Landing Gear Shock Absorber Modeling

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    ByKHAZI MUSHTAQ MOHAMMED SIDDIQUI

      Under

     

    LANDING GEAR SHOCK ABSOBER MODELINGBY

    USING "AMESim" SOFTWARE

    VIJAYA VITTALA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

    Hennu! B#$u %&! BENGALURU'((

    Internal guideD) KRISHNA LOK

    SINGHSr. Scientist,

    Structural Division,N.A.L, old airpo

    rt road,Bengaluru.

    Internal guideD) KRISHNAMURTHY)N 

    Associate Professor,Dept of Mechanical ngg,

    !!I" college,Bengaluru.

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    #ontents

    A$out organi%ation

    A$out Structural "echnologies Depart&ent 'S""D(

     "as)s prefor&ed.

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    A*%u+ %#ni,+i%n

    *istory

     "he story of #SI+NAL $egan on -une , /0/, 1hen theNational Aeronautical +esearch La$oratory 'NA+L( 1as set up inDelhi, 1ith Dr.P Nila)antan as its 2rst Director. Barely nine&onths later, in March /34, it &ade its hu&$le $eginning $ysetting up its o5ce in the sta$les of the Mysore Mahara6a7sPalace on the -aya&ahal +oad and the Palace +oad as NationalAeronautical La$oratory.

    Later it 1as rena&ed as National Aerospace La$oratories 'NAL(in April //8 to re9ect its gro1ing involve&ent in the Indianspace progra&.

     #SI+NAL today is spread across t1o ca&puses, 2ve )ilo&etersapart. ach ca&pus has an area of a$out 44 acres. Both theseca&puses are interconnected 1ith highspeed co&puternet1or)s for e:change of scholarly co&&unication. Physicalconnectivity $et1een the

    ca&puses is operated via shuttle $us operations.

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    National Aerospace La$oratories 'NAL(, a constituentof the #ouncil of Scienti2c and Industrial +esearch'#SI+(, India, is the only civilian aerospace +;Dla$oratory in India. #SI+NAL is a hightech oriented

    institution focusing on advanced topics in aerospaceand related disciplines and has a &andate todevelop aerospace technologies 1ith strong sciencecontent, design and $uild s&all and &ediu&si%ecivil aircraft and support all national aerospaceprogra&s.

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    O#ni,+i%n C-+

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    Mi..i%n.

    Develop&ent of national strengths in aerospacesciences and technologies

    Advanced technology solutions to national

    aerospace progra&s #ivil aeronautics develop&ent '//

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    R/D A0+i1i+ie.

     "he research and develop&ent activities of #SI+ includes

    various 2elds such as Aerospace ngineering.

    Structural ngineering.

    =cean Sciences.

    Life Sciences.

    Metallurgy.

    #he&icals.

    Mining.

    >ood.

    Petroleu&. #ivil aircraft design ; develop&ent

    MA! design ; develop&ent

    #o&putational 9uid dyna&ics

    :peri&ental aerodyna&ics

     •>light &echanics ; controls• "ur$o &achinery andco&$ustion•Structural design, analysis andtesting•Metrological &odeling•Parallel processing co&puters•Meteorological &odeling•?ind energy

    •#o&posites•Structural dyna&ics ; integrity•Aerospace &aterials•Aerospace electronics andsyste&s

    •lectro&agnetic

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    Mi$e.+%ne. HANSA Ai02+

     "he &aiden 9ight of #[email protected] light trainer

    aircraft, no1 called *ANSA, too) place on Nove&$er //8. "he aircraft is an a$initiot1oseat, all co&posite aircraft

    SARAS

    SA+AS had its &aiden 9ight on / May 44

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    Mi$e.+%ne. NM3

    NM0 is the [email protected] 2rst pu$licprivate

    partnership 'PPP( for develop&ent of civiltransport aircraft in colla$oration 1ith MFsMahindra Aerospace Pvt Ltd 'MAPL(. =nthe st of Septe&$er 4, a &ilestone

    event for [email protected] 2rst pu$licprivatepartnership in aircraft develop&ent, and a$old drea& $eca&e realityG #NM0designed ; developed 6ointly $y #SI+NAL; Mahindra Aerospace successfullyundertoo) its 2rst 9ight in Australia.

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    A0-ie1emen+.

    Developed 2rst Indian tractor Swaraj  in /3. >irst to introduce DNA 2ngerprinting in India.

    Designed India7s 2rst ever parallel processingco&puter >losolver.

    Design of < seater plane 7SA+AS7.  "opped list of holders of U.S. patents.

    In 44/, co&pleted the seHuencing of the *u&aneno&e.

    In 4, successfully tested India7s st indigenouscivilian aircraft, NAL NM0 &ade in association 1ithNational Aerospace La$oratories and MahindraAerospace.

