Modern Architecture - Lecture 1
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Transcript of Modern Architecture - Lecture 1
Jordan University of Science and TechnologyCollege of Architecture and Design / Department of Architecture Arch. 331 Modern Architecture Instructor: Dr. Raed Al Tal Summer 2012
The Triumph of the Iron Masters: the Search for a Style
The Drama of Shapes and Space Baroque and Rococo
Signs of Authority Chateau de Versailles
It took some 30,000 workers and soldiers to complete the structure according to the King’s (Louis XIV) extravagant tastes that symbolized wealth and power, and this ultimately was financially devastating for the kingdom.
An excellent example of picturesque landscape
Two Revolutions that have shaped the Modern architecture were :
French Revolution 1789 ( Social struggle, human rights)Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 ( Technology, urban growth )
Technology + Ideology/ Philosophy Modern Architecture
Communalism versus Industrialism ( Imperial Capitalism)
The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of political and social upheaval and radical change in the history of France, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789
Behind The Rose of Versailles Marie Antoinette on the Gullotine, October 16, 1793( wife of Louis XVI)
The French Revolution (1789–1799) had such a huge impact on France and West Europe for a long time that the intellectual , philosophical and political life of France was changed
Led to the birth of modern France. The ideals put forward at the time are those of France today: Liberty, equality and union
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, August 26, 1789
The rise of the Middle Class / Bourgeoisie
- The invention of Fire is one of the main factors in the emergence of architecture.
- cooking - heating …. Gathering and socializing - keeping beasts away from them
Industrial Revolution 1750-1850Began in England in Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, 1777and quickly spread across Europe and North America.
New technology and invention transformed an agricultural and commercial way of life into a modern industrial society
- Cast Iron.-Iron and glass industry ( 1840s) , machinery (industrial
technology – mechanized) , and light and fire
Iron Bridge Gorge in Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, 1777
by Abraham Darby
It was the first arch bridge in the world to be made out of cast iron, a material which was previously far too expensive to use for large structures.
-Changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution revolutionized families and lifestyles as the factory system
drew workers away from the rural family economy to urban areas
a dirty and a poor home because they didn't have hygiene. They were many in their home ; we can see five children. We think they were very sad and sorry. It was one room for seven persons.
Children at work
The impact of the Industrial Revolution in Europe was :The growth of urban population- problems of housing ,
transportation, hygienic problems
-The growth of urban population
This situation give the rise to new phenomena such as :
- the revolution of transport - the concentration of workers- the migration of rural people to cities
The upheaval was so rapid that the urban centers could no longer cope with the several problems faced them
ParisNapoleon III and Haussmannian Planning in Paris
Napoleon III and Haussmannian Planning in Paris
With the fall of monarchy , a new conservative authoritarian regime , at its head came to power
- the coronation of Napoleon III- the notion of superiority ; France as the center of
Europe Colonial Expansion / Architecture (e.x Egypt)
Grandeur “ Hated to seek the beautiful in anything other than that which was large,” his architect Pierre- Francoise Fontaine wrote
Natural to the man to admire size, which always related to his mind with the ideas of power and strength
power and strength
Versailles (Louis XIV) Occupied and organized a largely inbuilt area
Napoleon demolished the old fabric of cities in order to make room for the public theater of the regime “ Men as great as the monuments they leave behind,” Napoleon declared
-The academic method of design thoughts in the French professional schools which were recognized under Napoleon
Ecole des Beaux –Arts (School of Fine Arts) Ecole Polytechnique ( Polytechnique School)
-Special attitude toward urbanism
Town planning became one of the most efficient instruments of power
-Cities such as Paris were re-planed due to the influx of the rural immigrants .
-Napoleon embarked the rebuilding of Paris in 1852-Georges Eugene Hussmann (1809-1891) ,
-the scheme falls into four categories :1 - Communication network
- to connect the railway stations scattered around the periphery of the city
- To cut new, wide roads through the heart of the old city
- straight avenues were strategically important for
- the boulevard became more important than the square
2- Gardens and Parks- several small parks were built throughout of the city, and two large parks were created on the west and the east of the city edges, these Hussmann called “the lungs of the city,”
- new aqueducts were built to bring the clean water
-3- Building typology
-4- Modification of the administrative organization - the number of the city district was increased due to the expansion of the city (between 1815 and 1850 , the population of Paris grew from 500,000 to 1 million inhabitants )
the radial roads to the suburbs, the strategic nodal points, and the circular boulevards.
