LEAD IN YOUR LIPSTICK:

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LEAD IN YOUR LIPSTICK:. A Journal appraisal. introduction. Lead used as a coloring elements basically taken up by ingestion uptake of food (65%) water (20%) air (15%). introduction. significant level of lead in the blood is about 10 microgram/dL - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of LEAD IN YOUR LIPSTICK:

  • LEAD IN YOUR LIPSTICK:A JOURNAL APPRAISAL

  • INTRODUCTIONLeadused as a coloring elementsbasically taken up by ingestionuptake of food (65%)water(20%)air (15%)

  • INTRODUCTIONsignificant level of lead in the blood is about 10 microgram/dL~25 micrograms/dL, high possibility of damage to kidneys and the nervous systemSymptoms may include :pain, numbness or tingling of the extremities, muscular weakness, headache, abdominal pain, memory loss, miscarriage or premature birth in pregnant women, and fatigue

  • IN THE NEWS: LEAD CONTAMINATIONStarted 3 years agoMattel (toy company) recalled more than 18 million products after high lead content was found in their products in (August 2007)In October 2007, Campaign for Safe Cosmetics released a report which revealed trace amounts of lead among commercially-available lipstick brandslead levels exceeding USFDAs upper limit for candy, 0.1ppm

  • THE RESEARCH QUESTIONIs there a significant amount of lead among commercially available lipstick brands that can pose health risks?

  • OBJECTIVESTo identify the allowable levels of lead according to drug authorities such as FDATo identify commercial brands of lipstick with significant lead contentTo compare the relative lead content in lipsticks with leadTo determine if the use of the said products has already caused hazard to human health

  • REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREEXAMINING THE SOURCES

  • LEAD IN YOUR LIPSTICKSUMMARY OF RRL

  • ALLOWABLE LEVELS OF LEAD IN COSMETICSCurrently no lead content limit set by FDACampaign for Safe Cosmetics, 2007FDA limit of lead in candy: 0.01 PPM1/3 of lipsticks in the market: 0.03-0.65 PPMFDA study in 2009Lipsticks in the market: 0.09-3.06 PPMLipsticks should not be compared to candies because they are not ingested.

  • ALLOWABLE LEVELS OF LEAD IN COSMETICSFDA has set a lead content limit as an impurity in the color additives used in cosmetics10-20 PPM: safe and acceptableBFAD statementMaximal allowable lead limit in cosmetics: 20 PPMBased on consolidation of data from other ASEAN countries

  • COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL BRANDS OF LIPSTICKS WITH SIGNIFICANT LEAD CONTENTFDA study in 200920 lipsticks of varying brandsHighest: Cover Girl brand, 3.06 PPMLowest: Avon brand, 0.09 PPMAverage level: 1.07 PPM

  • BRAND NAMEPARENT COMPANYLIPSTICK LINE AND SHADEALOT NUMBERSBLEAD (PB)C (PPM)DCOVER GIRLPROCTER & GAMBLEINCREDIFUL LIPCOLOR 964 MAXIMUM RED7241S13.065188S13.05REVLONREVLON, INC.COLORSTAY LIPCOLOR 345 RED VELVETCOMPOSITEE2.91F072982.38COVER GIRLPROCTER & GAMBLEQUEEN COLLECTION Q580 RUBY REMIX71362.24BODY SHOPL'OREALLIP COLOUR 22 GARNETC274EA1.79COVER GIRLPROCTER & GAMBLECONTINUOUS COLOR 435 CHERRY BRANDY72281.76L'OREALL'OREALCOLOUR RICHE 315 TRUE REDFD2611.47REVLONREVLON, INC.SUPER LUSTROUS 660 BED OF ROSES072081508531.37MAYBELLINEL'OREALMOISTURE EXTREME F315 COCOA PLUMWD28911.21REVLONREVLON, INC.SUPER LUSTROUS 725 LOVE THAT RED072841508591.04