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    #SI+NAL #=LLAB=+A"I=N

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    Humn Re.%u0eIn&i0+%.

    Fi i $ 4 2

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    Finn0i$ 4e2%mn0eIn&i0+%.

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    A*%u+ STTD

    Structural "echnologies Division 'S""D( isone of the largest divisions of NAL, 1ithpri&ary +esearch ; "echnology lead foraerospace structures in India. "he Division

    has e:pertise in aero space structuraldesign, analysis, testing, Huali2cation,certi2cation and +esearch and "echnologydevelop&ent in aerospace structures and

    contri$uted to all aeronautics and spaceprogra&s of India. Also initiated a supporton Integrated !ehicle *ealth Manage&ent'I!*M( activities.

    "h di i i i i d

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     "he division is organi%ed asfollo1sE

    . #o&putational Mechanics and Si&ulation

    roup '#MS(. Dyna&ics and Adaptive Structures roup

    'DAS(8. >atigue and Structural Integrity roup

    '>SI(M( panels

    8. Si&ulation Based +elia$ility Analysis $ased failure analysis of nanoco&posites

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    S%2+5e

    . MS#FMD NAS"+AN.. MS#F>A"IU.8. A>+=?.

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    F0i$i+ie.

    round !i$ration "esting

    Juali2cation "esting

    Lo1 freHuency vi$ration testing

    >ullscale >atigue "est

    ND" Laser !i$ro&eter, ddy current, i&agingetc.

    >ull scale vertical drop to1er

    Bird Stri)e

    Sled "est

    Lo1 velocity i&pact test

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    C%$$*%+i%n.

    Indian Air >orce, Indian Navy

    Defense +esearch and Develop&ent=rgani%ation Indian

    Space research =rgani%ation

    Indian +ail1aysIndian IndustryE Aerospace, Mechanical etc.

    International Aerospace #o&panies

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    TASKS 4REFORMED

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    Study on type of landing gear shoc) a$sor$ers

     "he shoc) a$sor$er is the one ite& that is co&&on toall current landing gears. So&e do not have tires,1heels, $ra)es, antis)id devices, retraction syste&s, or

    steering syste&s, $ut all of the& have so&e for& ofshoc) a$sor$er.

     "he $asic function of the shoc) a$sor$er, or shoc)

    strut as it is often called, is to a$sor$ the )ineticenergy during landing and ta:iing to the e:tent thataccelerations i&posed upon the airfra&e are reducedto a tolera$le level.

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    T67e.

    . Steel #oil Springs and +ing Springs. Steel Leaf Spring

    8. +u$$er Springs

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    O$e%'7neum+i0 .-%08 *.%*e

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    E90ien06 0u1e

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    S+u&6 %n e$emen+6 .-%08 *.%*ee7e.en++i%n %2 AMESim .%2+5e &em% m%&e$)

    W-+ i. AMESim:AMSi& standsfor Advanced Modeling Environ&ent for

    perfor&ing Simulations ofengineering syste&s. It is$ased on an intuitive graphicalinterface in 1hich the syste&

    is displayed throughout thesi&ulation process.

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    le&entary &odel of landing gear shoc) a$sor$er

    Title Unit  Default

    values

     Accumulator parameters  

    Gas pressure bar 15

    Parameters of flowcontrol01  

    Equivalent orifice diameter mm 5

    Maximum flow coefficient 0.

    !"amber parameters

    #as pressure at port 1 bar 15

    Piston parameter   

    piston diameter mm $5

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative

    displacementmm 110

    Parameters of mass&envelop

    'elocit( at port one m)s 1

    'elocit( at port two m)s 1

    mass of piston *m1+ ,# 10

    mass of envelope *m-+ ,# 50

    Parameters of /prin# #ap  

    #ap or clearance mm -00

    contact stiffness )m -50000

    contact dampin# )*m)s+ 100

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    Displace&ent

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    round force

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    5ciency

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    Matla$O "a$le for&atE D

    O ta$leQunit R N

    O a:isQunit R null

    Oco&pute area under the curve

    du&RTG

    LodiRTG

    :vRlodi'E,(G

    yvRlodi'E,(Gplot':v,yv(G

    areaQUnderQtheQcurve R trap%':v,yv(

    Oe5ciency R 'Actual 1ave oFp(F'sHuare 1ave oFp( 44

    &a:Qdisplace&ent R &a:':v(&a:Qload R &a:'yv(

    &a:Qarea R &a:Qdisplace&ent&a:Qload

    eC R 'areaQUnderQtheQcurveF&a:Qarea(44

    :la$el'7Displace&ent, &&7,7>ontsi%e7,(

    yla$el'7Load, )N7,7>ontsi%e7,(

    Oinsert graphdata

    M+$* Re.u$+

    areaQUnderQtheQcurve R84.&a:Qdisplace&ent R4.4 &&a:Qload R./eV448 N&a:Qarea R 38./e5ciency R

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    S+u&6 %n +5% 0-m*e .-%08 *.%*ee7e.en++i%n %2 AMESim .%2+5e &em%m%&e$)

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    Title Unit Default values

    Pneumatic parameters  

    Gas pressure bar 1.01

    Main parameters  

    Equivalent orifice diameter mm 0

    Maximum flow coefficient 0.

