Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Longman%20 Communication%203000
- 1.LONGMAN COMMUNICATION 3000 1 Longman Communication 3000The Longman Communication 3000 is a list ofThese frequency markers added to thethe 3000 most frequent words in both spokenheadwords in the dictionary give users accessand written English, based on statisticalto a wealth of information that can help theanalysis of the 390 million words containedselection of the appropriate word or phrase inin the Longman Corpus Network a group of a variety of situations. Not only are the wordscorpuses or databases of authentic English and meanings given descriptive labels, forlanguage. The Longman Communication 3000 example formal or informal, AmE (Americanrepresents the core of the English language & English) or BrE (British English), humorous,shows students of English which words are the old-fashioned, but now they have the addedmost important for them to learn and study information about relative frequency in spokenin order to communicate effectively in bothand written language.speech and writing. Take for example the verb book (in the meaningAnalysis of the Longman Corpus Networkof book a table at a restaurant). It is markedshows that these 3000 most frequent words as S2 one of the top 2000 words of spokenin spoken and written English account for English. Note that is has no marker for written86% of the language. This means that by English because according to corpus analysis,knowing this list of words, a learner of Englishit is not part of the top 3000 most frequentis in a position to understand 86% or more of words in written English. However, the entrywhat he or she reads. Of course, knowingalso indicates that a synonym for book is reservea word involves more than simply being able which is in the top 3000 most frequent wordsto recognise it and know a main meaning ofin written English. The conclusion to be drawnit. Many of the most frequent words havefrom this is that in speaking (for instance whena range of different meanings, a variety of phoning a hotel or restaurant),book is the mostdifferent grammatical patterns, and numerousappropriate verb to use when asking for a roomsignificant collocations. Nonetheless, a basicor table to be kept for you. In writing, however,understanding of the Longman Communicationit would be more appropriate to use reserve.3000 is a very powerful tool and will helpstudents develop good comprehension andThere are two distinct modes of English:communication skills in English. thoughtful, accurate and more formal, reflected mostly by written English; and spontaneous,This [frequency] information is gold dust for real-time, less formal language, typified bythe language learner. LDOCE shows in graphic spontaneous speech and some informal writing.and immediate form which words are reallyProfessor Geoffrey Leech,worth learning and knowing how to use. Emeritus Professor of English Language and Linguistics University of Lancaster Jeremy Harmer, ELT authorLearning a language can be exciting, butTo ensure that users have access to thealso sometimes difficult and frustrating appropriate information, the Longmanbecause there are so many things to learn Dictionary of Contemporary English marks alland it is difficult to know what to focus on.the words that are in the LongmanThe frequency markers that identify the Communication 3000 in red accompanied byLongman Communication 3000 help students special symbols: W1 , W2, and W3 for words that see clearly which words are frequent in written are in the top 1000, 2000 and 3000 most and spoken English, and enable them to focus frequent words in written English,and S1 , S2 more attention on mastering the meanings,and S3 for the top 1000, 2000 and 3000 mostgrammatical patterns and collocations offrequent words in spoken English. Nowadays,these words.many learners dictionaries include informationabout the most frequent words in English, butLongman dictionaries are the only ones to highlight the differences between spoken andwritten frequency.
2. 2 LONGMAN COMMUNICATION 3000 Longman Communication 3000a indefinite article, adult n S2, W2also adv S1, W1 appointment n S2, W2 determiner S1, W1adult adj W3alter v S3, W3appreciate v S2, W3 abandon v W3 advance n S2, W2alternative adj S2, W2approach n S2, W1 ability n S2, W1 advance v W3alternative n S2, W3approach v S2, W2 able adj S1, W1advanced adj W3 although conj S1, W1appropriate adj S2, W1 about prep S1, W1advantage n S2, W1altogether adv S2, W3 approval n S2, W3 about adv S1, W1 advert n S3 always adv S1, W1 approve v S3, W2 above adv, prep S2, W1 advertise v S3, W3amazing adj S2approximate adj S3, W3 above adj W3 advertisement n S3ambition n W3 architect n W3 abroad adv S2, W3advertising n W3ambulance n S3architecture n S3, W3 absence n S3, W2 advice n S2, W2 among prep S2, W1 area n S1, W1 absolute adj S2, W3advise v S2, W2 amount n S1, W1 argue v S2, W1 absolutely adv S1, W3adviser n S3, W3an indefinite article,argument n S1, W1 absorb v W3affair