  • L'OREALL'OREALCOLOUR RICHE 752 CLASSIC WINEFD0640.79FD2340.67CLINIQUEESTEE LAUDER COMPANIES INC.LONG LAST FJ MERLOTAA70.55CLINIQUEESTEE LAUDER COMPANIES INC.LONG LAST F9 PAPRIKAA870.48ESTEE LAUDERESTEE LAUDER COMPANIES INC.PURE COLOR 1A3 MARASCHINOB550.43BURT'S BEESCLOROX COMPANYLIP SHIMMER MERLOTG18407010.33MAYBELLINEL'OREALMOISTURE EXTREME E215 MIDNIGHT REDWD30410.23PEACEKEEPERPEACEKEEPERPAINT ME COMPASSIONATEGH0.17DIORLVMHREPLENISHING LIPCOLOR 752 RED PREMIERE7A010.15DIORLVMHADDICT ULTRA-SHINE 750 SHINIEST SEXINESS7D010.12MACESTEE LAUDER COMPANIES INC.MATTE LIPSTICK VIVA GLAM IA670.10AVONAVONULTRA COLOR RICH U250 CHERRY JUBILEEH0.09AVERAGE1.07

  • COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL BRANDS OF LIPSTICKS WITH SIGNIFICANT LEAD CONTENTStudy by Al-Saleh et al, 200948 lipsticks from 26 brandsLead content range: 0.27-3760 PPMThere were 3 outliers in the dataWithout outliers: 0.27-36.90 PPMOnly 2 brands above the 20 PPM limitAll 5 lipsticks that exceeded the limit: from ChinaLipsticks with shimmers: 0.33-3760 PPMAll exceeded the 0.1 PPM limit in candy

  • EFFECT OF COSMETICS WITH LEAD TO HUMAN HEALTHInter-organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals, 1998Allowable blood levels of lead:
  • Nervous system: overt clinical encephalopathy100-120 g/dl Kidney: atrophy and interstitial nephritis40-100Gastrointestinal: colic40-60Formation of blood cells: anemia50Reporudctive system: hypospermia, testicular atrophy40-50Nervous system: IQ/learning disruption, sensory system deficits40Heart and Blood Vessels: Hypertension

  • EFFECT OF COSMETICS WITH LEAD TO HUMAN HEALTHInter-organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals, 1998There is no exposure level below which lead appears to be safeChildren are more susceptibleBlood lead levels as low as 10 g/dl can hamper blood cell formation and affect ones IQ or cause some form of learning disruptionHigher levels may cause colic, encephalopathy, renal atrophy, and interstitial nephritis

  • EFFECT OF COSMETICS WITH LEAD TO HUMAN HEALTHAmerican Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2006Lead exposure to children: paint, water, soilCenter for Disease ControlAbout 6 percent of children aged 1-2 years old have toxic blood lead levels

  • EFFECT OF COSMETICS WITH LEAD TO HUMAN HEALTHLead exposure during pregnancyLead in the body are mainly stored in the boneThese stores may be mobilized due to hormonal effects in pregnancyLead readily crosses the placental barrier and may affect the fetusPregnant women may not manifest symptoms but their future children could be affected via prenatal exposure

  • EFFECT OF COSMETICS WITH LEAD TO HUMAN HEALTHCurrently FDA assessment of lipsticks testedLead content levels are safe, not a concernBased on the premise that lipstick is for topical use onlyMajority are below the recommended limit given by public health officials, 10 PPM

  • EFFECT OF COSMETICS WITH LEAD TO HUMAN HEALTHStudy by Al-Ashban et al, 2002Blood analyses of regular kohl users revealed a high lead concentration and relatively low hemoglobin levelsKohl was also estimated to have lead levels as high as 52.3%

  • EFFECT OF COSMETICS WITH LEAD TO HUMAN HEALTHStudy by Al-Ashban et al, 2002Blood lead levelsControl group mean value: 0.9g/dl 0.43Kohl users group mean value: 17.65g/dl 2.29Hemoglobin levelsControl group mean value: 14.02g/dl 0.21Kohl users group mean value: 12.22g/dl 0.37The study by Al-Saleh et al (1999) supports the findings made by Al-Ashban et al (2002).

