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Macromolecules (Learning Objectives) Recognize the role of water in synthesis and breakdown of polymers Name &recognize the monomer and the chemical bond that holds the polymeric structure of all biomolecules (where that applies). Which group of biomolecules are distinctly hydrophobic and lack a uniform monomer? Identify the function of monomers and polymers of each group with specific examples: Carbohydrates : Recognize common mono-, di-, and polysaccharides (note the structural and functional differences). Lipids : Name the three groups of lipids, their structure and function. Proteins : Name the generic monomer of proteins and identify the reason each of the 20 monomers provides any protein with structural and functional properties. What are the levels of protein structure? Name the chemical bond(s) involved with maintaining each level. What determines the function of a protein and how can a protein lose its activity? What does denaturation mean? Nucleic Acids: Name the generic monomer and its components. Learn the monomers that are found in DNA & RNA. Contrast the chemical bonds that hold the polymeric structure of nucleic acids that holding the two strands of poly-nucleotides together in DNA. Which chemical bond can be broken by physical means i.e by heat?
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Transcript of Macromolecules (Learning Objectives)faculty.sdmiramar.edu/bhaidar/Bio 210A Course...

  • Macromolecules (Learning Objectives) Recognize the role of water in synthesis and breakdown of polymers Name &recognize the monomer and the chemical bond that holds the polymeric

    structure of all biomolecules (where that applies). Which group of biomolecules are distinctly hydrophobic and lack a uniform monomer?

    Identify the function of monomers and polymers of each group with specific examples: Carbohydrates: Recognize common mono-, di-, and polysaccharides (note the

    structural and functional differences). Lipids: Name the three groups of lipids, their structure and function. Proteins: Name the generic monomer of proteins and identify the reason each of the

    20 monomers provides any protein with structural and functional properties. What are the levels of protein structure? Name the chemical bond(s) involved with maintaining

    each level. What determines the function of a protein and how can a protein lose its activity? What does

    denaturation mean?

    Nucleic Acids: Name the generic monomer and its components. Learn the monomers that are found in DNA & RNA. Contrast the chemical bonds that hold the polymeric structure of nucleic acids that holding the two strands of poly-nucleotides together in DNA. Which chemical bond can be broken by physical means i.e by heat?

  • Short polymer Unlinked monomer

    Dehydration synthesis removes a water molecule, forming a new bond

    Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer Longer polymer

    Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond

    Hydrolysis of a polymer

    a. Synthesis of polymers

    b. Release of monomers

    Role of Water in Polymer Synthesis and Breakdown

  • Example of nutritional information on packaged macaroni and cheese

    Single Serving %DV

    Serving Size 1 cup (228g)

    Calories 250

    Calories from Fat 110

    Total Fat 12g 18% Trans Fat 1.5g

    Saturated Fat 3g 15%

    Cholesterol 30mg 10%

    Sodium 470mg 20%

    Total Carbohydrate 31g 10% Dietary Fiber 0g 0%

    Sugars 5g

    Protein 5g Vitamin A 4%

    Vitamin C 2%

    Calcium 20%

    Iron 4%

  • Food consists of simple and complex biomolecules Four Groups 1. Carbohydrates: simple sugars & complex carbs 2. Lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids 3. Protein 4. Nucleic acids: DNA & RNA

    Vitamins (other organic molecules) Minerals- chemical elements

  • Four groups of biologic polymers in living tissues

    Only three are made of monomers Names of the monomer of each of the three

    polymers

    N/A

  • Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates:

    Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides

  • Summary of Carbohydrate Functions

    Monomers Polymers Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Source of Storage of energy-

    cellular energy short term (animals) long term (plants) Source of carbon Structural -

    skeleton for the cell Plant cell wall Animal exoskeleton

  • Monosaccharides

    Triose sugars (C3H6O3)

    Glyceraldehyde

    Pentose sugars (C5H10O5)

    Ribose

    Hexose sugars (C5H12O6)

    Glucose Galactose

    Dihydroxyacetone

    Ribulose Fructose

    Functions 1.Cellular

    fuel

    2.Carbon skeletons, raw material for other molecules

  • Linear and ring forms

    Abbreviated ring structure

    Linear structure that form rings in aqueous solutions

  • Monosaccharides

    - Chemical Structure: - Monomers vary in carbon chain length - Functional groups: hydroxyl and carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone) groups - Water solubility: - Linear and ring forms

  • Common Disaccharides

  • Common Plant Polysaccharides (glucose polymers): Energy storage and structural roles

  • Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide, a major component of the tough wall of plant cells.