n S2, W1determiner S1, W1arise v S3, W2 abuse n S2, W3 affect v S2, W1 analyse v W3arm n S1, W1 academic adj W2afford v S1, W3 analysis n S3, W1 armed adj S3, W3 accept v S1, W1afraid adj S1, W2 analyst n W2army n S1, W1 acceptable adj S3, W3after prep, conj, adv S1, W1ancient adj W2around adv, prep S1, W1 access n S2, W1afternoon n S1, W2and conj S1, W1 arrange v S2, W2 accident n S2, W2afterwards adv S2, W3 anger n W3arrangement n S2, W2 accommodation n S2, W2 again adv S1, W1angle n S3, W3arrest v W3 accompany v W2 against prep S1, W1 angry adj S3, W3arrival n W3 according to prep S2, W1 age n S1, W1animal n S1, W1 arrive v S2, W1 account n S1, W1 aged adj W3 announce v S2, W1 art n S1, W1 account v S3, W2 agency n S3, W1 announcement n S3, W3 article n S2, W1 accurate adj S2, W3agent n S3, W2annoy v S3artificial adj S3 accuse v W3aggressive adj S3 annual adj S2, W2 artist n S3, W2 achieve v S2, W1 ago adv S1, W1another determiner, pronas conj S1, W1 achievement n S3, W2 agree v S1, W1 S1, W1 as prep, adv S1, W1 acid n W3agreement n S2, W1answer n S1, W1 ashamed adj S3 acknowledge v S3, W3 agriculture n W2answer v S1, W2 aside adv S3, W3 acquire v W2 ahead adv S1, W2anticipate v S3 ask v S1, W1 across adv, prep S1, W1aid n S2, W2anxiety n S3, W3asleep adj S2 act n S1, W1 aim n S2, W2anxious adj S3, W3aspect n S2, W1 act v S2, W1 aim v S2, W2any determiner, pron S1,assess v S2, W2 action n S1, W1air n S1, W1 W1 assessment n S3, W2 active adj S2, W2aircraft n S2, W2 any adv S2assignment n S2 activist n S3airline n S2, W3anybody pron S1, W3 assist v S3, W3 activity n S2, W1airport n S3, W3anyhow adv S3 assistance n S3, W2 actor n W3 alarm n S2anyone pron S1, W1assistant n S3 actual adj S1, W2album n S3, W3anything pron S1, W1associate v S3, W2 actually adv S1, W1alcohol n W3anyway adv S1, W2 association n S3, W1 ad n S3, W3alive adj S2, W3anywhere adv S1, W3 assume v S2, W1 adapt v W3 all determiner, apart adv, adj S2, W1 assumption n S2, W2 add v S1, W1 predeterminer, pron apartment n S2, W3assure v S2, W3 addition n S3, W1S1, W1apologize v S2at prep S1, W1 additional adj S3, W2all adv S1, W1apology n S3atmosphere n S3, W2 address n S2, W2 allow v S1, W1apparent adj W2 attach v S2, W2 address v S2, W2 allowance n S2, W3apparently adv S1, W2 attack n S2, W2 adequate adj S3, W3all right adj, adv, appeal n S2, W1 attack v S3, W2 adjust v W3interjection S1, W2 appeal v S3, W3 attempt n S2, W1 administration n S2, W2almost adv S1, W1 appear v S2, W1 attempt v S2, W2 administrative adj W3alone adj, adv S2, W1 appearance n W2 attend v S2, W2 admire v S3along adv S1, W1apple n S2, W3attention n S2, W1 admission n W3 along prep S1, W1 application n S1, W1attitude n S2, W1 admit v S2, W1 alongside adv, prep W3apply v S1, W1attorney n S2, W3 adopt v S3, W2 already adv S1, W1appoint v S2, W2attract v S2, W2 S1 = one of the 1000 most frequent words in Spoken English; W1 = one of the 1000 most frequent words in Written EnglishS2 = one of the 2000 most frequent words in Spoken English; W2 = one of the 2000 most frequent words in Written EnglishS3 = one of the 3000 most frequent words in Spoken English; W3 = one of the 3000 most frequent words in Written English 3. LONGMAN COMMUNICATION 30003attraction n W3beat n S3block v S3buddy n S3 attractive adj S2, W2beautiful adj S1, W2 bloke n S2budget n S1, W2 audience n S2, W2beauty n S3, W2blonde adj S3 bug n S3 aunt n S3, W3because conj S1, W1blood n S2, W1build v S1, W1 author n W2because prep S1, W1blow v S2, W3 builder n S3 authority n W1 become v S1, W1blow n S3, W3 building n S1, W1 automatic adj S3 bed n S1, W1 blue adj S1, W2 bump v S3 automatically adv S3, W3 bedroom n S1, W2 board n S1, W1bunch n S2 autumn n W3beef n S3boat n S1, W2 burn v S2, W3 available adj S1, W1 beer n S2, W3body n S1, W1 burn n S3 average adj S2, W2 before adv S1, W1boil v S3 burst v W3 average n S2 before conj S1, W1 boiler n S3 bury v W3 avoid v S2, W1 before prep S1, W1 boiling adj S3bus n S1, W2 awake adj S3 beforehand adv S3bomb n S3, W3 business n S1, W1 award n S3, W2 begin v S1, W1 bone n S2, W2 busy adj S1, W2 award v W3 beginning n S1, W2 bonus n S2but conj S1, W1 aware adj S1, W1 behalf n S3, W3book n S1, W1 but prep S2, W3 awareness n W3 behave v S3, W3book v S2 but adv S2, W3 away adv S1, W1behaviour n S2, W1 boom n S3 butcher n S3 awful adj S1 behind prep, adv S1, W1boot n S2, W3 butter n S2 awkward adj S3 being n S2, W3 border n S3, W2 button n S2belief n S3, W2bored adj S3buy v S1, W1 baby n S1, W1believe v S1, W1 boring adj S2 buyer n S3, W3 back adv S1, W1bell n S2, W3born v S1, W2 by adv S1, W1 back n S1, W1belong v S2, W2borrow v S2, W3 by prep S1, W1 back v S2, W3below adv, prep S2, W2 boss n S2, W3 bye interjection S1 back adj S2, W3belt n S2, W3both determiner,bye n S3 background n S2, W2bench n S2, W3 predeterminer, pron backwards adv S3 bend v S3, W3S1, W1cabinet n S2, W2 bacon n S3 beneath adv, prep W2 bother v S1, W3 cable n W3 bad adj S1, W1 benefit n S2, W1 bottle n S1, W2 cake n S2, W3 badly a