Lesson 1 - Functionalism and marxism
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SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES FOR HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE
SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES FOR HEALTH & SOCIAL CAREUnit 7Lesson 1Functionalism and Marxism
Learning ObjectivesTo describe the main concepts of the Functionalist perspective.
To describe the main concepts of the Marxist Theory
Agreement (also known as CONSENSUS) on what is right and wrong, is the basis of social life.Without consensus, society would collapse into chaos where no one would be able to agree on how people should conduct themselves.Consensus and having shared values enables us to co-operate with each other and this provides unityHaving consensus provides harmony.Do you agree?Consensus Theory
What is Functionalism?Can be best understood by likening society to the human body.Just as the human bodies organs work together to ensure efficient functioning, so do the different institutions in society.All have particular contributions to make to ensure smooth running of society. Work together and use methods of social control to deal with deviant members or groups.
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) had FUNCTIONALIST ideas. He thought you could understand how society FUNCTIONS by comparing it with the FUNCTIONNING of the human body.
Comte thought there were similarities between how all the organs in the body had specific individual FUNCTIONS but worked together to maintain health and life.
What are the FUNCTIONS of the following organs?The brain?The olfactory senses?The spine?The lungs?The intestines?
The FUNCTIONALIST idea is that if all the systems (organs) in society are FUNCTIONNING in harmony it will remain healthy.
http://youtu.be/MNeYnWL3D9AYoung man speak out
If one of the institutions starts to malfunction affects the whole of society.
Liken to the human body having a vitamin deficiency impact on other organs and functioning.
Example of the Riots what element of society could be malfunctioning to cause the riots? You tube clips.
Handouts body map. Label organs with function in the human body and then metaphorically function in society as per power point slide. To encourage learners to critically evaluate the metaphorical model by considering the impact if one organ stopped working or started to malfunction.8
How is society like a human body?
THE BODYEvery part of the body has a function- to keep it alive.The human body grows and develops.All of the parts of the body link into one big system.This helps the body fight disease and function properly.
SOCIETYEvery part of society helps to keep society going e.g. the family helps by bringing up the next generation.Societies gradually develop and change.All parts of society work together and depend on each other they are interdependent.Society has mechanisms to deal with problems such as the police and the legal system. This helps society to function properly.
Your turn!We have just examined how every part of society has a function a job to do.What do you think may be the function of the following? Work in pairs and note down some ideas on a piece of paper.The family
The legal system
The functions of the family
George Murdock (1949) found the family has 4 main functions;The sexual function for the expression of sexuality in an approved context.The reproductive function providing stability for the rearing of children.Socialisation the responsibility for teaching children the acceptable ways of behaving in society.The economic function food, shelter and income.
The Sick RoleTalcott Parsons (1902-1979) believed society was made up of inter related institutions which contributed to the smooth running of society.
The main function of each is to socialise individuals and ensure they understand the values and behaviours expected in society.
A way of explaining the particular rights and responsibilities of those who are ill. Since those who are diagnosed with a medical condition cannot always fulfill the same duties that a person in good health can, society adapts to this situation and allows for a reasonable amount of deviation from behaviour that would be viewed as typical of a well person. What do you think may be the rights and responsibilities of an ill person?
The sick role has both rights and responsibilities. Rights Patients have the right to some form of exemption from normal social activities e.g. time off work.They are freed from personal responsibility for the illness its not their fault. They have a right to be taken care of. By who?ResponsibilitiesThey must see being ill as undesirable and strive to get better and resume their normal social roles. Is this always true?They must seek professional help and co-operate with the treatment. Is this always true?This role is one way of dealing with ill health in society, as it ensures the smooth functioning of society.
This is Karl MARX.
Remember his name: hes one of the most important thinkers of modern(ish) times.
To put it short, this is what he thought:
1. Society is in a state of CONFLICT between the rich and the poor.5. Marx called this arrangement the RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION and argued it EXPLOITED the SUBJECT CLASS (or the PROLETARIAT). 3. CAPITALISM is an economic system where a small minority of society own the FORCES OF PRODUCTION (factories & information). 4. This minority is called the RULING CLASS (or the BOURGEOSIE) they employ people to work for them to produce goods that they sell.2. Society uses a system called CAPITALISM to keep the rich - rich and the poor poor.
Over to you Are there equal opportunities for all? Or do some people have advantages over others?If you think there are inequalities in society, what could be done to reduce them?Discuss in groups on your table. Be ready to feedback to the rest of the class.
Marxs insight..Its all about the money
And social class.
Discuss production of the basic needs of peoples existence.In all societies, the provision and social organisation of such things is a fundamental social necessity and it involves devising some means whereby such things are:Produced by a populationDistributed to peopleExchanged in some way30
Some people had it
They are called the capitalists bourgeoisie (upper or ruling class)These people (a minority) who owned the means of production.
Some people didnt
They were called the workers - proletariat(lower or working class)These people (the majority) did not own the means of production.
Capitalists and workers are thrown togetherthey dont get on too well..
Marx argued that all societies involved conflict that was based upon fundamental inequalities and different economical and political interests.Marxism viewpoints basically argue that one group in society the upper/middle class (bourgeoisie) are more powerful. This power is economic (based on wealth).To stay in power the bourgeoisie need to control and exploit the working class (proletariat).
Capitalists want the maximum profit and the lowest costs
Workers want the highest wage for the least work
Although wealth is created by the proletariat (the working class), it is taken away by the bourgeoisie in the form of profits.
Capitalists compete with each other the successful capitalists get richer and richer.
And the failed capitalists fall down into the working class
Marx said that eventually the workers will rise up in revolution against the capitalist class and a new communist society will be created.
The relationship between a boss and a worker is an exploitative one. The worker does what the boss tells them.Everything is for the benefit of the boss (or RULING CLASS).Nothing is for the benefit of the worker (the SUBJECT CLASS).We call this miserable relationship between the RULING CLASS and the SUBJECT CLASS, the RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION. The RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION are about EXPLOITATION and ALIENATION.
It means that people in this CAPITALIST class structure, feel tied to their jobs, tied to their possessions and feel that they just live to work. They lose their sense of humanity.
Because making PROFIT basically means ripping people off, the CAPITALISTS or, business people, have to come up with ways to cover up the unfairness. They do it using something called IDEOLOGY.
IDEOLOGY is the way in which people are told to think by those in power.
Because the RULING CLASS are in power, they use IDEOLOGY to make up ways to convince the SUBJECT CLASS that CAPITALISM is normal, fair and right, even though it blatantly isnt.
THIS IS REALLY STUPID.
WHY DO WE LET THIS HAPPEN?
We dont LET IT HAPPEN. CAPITALIST IDEOLOGY is used by the RULING CLASS to convince us that we need loads of stuff .. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VH_DkBI9Qsk We Want Your Soul.
A bloke called Althusser came up with the idea of IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUS. This is APPARATUS or equipmentUsed by the STATE or RULING CLASS or GOVERNMENTTo push their CAPITALIST norms and values on the people.
IF YOU HAVE ON E OF THESE IN YOUR HOME, BEWARE IT IS BEING USED BY CAPITALISTS TO HYPNOTISE YOU INTO BELIEVING THAT ITS NORMAL TO HAVE A BIG BUNCH OF PEOPLE THAT ARE KEPT POOR BY THE RICH.
Why cant we reject these messages?
Marx argued that there was serious CLASS CONFLICT in CAPITALIST society because of this exploitation.
He argued that