Methods of Research

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Introduction to ResearchAn Overview of Designing and Interpreting ResearchCreating a Reliable and Valid ExperimentRisk, Deception, and the Ethics of ResearchSelecting a Research DesignExperimental, Quasi-Experimental and Nonexperimental ResearchAdditional Types of ResearchResearch Control, Sampling DesignsMeasurement and Data Collection -Hypothesis Testing -Sampling -Measurement -Instrumentation Data AnalysisThe Research ReportWriting a Research ReportEvaluating Research ReportsUtilization of ResearchWriting a Research Proposal

Transcript of Methods of Research

Educ 301

Methods of Research

COURSE DESCRIPTION:Research Methods is a 3-unit course designed to introduce the student to nearly all of the fundamental concepts of research particularly in preparing a proposal. The first half of the course will focus on the basic principles of research, while the second half of the course will deal with the preparation of the proposal that will make use of the theories as basis of the study. The primary function of this course is to prepare the undergraduate student for more advanced course work in the discipline.

CREDIT UNITS: 3 PLACEMENT: SY 2010-2011 SEMESTER: Second Semester FACULTY: Victor C. Bongar, PhD CONTACT NOS.: Globe (0917-7046443) Smart (0921-8110120) Office (082-2210634 loc 23) E-MAIL ADDRESS: Personal: [email protected] Office: [email protected]

COURSE ORGANIZATION: This course will include three hours of lecture/discussion. In addition to the regularly scheduled lectures/discussions, students will need to devote some additional time to work during their free time to prepare the thesis proposal.

REFERENCES:

Nursing research: Principles and methods, (7th ed., 2004) by Denise F. Polit and Cheryl Tatano Beck, J. B. Lippincot Company Data analysis and statistics for nursing research, (1996) by Denise F. Polit, Apleton and Lange Nursing research: Design, statistics and computer analysis, (1981) by Carolyn Feher Waltz and R. Barker Bausell, F. A. Davis Company How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, (5th ed., 2003) by Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen, McGraw Hill Basic Statistical Methods (5th ed., 1983) by N. M. Downie and Robert W. Heath, Harper International Edition Introduction to Educational Research, (2003) by Florante O. Vizcarra, Great Books Trading Fundamentals of Research, (1992) by Gaudencio V. Aquino, National Book Store Thesis Writing: A Practical Guide, (1997) by Jose P. Leveriza, New Day Publishers

GENERAL OBJECTIVES:1. To provide students with a strong background in the principles of research that will involve in a systematic search for knowledge about issues of importance to the profession. 2. To provide students with the ability to analyze data and interpret analytically. 3. To make students aware of the power of research in uplifting the profound knowledge about the profession. 4. To help students become familiar with the language of research and the terminology of it. 5. To prepare students for more advanced course work in research.

CONTENT OUTLINE:

Introduction to Research An Overview of Designing and Interpreting Research Creating a Reliable and Valid Experiment Risk, Deception, and the Ethics of Research Selecting a Research Design Experimental, Quasi-Experimental and Nonexperimental Research Additional Types of Research Research Control

CONTENT OUTLINE:

Sampling Designs Measurement and Data Collection -Hypothesis Testing -Sampling -Measurement -Instrumentation Data Analysis The Research Report Writing a Research Report Evaluating Research Reports Utilization of Research Writing a Research Proposal

STUDENT EVALUATION:Long Examination Class Standing Oral presentation Class participation Quizzes Thesis proposal Total 50% 50%

100%

Chapter 1

Introduction to Research

What is research?is a systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems. The ultimate goal of research is to develop, refine, and expand a body of knowledge (Polit & Beck, 2004). a scientific process of critical selection of data, investigation, and analysis of such to gain new knowledge or to complement an existing one (Martinez, 1998).

What is nursing research?is

systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession, including nursing practice, education, administration, and informatics.

What is clinical nursing research?is

designed to generate knowledge to guide nursing practice and to improve the health and quality of life of nurses clients.