    Meterin# pin and 2ecoil 3rifice parameters

    Equivalent orifice diameter mm 4

    Maximum flow coefficient 0.

     All Movin# !"ambers parameters

    #as pressure at port 1 bar 1.01

    3il c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm 00

    /econdar( c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm 1$

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm 1000

    2ecoil orifice c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm -00

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm 0.1

     All 6ixed c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm $

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm 0

    Parameters of mass&envelop

    'elocit( at port one m)s .

    'elocit( at port two m)s .

    mass of piston *m1+ ,# 1

    mass of envelope *m-+ ,# 507000

    Parameters of /prin# #ap  

    #ap or clearance mm 0

    contact stiffness )m 1e

    contact dampin# )*m)s+ 1e$

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    Displace&ent

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    =il te&perature in cha&$ers

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    Detailed &odel

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    Title Unit Default values

    Pneumatic parameters  

    Gas pressure bar 15

    Main parameters  

    Equivalent orifice diameter mm 5

    Maximum flow coefficient 0.

    Meterin# pin and 2ecoil 3rifice parameters

    Equivalent orifice diameter mm 4

    Maximum flow coefficient 0.

     All Movin# !"ambers parameters

    #as pressure at port 1 bar 15

    3il c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm $5

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm 110

    /econdar( c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm 1

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm -0

    2ecoil orifice c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm -

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm 0.1

     All 6ixed c"amber Piston parameters

    piston diameter mm 85

    c"amber len#t" at %ero relative displacement mm 0

    Parameters of mass&envelop

    'elocit( at port one m)s 1

    'elocit( at port two m)s 1

    mass of piston *m1+ ,# 10

    mass of envelope *m-+ ,# 50

    Parameters of /prin# #ap  

    #ap or clearance mm 0

    contact stiffness )m -50000

    contact dampin# )*m)s+ 100

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    Displace&ent

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    round force

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    5ciency

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    Matla$O "a$le for&atE D

    O ta$leQunit R N

    O a:isQunit R null

    Oco&pute area under the curve

    du&RTG

    LodiRTG

    :vRlodi'E,(G

    yvRlodi'E,(Gplot':v,yv(G

    areaQUnderQtheQcurve R trap%':v,yv(

    Oe5ciency R 'Actual 1ave oFp(F'sHuare 1ave oFp( 44

    &a:Qdisplace&ent R &a:':v(

    &a:Qload R &a:'yv(

    &a:Qarea R &a:Qdisplace&ent&a:Qload

    eC R 'areaQUnderQtheQcurveF&a:Qarea(44

    :la$el'7Displace&ent, &&7,7>ontsi%e7,(

    yla$el'7Load, )N7,7>ontsi%e7,(

    Oinsert graphdata

    M+$* e.u$+areaQUnderQtheQcurve R.

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    Displace&ent

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    round force

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    5ciency

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    Matla$O "a$le for&atE D

    O ta$leQunit R N

    O a:isQunit R null

    Oco&pute area under the curve

    du&RTG

    LodiRTG

    :vRlodi'E,(G

    yvRlodi'E,(Gplot':v,yv(G

    areaQUnderQtheQcurve R trap%':v,yv(

    Oe5ciency R 'Actual 1ave oFp(F'sHuare 1ave oFp( 44

    &a:Qdisplace&ent R &a:':v(

    &a:Qload R &a:'yv(

    &a:Qarea R &a:Qdisplace&ent&a:Qload

    eC R 'areaQUnderQtheQcurveF&a:Qarea(44

    :la$el'7Displace&ent, &&7,7>ontsi%e7,(

    yla$el'7Load, )N7,7>ontsi%e7,(

    Oinsert graphdata

    M+$* e.u$+areaQUnderQtheQcurve R

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    Re2een0e. A+MS"+=N*L=U!+ B., X#ontrol of Machines 1ith

    >rictionX, Nor1ell, MassachussetsE Ylu1er Acade&ic

    Pu$lishers, //. YA+N=PP D., Xco&puter si&ulation of stic) slip friction in

    &echanical dyna&ic syste&sX, "ransactions ASM, -ournal of Dyna&ic Syste&s, Measure&ent and #ontrol,vol. 4, March /0, pp. 4448.

    Aircraft Landing ear Design Principles and PracticesNor&an S. #urrey

     -ohn A. Dean, ZLange7s *and$oo) of #he&istry[. ric)er