports two column loads or sometimes three column loads not in a row. a. cantilever footing c. isolated footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______4. A footing which supports a row of three or more columns. a. cantilever footing c. continuous footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______5. Are wooden sticks or post driven to the ground. a. batter board b. level c. stake d. string _______6. Is a footing which supports a wall by extending along the entire length of the wall. a. cantilever footing c. isolated footing b. combined footing d. wall footing _______7. Is amorphous silica cement that hardens as silica gel by reacting chemically with alkali in water. a. pozzolan cement c. union cement b. northern cement d. standard cement _______8. Is the most common type of reinforced concrete floor system. a. flat slab b. one way solid slab c. ribbed floor d. two way solid slab
  86. 86. 250 _______9. Is for establishing reference point. a. batter board b. level c. stake d. string ______10. Usually built after the completion of the main structural framework of the dwelling unit. a. ceiling b. post c. stairway d. wall construction ______11. Is a wood member fastened to the beam by anchor bolts. a. girder b. plywood c. purlins d. sill ______12. This is the unit of measure for measuring wood. a. Board foot b. yard c. meter d. square foot ______13. Is transparent and filled with water to establish level of horizontal lines. a. level b. plastic water hose c. stake d. string ______14. Is one which supports two column loads and consists of two footings connected together by a beam often called a strap. a. cantilever footing b. combined footing c. isolated footing d. wall footing ______15. Refers to the load (combined total weight) of people. a. dead load b. live load c. load bearing d. wind load ______16. This type of roof has the sides sloping and used in modern houses. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______17. The roof which is the most common type and economical. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______18. A roof where the sides of the roof slope steeply on each side. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______19. This type is a two shed roof and a conical roof is a steep circular roof that tapers to a point. a. butterfly roof b. gable roof c. hip roof d. mansard roof ______20. It is the frame between the hip rafter and the girt. a. common rafter b. hip rafter c. jack rafter d. valley rafter ______21. This type of rafter doesnt extend from the plate or girts to the ridge. a. common rafter b. hip rafter c. jack rafter d. valley rafter ______22. Rafter are laid diagonally from the corners of a plate to the ridge. a. common rafter b. hip rafter c. jack rafter d. valley rafter ______23. The height of a flight of stairs or the height of successive treads. a. flight b. rise c. run d. tread ______24. The series of steps from one landing to another. a. flight b. rise c. run d. tread ______25. The horizontal distance from the first to the last riser of stair flight. a. flight b. rise c. run d. tread
  87. 87. 251 REFERENCES Books and Articles and Printed Materials: 1. TESDA Training Regulations and Competency-Based Curriculum in Drafting Architectural Lay-out and Details Electronic Resources: 1. www.ths.gardenweb.com Drafting Elevations 2. http://www. homedecorreport.com Floor Plan 3. http://www. www.rightmove.co.uk Longitudinal Section 4. http:// chezerbey.com Traverse Section 5. http:// roofgenius.com Roof Plan 6. http:// www.hollandamerica.com Ceiling Plan 7. http://www. www.houzz.com Detail of Baluster 8. http://www. www.homedepot.ca Schedule of Doors 9. http:// www.designoffurniture.com- Toilet and Bath 10.http:// www.homedesignersoftware.coml- Types of Roof 11.http:// www.sketchuptips.getprobooks.com Longitudinal Section 12.http:// www. homerenovations.about.com Floor Plan 13.http:// www.nshorephoto.com Schedule of Doors and Windows
  88. 88. 252 14.http:// www.nesc.wvu.edu Septic Tank 15.http:// www.smartdraw.com Electrical Circuit 16.http:// www.actewagl.com.au Electrical Lighting 17.http:// www.monsterhouseplans.com Electrical Layout 18.https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=site+development+plan&source=lnms&tb m=isch&sa=X&ei=Tbp5UoXRDe- SiQfS4YDgBA&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=667#facrc=0%3Bresidenti al%20site%20development%20plan&imgdii=_&imgrc= Site Development Plan 19.http:// www.ptcgovernment.org Lot Plan 20.http:// www.familyhandyman.com Drainage System