Macromolecules slides

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Macromolecules
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    10-May-2015
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  • 1.Macromolecules

2. What is a molecule?A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds Ex:H2O, Glucose, CH3, CyclohexaneWhat is amacromolecule?A very large molecule made up of repeating molecules or subunits (monomers) linked (polymerized) together to make a polymer. 3. What are the 4 major macromolecules that make upall cells?Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins NucleicAcids 4. Carbohydrates - sugarsCarbohydrates are made up of monomers call monosaccharide (one sugar)carbo-: sounds like carbon-hydrate: means something combined with water General formula for carbohydrates: CnH2nOn 5. Carbohydrates - sugars Carbohydrates are made by a dehydration reaction1 monosaccharide + 1 monosaccharide 1disaccharide + 1 H2O 6. Polysaccharide sugars- made of 100s to1000s of glucose (a type of monosaccharide)monomer units linked by dehydrationreactionsex: starchFunction of a carbohydrate is usually to be anenergy source for cells 7. Lipids - FatsLipids are made of a monomer of 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids (triglyceride) Not Really a Polymer!! 8. Proteins Proteins are made of a monomer of amino acids The R-group makes each amino acid different 9. Proteins Amino acids are linked together by a dehydration reaction A long chain of amino acids linked together is called apolypeptide chain or polypeptide 10. Proteins When a polypeptide chain folds together it makesprotein. Proteins perform the cells functions and gives acell structure 11. Nucleic Acids DNA/RNA Nucleic acids are made of monomers callednucleotides Nucleotides link together by dehydration reactions 12. Nucleic Acids DNA/RNA Each Nucleotide has 3 main parts