Macromolecules. Monomers make up polymers (macromolecules)
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Macromolecules Monomers make up polymers (macromolecules) Polymerization Polymerization: Smaller units called monomers join together to make polymers 1. Carbohydrates -They are made of: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1 -Are sugars (words ending in ose) -Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants use carbs for structural purposes. Simple Sugars (Monosaccharides & Disaccharides) -The human body can only use sugar in the simplest form (monosaccharides). examples: glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6,), galactose, fructoseC H O Disaccharides are double sugars. examples: -sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) consists of glucose and fructose. -ose and saccharide mean SUGAR lactose consists of galactose and glucose Polysaccharide One polysaccharide = Many monosaccharides Plants store sugar in polysaccharides known as starches Animals store sugar in polysaccharides known as glycogen 2. Lipids Monomers: Glycerol & Fatty Acids NOT soluble in water (insoluble) 3 categories: fats, oils, waxes Store energy, & important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings. Examples: steroids, hormones (chemical messengers), fat, oil, soap Monomers of Lipids Saturated VS Unsaturated 3. Nucleic Acids -Nucleic acids are polymers made from monomers called nucleotides. Examples of Nucleic Acids? We all contain them. Nucleic Acid = DNA, RNA, 4. Protein -Proteins are polymers of monomers called amino acids. In living things, proteins make up cellular structures. Also, enzymes are proteins. Protein Shape The shape of a protein is extremely important. The function of a protein is based on its shape! Enzymes (a protein) speed up chemical processes in the body. What happens if the enzyme is denatured (changes shape)? Ase means enzyme. Ex. Lactase (breaks down lactose) To Review What is a monomer? What is a polymer? What are the 4 macromolecules & their monomers? What macromolecule is an enzyme? Polymerization Get 2 dixi cups and 2 spoons. In Cup 1: Add 3 teaspoons of glue and 3 teaspoons of water. In Cup 2: Add 1 small teaspoon of borax and 3 teaspoons of water. Bring back to your group. Mix both cups VERY WELL. SLOWLY add borax/water little by little into glue/water. Why does this happen?? Polymerization Enzymes!