Georges Eugene Hussmann
Paris before Hussmann
Paris after Hussmann
The creation of new industrial cities on open land, including all necessary civil amenities and housing for the workers Examples:
Saltaire, textile industrial city , England, 1852Port Sunlight, 1888, England ( landscaped village, garden village ), community
Pullman, south of Chicago (not most progressively socially) , but will planned
-The need for new structures, new building types , such as railway stations, bridges, exhibitions
Saint Pancras Station train shed , London, 1863-65 the clear span 71.3 meters
Example – warship industry in England 13 years for execution firstly was to be sheltered by wooden berths
– example Portmouth 1814, steel/cast Iron was then introduced
-Increased number of hotels, banks, offices, government buildings.
-In artistic and architectural context the replacement of the craft by mechanized industrial products .
- the replacement of the handicraft ship by the specialized expertise contractors on a large scale
the transformation of building technology came from new:
-man-made building materials-New structural techniques-new technical services
parts and elements were produced on an industrial method (identical elements)
-All together they produced a universal structural system
Construction of new building types such as Exhibition Halls required :
-Time value-Vast Area
-High durability-Low cost
-Easy to assemble and dismantle
(Mercantile Capitalism )
Joseph Paxton the designer of Crystal Palace Hyde Park in London, 1851
He was not an architect but a green house builder
“The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations “
Great Exhibition short time for execution almost 9 monthsGrid principle 24 by 24 foot module
Columns were set 48 foot apart Vast area : 563* 124 meter Rational fabrication, extensive use of prefabricated parts
Easy assembly : was assembled at the building site
Serially manufactured - similar parts had the same color (Joints: blue, roof trusses: red)
The central cross aisle was given a wooden parallel vault in order to accommodate a number of large
Numerous modifications were introduced during the reconstruction in Sydenham 1854, the nave was also
given a parallel vault .
Paris Exhibition , 1889Gustave Eiffel , Engineer, 1887-89,
was signpost of the Exhibition
Viewing Monuments and Machines
Central Market Halls
Central Market Halls in Paris (1854- 1857,
extended in 1860- 1866)Designers: Victor Baltard
and Felix Callet
First scheme was to be a combination of stone and iron, this scheme was abandoned in the med of construction
probably on the instructions of Napoleon III.
Georges-Eugene Haussmann the New Paris Prefect, announced that he wanted Parisian covered markets to be
made of glass and Iron, therefore a new design for the market was subsequently executed .
Voices with and against industrialization
The manifestation of modern life
Arts and Craft Movement by the end of the 19th century, in England
This movement was shaped by the ideas of art critic and writer John Ruskin and William Morris
they shared the distrust of machines and industrial capitalism which they believed alienated workers from their own nature.
a reaction against the historical revivalism and soulless of the machine
They considered themselves as socialists and participated in social movement
They dedicated themselves to producing functional objects with high esthetic value for a
Their style was on natural, rather than artificial forms and often considered a repeated designs
There was debate in the Movement as to whether the machine should be rejected or not. Those who sought a compromise between the efficiency of the machine and the skill of the craftsman tried to find a way in which the craftsman might master the machine rather than becoming its slave.
Red House , designed for William Morris by architect Philip Webb in 1859.
exemplifies the early Arts and Crafts style, with its :
well-proportioned solid forms, deep porches, steep roof, pointed window arches, brick fireplaces and wooden fittings.
Webb rejected the grand classical style,
found inspiration in British vernacular architecture and attempted to express the texture of ordinary materials, such as stone and tiles,
with an asymmetrical and quaint building composition
-with wall paintings and stained glass He also desired to have
- a "Palace of Art" in which he and his friends could enjoy producing works of art.
importance in the history of garden design
because they were positioned according to the internal arrangement of the rooms and the need for light, rather than for external appearance, and are of a variety of types —
Window detail of The Red House in Bexleyheath, Kent
Art Nouveau (New Art) was an architectural and design movement that developed out of the ideas promoted by the Art and Craft Movement. Based
What is Japonisme?It is an artistic interest in Japanese art aesthetic, which began in the mid 19th C after Japan opened its borders to international trade after centuries of isolation. Isometric perspective, linear style, attention to patterns and flattening of the picture plane were stylistic conventions of Japanese art that late Impressionists and Post-Impressionists deliberately used in their own work
It took its name from and art shop in Paris ( Sigfried Bing) ; in Germany and Austria it had
other name Jugedstil
It emerged at the end of the 19th century and adapted the twining plant form to the needs of
They wanted to create a domestic world that was suffused with natural imagery, the oragnic
architecture depended on motifs rather than structures
-They employed decorative traditions
-They used curvilinear graphic ornament to suggest growth , even to evoke dream like vision
-To combine uniformity of urban modernity with the inspiration of nature
-They designed house objects , such as glass and furniture , posters and prints
Best architectural examples of this style was first seen in buildings designed by Victor
Horta (1861- 1947)
Examples :Van Eetvelde House in Brussels (1895)
Every detail is function as part of a living wholeVictor Horta
Hotel Tassel in Brussels 1892- 1893Victor Horta
- Smooth masonry- Still symmetrical
- Concluding cornice
- The façade blend smoothly into the neighborhood
- Only in the development of the oriel window is there a delicate hint of Harta’s
exploration of new relationships of ornament and construction
Hotel Tassel in Brussels 1892- 1893
Horta made a break with the past here by using stone and the modern material, metal, in domestic architecture.
