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Biodiesel 101 andTroubleshooting Filter Plugging Issues
Presented by Hoon GeSponsored by the Minnesota Soybean Growers Association
TopicsHistory of DieselBiodiesel 101Biodiesel StandardsMaterials CompatibilityEmissionsOEMSupply and DemandBiodiesel Market Outlook
ULSD & BiodieselBQ-9000Cold Flow Properties2007/2010 EnginesFilter Plugging IssuesBiodiesel HandlingUseful Resources
History of DieselVegetable Oil for FuelHigh Sulfur DieselLow Sulfur DieselBiodieselULSD1900s1920199319982006
Machinery Exhibit 1900 Worlds FairRudolph Diesel demonstrated his compression ignition engine, which at the request of the French Government, ran on peanut oil. www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/1900fair.html - Jeffrey Howe
History of Diesel Diesel Engines ran on Vegetable oils until the 1920's
1920s petroleum diesel fuel became easier to produce due to advances in the distillation process, and became the main fuel for diesel engines
Diesel From Crude
Crude Oil - PetroleumA complex assortment of materials consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbons and other compounds containing variable amounts of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and organometallics and whose physical properties may vary widely in volatility, specific gravity, and viscosity.
Demand For Crude1 barrel (bbl) = 42 gallons (U.S.) Globally about 85,000,000 bbl/dayOver 17,000,000 bbl of crude oil processed every day in the US (714,000,000 gal/day)800,000,000 gal/day total product demand360,000,000 gal/day gasoline140,000,000 gal/day distillate68,000,000 gal/day jet fuel150 U.S. refineries with capacities ranging from 15 mbbl/day (600,000 gallons/day) to over 500 mbbl/day (21,000,000 gallons/day and operate at 90+% capacity
Five Basic Refinery ProcessesSeparationAtmospheric and vacuum distillationExtractions (Solvent dewaxing) ConversionCatalytic, thermal and hydrocrackingCoking UpgradingReforming, alkylation, isomerization Finishing or treatingHydrotreating and desulfurizationBlending
Diesel HDS UnitThe HDS Unit uses catalysts to remove substances like sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics. When diesel comes out of the HSD unit, it is finished diesel fuel/heating oil. http://oilandgas.veoliawater.com/en/expertise/our_understanding/your_business/process_schematic/refinery_process_diagram/
High Sulfur Dieselpre-1993
High Sulfur DieselBefore 1993 sulfur content of diesel was unregulated
Sulfur in diesel fuel could be as high as 5000ppm
The Good:Sulfur is a natural lubricant and Anti-Microbial
The Bad:High sulfur fuel = High sulfur emission = ACID RAIN
Low Sulfur DieselPost-1993
Low Sulfur Diesel1993 when the EPA mandated the lowering of sulfur in diesel fuels to a 500ppm
This was done to reduce these harmful emissions
When sulfur was reduced the fuel lost:Lubricity Microbial protection
History Of BiodieselEnergy crunch of the 1970s stimulated biofuels research but federal research money disappeared in the 1980s.
First literature use of the term biodiesel is found in a Chinese paper published in 1988. The next paper using that term appeared in 1991.
Biodiesel DefinedBiodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751.
Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.
