MASS MEDIA & THE JAZZ AGE. MOVIES o Movies – wildly popular mass medium o 1910-1930 5,000...
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MASS MEDIA & THE JAZZ AGE
MOVIESMovies wildly popular mass medium1910-1930 5,000 theaters rose to 22,500Late 1930s 100 million Americans seeing movies each week4th largest business in the country1927 1st film with sound was The Jazz SingerMovies w/sound called talkies
NEWSPAPERSHelped create a common culture1920s newspapers increased both in size and in # of readers1914-1927 use of newsprint doubled in the USPapers getting bigger, but # of papers was decliningNewspaper chains owned by an individual or company bought up established papers and merged them1923-1927 # of chains doubled and total # of papers they owned rose by 50%William Randolph Hearst gained control of newspapers in more than 20 citieshis life and quest for power were the basis for one of the most popular motion pictures ever, Citizen Kane
RADIOBarely existed until the 1920s1920 experiment by Frank Conrad of the Westinghouse Company tried sending recorded music and baseball scores over the radio = SUCCESS!Began broadcasting regularly and became KDKATremendous growth and by 1922, more than 500 stations were on the air Americans eagerly bought radios to listen inTo reach more people, networks linked individual stations together (NBC)
JAZZ CLUBSJazz Arrives grew out of African-American music of the southHarlem 500 jazz clubsCotton Club, Connies Inn, and Saratoga Club all gave shows for mostly white visitorsJazz musicians included The Jelly Roll Morton Band, Louis Satchmo Armstrong, and Duke Ellington
DUKE ELLINGTON (1899-1974)
17 years old supporting himself playing in clubs in Washington at night and painting signs during the day1923 moved to New York, formed a band, and played at the Hollywood ClubGreatest genius was as a bandleader, arranger, and composerWorks included Mood Indigo, Solitude, In a Sentimental Mood, Blue Harlem, and Bojangles
OTHER ARTISTSPainting Edward Hopper and Rockwell Kent showed the rougher side of life; Georgia OKeeffe painted natural objectsLiterature Sinclair Lewis, a Muckraking novelist, attacked American society w/savage ironyTargets included the small town, the prosperous conformist, the medical business, and dishonest ministersRefused a Pulitzer in 1926, but won and accepted the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1930, which was a first for an AmericanEugene ONeill, playwright wrote dark, poetic tragedies out of the material of every day life
THE LOST GENERATION Set of writers in the 1920s who believed they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral valuesSome flocked to Greenwich Village, others became expatriates as they were discontented with American societyMost prominent were John Dos Passos, Archibald MacLeish, Hart Crane, E.E. Cummings, Ernest Hemingway (made the term Lost Generation famous), F. Scott FitzgeraldFitzgerald was part of both the Lost Generation world and the flapper worldSome think he had a part in creating the flapper culture with his novel This Side of Paradise published in 1920 1925 The Great Gatsby focused on the wealthy, sophisticated Americans of the Jazz Age (he found the rich to be self-centered and shallow)
THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE For African-Americans, Harlem was the cultural center of the USJames Weldon Johnson, the leading writer of the Harlem group lived in two worlds, the political and the literary executive secretary of the NAACPmost famous work is 1927s Gods TrombonesAlain Locke (The New Negro) celebrated the blossoming of African-American cultureOther important writers of the Harlem Renaissance were Zora Neale Hurston, Dorothy West, and Langston Hughesthe most studied Harlem writer todayLeading poets of the Harlem Renaissance were Claude McKay and Countee Cullen
CLOSEIn no less than one paragraph, write a summary of your notes AND THEN answer the following: What influence do film and radio have on current popular culture?