The modernity of Horta's town house is also signaled by the extensive use of glass, where the window sizes may indicate the function of the interior.
Architecture that both contemporary and human, both practical and ornamental
The narrow, symmetrical front facade
The facade includes classical elements like moldings and columns but here some of the columns are iron, not stone, and the entablature is metal, complete with exposed rivets.
Sculpting a Building
Art Nouveau achieved its most personal expression in the work of the Spanish architect Antonio Gaudi
(1852- 1926), before becoming an architect,
Gaudi had trained as an ironworker.
Was inspired by Moorish-Spanish architecture
He developed a personal aesthetic.
He conceived a building as a whole and modeled it almost as a sculptor might shape a figure from clay
Example:Casa Mila, Barcelona 1907, apartment building Known as the House of the Bones
A wondrously free form mass wrapped around a street corner
The rough surface of the stone walls suggest naturally worn rock
The entrance portals look like eroded sea caves Guadi sees Casa Mila a true expressionist of early 20th century painting and sculpture
The exterior seems like waves
Casa Mila, Barcelona 1907
The exterior has no right angles
The entrance portals look like eroded sea caves
Sagrada Familia Barcelona, 1884
Strange twisted shape of columns
What was about architecture in the United States in the 19th century?
In 1785 American Congress decided the division of the United States into uniform grid squares for urban planning
- more efficiency ( simplicity of its layout, the subdivision of equal plots,
- economy ( ease of construction, convenience for vehicle traffic
What about the problems of the grid urban planning? In 1811 New York laid out its streets in a stereotypical grid form
Chicago in 1811 was uninhabited In 1900 the population of were 1.7 million
Population: 1,698,575 1898
1891 - FARWELL - CHICAGO CITY PLAN ...
Mid 19th Century New York
Early plan of New York, showing the city’s rapid development in the first half of the 19th century. The map, first published in 1833, was frequently updated during its lifetime.
Building proceeding: simple and quicklyImported materials : cast iron and steel from Britain and reinforced concrete from France
1855 cast iron façade parts were delivered from New York to Chicago but majority of houses were still made of wood
Great fire of 1871
1874 another destructive fireFire proof building
Balloon-frame method of construction (1832); wooden frames
New York: single tower like buildings to create the a typical urban skyline
Chicago: houses grew uniformly and in blocks 9 floor buildings were consider as skyscrapers
The passenger elevator by Elisha Otis 1st appeared in New York in 1857
- More higher buildings- Cheaper upper floors now became the more
Chicago School: there was a kind of architectural revolution 1880s- 1890s
Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-1886); he developed a personal heavy style
Marshal Field Warehouse in Chicago, 1885
This building became a model for the new generation of Chicago architects
Marshal Field Warehouse in Chicago, 1885
The building was commissioned in 1885 by legendary merchant Marshall Field. H.H.
Richardson, known for his New York State Asylum in Buffalo, designed the exterior masonry piers and
arches with interior framing of wood and iron. Intended for the wholesale business of Field's
eponymous named department store, it opened in 1887
Marshal Field Warehouse in Chicago, 1885
“ Form Follows Function,”• Louis Henry Suilvan 1856- 1924, has been
considered the first truly modern architect.
1.He arrived at a synthesis of industrial structures and ornamentation
2.He employed ornament to serve as connector between commerce and culture
3.Artistic form for commercial buildings projects4.He summarized his ideas on office building design as :” The tall office building artistically
Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store
Location: Chicago, Illinois (1899-1904)
Rich, artfully- crafted ornament on the ground floor
Well illuminated, open display area
Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store
Location; Buffalo, New York (1894-1896)
The structure is steel, sheathed with terra cotta
The imposing scale of the building and the regularity of the window placements served as an expression of the large scale refined and orderly office work that took place within it.
Light decorations and ornamentation observed the severity of the structure
Guaranty BuildingLocation; Buffalo, New York (1894-1896)
Guaranty (Prudential) Building: decoration over entrance (1895-1896, Louis H. Sullivan)
Lobby ceiling light detail. Guaranty Building.
Louis Tiffany, Lotus Table Lamp, 1905