  • Common Animal Polysaccharide (glucose polymers): energy storage

  • Common Animal Polysaccharide (glucose polymers): structural role

    Exoskeleton of arthropods Cell wall of fungus Fiber for humans!

  • Lipids - Diverse Hydrophobic Molecules

    - Contain long hydrocarbon chains: saturated and unsaturated - Three major groups of lipids with different functions 1. Simple fats (glycerides)- long term energy storage 2. Phospholipids- make up cell membranes 3. Steroids- regulation

  • A simple fat is made of glycerol and fatty acids.

  • A triglyceride has three fatty acids joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, creating a triacylglycerol.

    The same or different fatty acid may be present

  • Fatty acids may vary in: - length of hydrocarbon chain (number of carbons). - number and locations of double bonds. Saturated fatty acids - have no carbon-carbon double bonds. - solid at room temperature.

  • Unsaturated fatty acid are kinked because they contain a double bond

  • Common Fatty acids

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Chemical structure of docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA (22:6n-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA (20:5n-3).

    Enhanced by Neuroinformation http://lansbury.bwh.harvard.edu/polyunsaturated_fatty_acids.htm

    http://www.omega3sealoil.com/Chapter2a.html

    difference between omega 3, 6, and 9.

    http://www.neuroinformation.org/http://www.neuroinformation.org/http://lansbury.bwh.harvard.edu/polyunsaturated_fatty_acids.htmhttp://www.omega3sealoil.com/Chapter2a.htmlhttp://www.neuroinformation.org/
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Key omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids - found primarily in oily cold-water fish such

    as tuna, salmon, and mackerel. - Fresh seaweed - Plant sources: Leafy greens, nuts, seeds Omega-9 are not essential in humans

  • Phospholipids - two fatty acids attached to glycerol and a

    phosphate group at the third position. - Important component of cell membrane

  • In the presence of water, phospholipids form micelles or bilayers.

  • Steroids have a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused carbon rings. Include cholesterol and other regulatory

    hormones

  • Proteins carry out most of the functions of the cell

    1. Storage 2. Structural 3. Transport 4. Enzymes 5. Hormones 6. Receptors 7. Contractile

  • Proteins 20 monomers, amino acids. peptide bonds, polypeptides complex three-dimensional shape or

    conformation. may consist of one or more polypeptides

  • Essential Amino acids

    http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/aa/aa.html

    Discovering Nutrition

    - Google Books Result by Paul M. Insel, R. Elaine Turner, Don Ross - 2005 - Medical - 646 pages

    http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/aa/aa.htmlhttp://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/aa/aa.htmlhttp://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/aa/aa.htmlhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Ugt1_4FxmgAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=garbanzo+bean+amino+acid+composition&source=web&ots=pr6u6oEMbS&sig=y4FJnopv5hhLVyVzrXxIuW6EnjEhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Ugt1_4FxmgAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=garbanzo+bean+amino+acid+composition&source=web&ots=pr6u6oEMbS&sig=y4FJnopv5hhLVyVzrXxIuW6EnjEhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Ugt1_4FxmgAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=garbanzo+bean+amino+acid+composition&source=web&ots=pr6u6oEMbS&sig=y4FJnopv5hhLVyVzrXxIuW6EnjEhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Ugt1_4FxmgAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=garbanzo+bean+amino+acid+composition&source=web&ots=pr6u6oEMbS&sig=y4FJnopv5hhLVyVzrXxIuW6EnjEhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Ugt1_4FxmgAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=garbanzo+bean+amino+acid+composition&source=web&ots=pr6u6oEMbS&sig=y4FJnopv5hhLVyVzrXxIuW6EnjEhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Ugt1_4FxmgAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=garbanzo+bean+amino+acid+composition&source=web&ots=pr6u6oEMbS&sig=y4FJnopv5hhLVyVzrXxIuW6EnjEhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Ugt1_4FxmgAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=garbanzo+bean+amino+acid+composition&source=web&ots=pr6u6oEMbS&sig=y4FJnopv5hhLVyVzrXxIuW6EnjE
  • R

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the R group determine the unique characteristics of a particular amino acid.