  • DISCUSSION

  • OBJECTIVE 1: TO IDENTIFY THE ALLOWABLE LEVELS OF LEAD ACCORDING TO DRUG AUTHORITIES SUCH AS FDA

    USFDA no limit for lead as a contaminant in cosmetics as of nowImpurities in color additives in cosmetics 20ppm

    Campaign for Safe CosmeticsSet limit to 0.1ppm based on permissible limit of lead in candies

    BFAD (FDA Philippines)Issued a circular (No. 2006-012) for a maximum allowable limit of lead in cosmetics to 20ppm

  • OBJECTIVES 2 AND 3: TO IDENTIFY COMMERCIAL BRANDS OF LIPSTICK WITH SIGNIFICANT LEAD CONTENT; TO COMPARE THE RELATIVE LEAD CONTENT IN LIPSTICKS WITH LEAD

    Hepp, Mindak and Cheng (2009)20 lipsticks of varying brands found to have lead levels 0.09-3.06ppmAmong tested:Covergirl: highest level (3.06ppm)Avon: lowest level (0.09ppm)Average lead level of all lipsticks: 1.07ppm

  • OBJECTIVES 2 AND 3: TO IDENTIFY COMMERCIAL BRANDS OF LIPSTICK WITH SIGNIFICANT LEAD CONTENT; TO COMPARE THE RELATIVE LEAD CONTENT IN LIPSTICKS WITH LEAD

    Al Saleh et al. (2009)72 lipstick samples turned positive for lead, with levels ranging from 0.27-3760 ppmExclusion of three outliers dropped upper value from 3760 to 36.90Since no valid reasons to exclude outliers, four brands are recognized as having levels beyond 20ppmAll samples with lead content exceeding 20ppm obtained from China

  • OBJECTIVE 4: TO DETERMINE IF THE USE OF THE SAID PRODUCTS HAS ALREADY CAUSED HAZARD TO HUMAN HEALTH

    Lead in lipsticks might not cause an immediate health problemHowever, it can accumulate due to repeated application and may result in cumulative toxicityDependent on the frequency of application which varies from one woman to anotherThe consequences of these products can only be properly verified by conducting population risk assessment exposure study

  • FDA has assessed that the lead available in the lipsticks they have tested are safe and should not be a cause for concernlipstick is for topical use only and that majority of them are below the recommended limit given by public health officials

    OBJECTIVE 4: TO DETERMINE IF THE USE OF THE SAID PRODUCTS HAS ALREADY CAUSED HAZARD TO HUMAN HEALTH

  • CONCLUSIONTHE VERDICT

  • CONCLUSIONS: AUTHORS PERSPECTIVEAWARENESS GROUPSHigh lead contentBased on 0.01 PPM for candiesStricter regulations requiredCite various health risks and hazardsCOSMETIC INDUSTRY AND US FDANo industry standard10-20 PPM for dye contaminantsStudy showed various lead content within acceptable limitsLead content negligible to healthStress

  • CONCLUSION: GROUPS VIEWLead-containing products can indeed significantly increase lead within the human bodyBest interest of health:Lead exposure among cosmetic users be minimizedgood manufacturing practice and proper quality control;imposition of lower lead level thresholds, or maintaining the current standard tolerance by regulatory agencies such as the FDA and BFAD; not allowing vulnerable populations access to such products.

  • REFERENCESCSC, the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics (2007). A Poison Kiss: The Problem of Lead in Lipsticks. Available from: Hepp, N.M., Mindak, W.R., and Cheng, J. (2009). Determination of total lead in lipstick: Development and validation of a microwav