The Importance of Research

Research tests assumptions and observations made about user needs and services and creates new knowledge that can be used to improve services.

The Consumer-Producer Continuum in Research

Consumers of research read research reports to develop new skills and to keep up to date on relevant findings that may affect practice. Research utilization the use of research findings in a practice setting Producers of research peoples who actively participate in designing and implementing research studies

NURSING RESEARCH: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTUREThe early years: From Nightingale to the 1950s Nursing research in the 1960s Nursing research in the 1970s Nursing research in the 1980s Nursing research in the 1990s

Future Directions for Nursing Research1. Increased focus on outcomes research 2. Increased focus on biophysiologic research 3. Promotion of evidence-based practice 4. Development of a stronger knowledge base through multiple, confirmatory strategies 5. Strengthening of multidisciplinary collaboration 6. Expanded dissemination of research findings

7. Increasing the visibility of nursing research

Sources of Evidence for Nursing PracticeTradition Authority Clinical Experience, Trial and Error, and Intuition Logical Reasoning Assembled Information Disciplined Research

Two kinds of research according to purpose

BASIC RESEARCH - Research that seeks to create new knowledge and is not directly related to technical or practical problems. This research provides new knowledge about a particular user group but does not specify a way this knowledge can be used to solve a problem. Example: a researcher may perform an in-depth study or better understand normal grieving processes

Two kinds of research according to purpose

APPLIED RESEARCH - Research that seeks to solve problems practitioners face. Using a variety of techniques this research aims to develop solutions and recommendations that can be used to improve practices. Example: a study to determine the effectiveness of a nursing intervention to ease grieving

Types of Research According to Methodology

a. Quantitative Research Quantitative research is research involving the use of structured questions where the response options have been predetermined and a large number of respondents is involved.

Types of Research According to Methodology

a. Quantitative Research By definition, measurement must be objective, quantitative and statistically valid. Simply put, its about numbers, objective hard data. Quantitative research refers to counts and measures of things

Types of Research According to Methodologyb. Qualitative Research Qualitative Research is collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and descriptions of things.

Types of Research According to Methodologyb. Qualitative Research Qualitative research is much more subjective uses very different methods of collecting information, mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open-ended. Small numbers of people are interviewed in-depth and/or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted.

Classification of Research by General Methodology1. Experimental - at least one variable is manipulated to determine the effect of the manipulation - subjects are randomly assigned to experimental treatments

Questions asked: What is the effect of the experimental variable?

Classification of Research by General Methodology2.Quasi-experimental-

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at least one variable is manipulated to determine the effect of the manipulation intact, naturally formed groups are used

Questions asked: What is the effect of the experimental variable?

Classification of Research by General Methodology3. Survey -the incidence, relationships, and distributions of variables are studies -variables are not manipulated but studied as they occur in a natural setting Questions asked: What are the characteristics of the variables? What are the relationships and possible effects among the variables?

Classification of Research by General Methodology4.Historical - a description of past events or facts is developed Questions asked: What was or what happened?

Classification of Research by General Methodology5.Ethnographic - a holistic description of a particular group is developed Questions asked: What is the nature of the phenomena?

Specific Research Purposes and Research Questions1. Description: tells us the nature of things or situations; gives us a picture of the current status of a situation; describes to us what existsQuantitative: How prevalent is the phenomenon? How often does the phenomenon occur? What are the characteristics of the phenomenon? Qualitative: What are the dimensions of the phenomenon? What variations exist? What is important about the phenomenon? Example: A survey on the perception of students about premarital sex

Specific Research Purposes and Research Questions2. Exploration: helps us to discover what factors or conditions/situations are related to each other; what factors are influencing each other Quantitative: What factors are related to the phenomenon? What are the antecedents of the phenomenon? Qualitative: What is full nature of the phenomenon? What is really going on here? Example: A study on the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance

Specific Research Purposes and Research Questions3.Explanation: helps to explain the causes why a certain phenomenon occurs; tells the reasons why a cert