  • Amino acid have enantiomers:

    L-Alanine D-Alanine http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Enantiomers.html

    19 of the 20 amino acids have an asymmetric carbon surrounded by four different groups or atoms L & D forms

    http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Enantiomers.html
  • R groups are either Non-polar Polar Charged: acidic or basic

  • Essential amino acids

    Corn

    Beans and other legumes Lysine

    Tryptophan Isoleucine Leucine Phenylalanine Threonine (Histidine) Valine Methionine

    Complementary food combinations

  • Peptide bonds link the amino acids of the polypeptide

  • Protein structure www.pdb.org catalase (7cat) or lysozyme (1hsw) 1. Primary structure- unique sequence of its amino

    acids. 2. Secondary structure- alpha helix or a pleated

    sheet. 3. Tertiary structure, the three dimensional shape

    or conformation. 4. Quaternary structure arises when two or more

    polypeptides join to form a protein.

    http://www.pdb.org/
  • Chemical bonds that hold the tertiary structure of a protein forming among R groups:

    Relatively weak bonds - hydrogen bonds

    - ionic bonds - hydrophobic interactions - van der Waals interactions Strong bonds disulfide bridges covalent bonds that form

    between the sulfhydryl groups (SH) of cysteine monomers, stabilize the structure.

  • The folding of a protein: can occur spontaneously for some aided by other protein complexes,

    chaperonins

    Polypeptide Correctly folded protein

    An unfolded poly- peptide enters the cylinder from one end.

    Steps of Chaperonin Action:

    The cap comes off, and the properly folded protein is released.

    The cap attaches, causing the cylinder to change shape in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide.

  • The function of any protein is an emergent property resulting from its specific order of its amino acids.

  • Quarternary structure results from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits.

    Collagen is a fibrous protein of three polypeptides that are supercoiled like a rope.

    Hemoglobin is a globular protein with two copies of two kinds of polypeptides.

  • A slight change in primary structure can affect a proteins conformation and therefore its function.

    Sickle-Cell disease http://www.ygyh.org/

    http://www.ygyh.org/
  • Physical and chemical conditions affecting the bonds folding the structure of a protein can change its conformation (pH, salt concentration, temperature), or denature it.

    Functionally active Functionally inactive

  • Nucleic Acids - Informational Polymers

    1. Polymers of nucleotides.

    2. Direct the activities and functions within a single cell.

    2. Store and transmit hereditary information.

  • Two major types of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acid (RNA) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  • Nucleotide Structure

    Each nucleotide consists of three parts: a nitrogen base- A, T, G, C a pentose sugar- ribose (RNA) &

    deoxyribose (DNA) a phosphate group

  • The DNA double helix

    The sugar-phosphate backbones of the two polynucleotides are on the outside of the helix.

    nitrogenous bases connect the polynucleotide chains with hydrogen bonds.

  • Base-pairing rule of nucleotides in nucleic acids

    H-bonds form between A & T A & U G & C The two strands of DNA are complementary

    Macromolecules (Learning Objectives)Slide Number 2Slide Number 3Slide Number 4Slide Number 5Slide Number 6Summary of Carbohydrate FunctionsSlide Number 8Slide Number 9Slide Number 10Slide Number 11Slide Number 12Slide Number 13Slide Number 14Slide Number 15Slide Number 16Slide Number 17Slide Number 18Slide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Slide Number 22Slide Number 23Slide Number 24Slide Number 25Polyunsaturated fatty acidsSlide Number 27Slide Number 28Slide Number 29Slide Number 30Slide Number 31Slide Number 32Slide Number 33Slide Number 34Slide Number 35Slide Number 36Slide Number 37Protein structureSlide Number 39Slide Number 40Slide Number 41Slide Number 42Slide Number 43Slide Number 44Slide Number 45Slide Number 46Nucleic Acids - Informational PolymersSlide Number 48Nucleotide StructureSlide Number 50Slide Number 51Slide Number 52Slide Number 53Slide Number 54The DNA double helixSlide Number 56