Making BiodieselTransesterification (Catalyst)100 pounds + 10 pounds = 10 pounds + 100 poundsTriglyceride Alcohol Glycerin Mono-Alkyl Esters
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________Soy oil Methanol Biodiesel
- Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel! - Other biomass products arent Biodiesel - Must meet ASTM D 6751
Biodiesel Raw MaterialsOil or FatAlcoholSoybeanMethanol (common)CornEthanolCanolaCottonseedCatalystSunflowerSodium hydroxideBeef tallowPotassium hydroxidePork lardUsed cooking oils
The Biodiesel ReactionVegetable OilorAnimal Fat (100 lbs.)+Methanol orEthanol(10 lbs.) Biodiesel(100 lbs.)+Glycerin(10 lbs.)In the presence of a catalystCombiningYields
Biodiesel AttributesHigh Cetane (avg. over 50)Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm)High Lubricity, even in blends as low at 1-2%High Energy Balance (3.5 to 1)Low Agriculture Inputs: Soybeans78% Life Cycle CO2 ReductionRenewable, SustainableDomestically Produced Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines
Biodiesel ASTM D6751Property ASTM Method Limits Units
Calcium & Magnesium, combined EN 14538 5 maximumppm (ug/g)Flash Point (closed cup) D 93 93 minimum Degrees CAlcohol Control (One of the following must be met)Methanol Content EN14110 0.2 maximum % volumeFlash Point D93 130 minimum Degrees CWater & SedimentD 2709 0.05 maximum % vol.Kinematic Viscosity, 40 CD 445 1.9 - 6.0 mm2/sec.Sulfated Ash D 874 0.02 maximum% massSulfurS 15 Grade D 54530.0015 max. (15) % mass (ppm)S 500 Grade D 54530.05 max. (500) % mass (ppm)Copper Strip CorrosionD 130 No. 3 maximumCetane D 613 47 minimumCloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees CCarbon Residue 100% sample D 4530* 0.05 maximum% massAcid Number D 664 0.50 maximummg KOH/gFree Glycerin D 6584 0.020 maximum% massTotal Glycerin D 6584 0.240 maximum% massPhosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum% massDistillation, T90 AETD 1160 360 maximumDegrees CSodium/Potassium, combined EN 145385 maximum ppmOxidation Stability EN 14112 3 minimum hoursCold Soak FiltrationAnnex to 6751360 maximumsecondsFor use in temps below -12CAnnex to 6751200 maximumseconds
New ASTM Standards passed June 19, 2008Inclusion of B5 into the D975 specification for #2 diesel fuel Inclusion of B5 into the D396 specification for heating oilPassage of a blended fuel spec for B6 to B20Addition to D6751 of a cold soak filtration test to eliminate cold filter plugging potential
Just published October 2008
B6-B20 ASTM D7467 SpecificationProperty ASTM Method Limits Units
Acid Number D 664 0.30 maximummg KOH/gViscosity, 104FD 445 1.9 - 4.1 mm2/sec.Flash Point D 93 125 minimum Degrees FCloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees F
Sulfur S 15 Grade D 54530.0015 maximum (15) % mass (ppm) S 500 Grade D 54530.05 maximum (500) % mass (ppm)Physical Distillation, T90D 86650 maximumDegrees FRamsbottom Carbon ResidueD 524 0.35 maximum% mass10% residueCetane NumberD 613 40 minimum
One of the following must be metCetane IndexD 976-8040 minimumAromacityD 1319-0335 maximum% volumeAshD 4820.01 maximum% massWater & SedimentD 27090.05 maximum % vol.Copper Strip CorrosionD 130 No. 3 maximumPhosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum% massOxidation Stability EN 14112 6 minimum hoursBiodiesel ContentD 73716-20%% volumeLubricity, HFRR @ 60C D 6079520 maximummicron
Materials CompatibilityB100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as natural or nitrile rubbers over time.Most elastomers used after 1993 are compatible with B100 (Viton/Teflon).Blends (B20) effect is less, or non-existent.Normal monitoring of hoses and gaskets for leaks is sufficient with B20.Consult with your parts supplier or mechanical engineering partners.
Materials CompatibilityBiodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with the following metals:-Brass, Bronze, Copper, Lead, Tin and Zinc
Biodiesel is compatible with:-Stainless Steel, Aluminum
Biodiesel CO2 Cycle
Reduction in Emissions
Supply and Demand
Biodiesel Demand700 million450 million250 million75 million25 million20 million15 million5 million2 million500,000Biodiesel Tax IncentiveGallons
If Every Trucker Used B2The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of B100 annually
U.S. Biodiesel Market Outlook
Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007 Renewable requirement for diesel must met by biodiesel.
500 million gallons used in 20091 billion gallons used in 2012
Demand For Diesel In The US(In Millions Of Gallons)
Potential Demand For Biodiesel In The USDemand should not be measured by total demand but by the fraction that represents a realistic blend.
The maximum potential rate is a B20 blend. B2 and B5 are very realistic.
Even at displacement rates of 2-5% potential demand far exceeds current and 10-yr production rates.
Growth In Diesel Automobile MarketAccording to the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, there are currently more than 4.8 million diesel cars, pick-ups and SUVs registered in the US.J.D Power and Associates predict diesel sales to approximately triple in the next 10 years, accounting for more than 10% of US vehicles by 2015.As of January 2008, 12 auto manufacturers had announced or introduced at least 13 diesel models to the US market. The following brands have diesel models:Acura, Audi, BMW, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, General Motors, GMC, Honda, Hyundai, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo
Increasing Biodiesel UseThe National Biodiesel Board has set a goal of replacing 5% of the nations on-road diesel with biodiesel by 2015.
That amount is