L09 LectureSlides 2015-Spring CHY

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Transcript of L09 LectureSlides 2015-Spring CHY

  • 1AerodynamicsandFlow L9

    Chungen Yin

    [email protected]; 30622577

    Spring 2015

    Turbulent Reacting Multiphase Flows (5 lectures)

    2

    L9:TurbulentNonreactingMultiphaseFlows Turbulent particle dispersion Turbulence modulation Particle-wall interaction

    2

  • 3Turbulentparticledispersion(1)

    3

    Small particle A particle is referred to as small, if its diameter is smaller than the Kolmogorov

    length scale;

    as medium, if its diameter is between the Kolmogorov scale and the integral scale;

    In dilute, particle-laden flows of interest, the majority of particles are small, based on this definition.

    )(21 vuvuAC

    dtvdm pfDp

    vtdxd

    For small, heavy particles/droplets in dilute two-phase flow,

    The particle trajectory & velocity can be determined at each time, provided the knowledge of the flow field at that moment

    4

    Turbulentparticledispersion(2)

    4

    Number density

    Position

    The interaction between turbulent eddies and immersed small particles is referred to as turbulent particle dispersion.

    Observation: dispersive effect on particles released from the same location; Key parameters: (1) particle size, with respect to eddy size; (2) fluid and

    particle properties, e.g., fluid viscosity & density and particle density; (3) flow properties, e.g., distribution of turbulent kinetic energy.

    inertia dominated viscosity dominated

  • 5Stochastictracking(1). Randomvel.fluctuation

    5

    A Gaussian distributed random velocity fluctuation is used: also known as discrete random walk (DRW) model or eddy lifetime model.

    )(21 vuvuAC

    dtvdm pfDp

    uUu

    In DRW model, each eddy is characterized by

    A Gaussian distributed random velocity fluctuation, u, v, w; A time scale

    Random velocity fluctuations for k- and k-3/2''' kwvu : normally distributed random number

    6

    Stochastictracking(2).Interactiontime

    6

    ),(minninteractio ce tt

    A time scale, accounting for the Characteristic eddy lifetime and Crossing trajectory effect, is used as the integral time.

    The time for particle to cross an eddy: estimated from eddy size/drift velocity

    For small particle (moving with fluidzero drift velocity): the integral time becomes fluid Lagrangian integral time

    kAfL

    eL

    fLe 2 )ln(rfLe orr : a uniform random number [0, 1]

    18,with1ln

    23/2pp

    vev

    evc

    dkBLvu

    Lt

  • 7Stochastictracking(3)

    7

    In literature, a range of values have been suggested for A and B:

    23ntconstraithewith41.0135.0

    BAA

    For assumptions of isotropic turbulence and that the characteristic size of the eddy is the Kolmogorov scale, the constants A and B can be approximated by

    4/34/3 ; 23

    CBCA )09.0( C

    Over the interaction time, , the particle is assumed to interact with the fluid phase eddy with a given instantaneous velocity. When

    this time is reached, a NEW value of will be applied to generate

    new random velocity fluctuations ( new instantaneous velocity).

    ninteractiot

    DRW model constants (A & B)

    (FLUENT: A=0.15 by default, 0.3 recommended for RSM)

    8

    Particlecloudtracking(1)

    8

    Number density

    Position

    Track the statistical evolution of a cloud of particles about a mean

    trajectory: the concentration of particles about a mean trajectory is

    represented by a Gaussian PDF whose variance is based on the degree

    of particle dispersion due to turbulent fluctuations.

  • 9Particlecloudtracking(2)

    9

    The PDF used is derived from Taylors analysis:

    )(,)(),,,( ttxftzyxP ii

    Its possible to define a normalized Lagranian autocorrelation function:

    )(

    )()(),(

    22

    2121

    tu

    tututtR

    i

    iipL

    This can be assumed to exhibit an exponential decay.

    10

    Example

    10

    Instantaneous particle dispersion from simulation of plane wake

    8

    4

    0

    -4

    -88

    4

    0

    -4

    -80 4 8 12 16 20 0 4 8 12 16 20

    Particle Stokes number: St=0.01

    St=1

    St=10 St=100

  • 11

    Example(cont.)

    11

    1. Large-scale vortex structures are important controlling mechanisms for

    the particle dispersion process.

    2. Particle dispersion levels tend to maximize at intermediate values of

    Stokes numbers, 0(1)0(10).

    3. Particles of intermediate-St tend to concentrate preferentially near the

    outer boundaries of large-scale vortex structures.

    12

    Turbulentmodulation:Whatisit

    12

    Turbulence properties: characterized by, such as, turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds stresses, spectra, or two-point correlations.

    Turbulence modulation: one or more of the statistical properties of the carrier phase turbulence is changed by the presence of particles.

    Most frequently, refers to changes in the carrier-phase turbulent kinetic energy (either enhanced or decayed).

    However, TKE changes do not fully describe the changes to the turbulence.

  • 13

    Turbulentmodulation:Whyisitimportant

    13

    Attenuation of TKE as a function of mass loading ratio on the center-plane of fully developed channel flow for glass beads (150 m) and copper beads (70 m).

    p 5.510-5; a mean inter-particle distance of 20dp. Dilute flowSuch a reduction (by a factor >7) in TKE may completely change the characters of the turbulence and the behavior of a reactor.

    14

    Turbulencemodulation:Keyparameters

    14

    Then even more parameters are important!

    (A lot of turbulence length scales!)f

    pld

    f

    pp

    dvu

    Re

    f

    vSt

    Mass loading ratio, Particle volume fraction, Density ratio

    If 2nd phase: one size, spheres. Additional dimensionless parameters

    If 2nd phase: polydisperse, non-spherical

  • 15

    Turbulencemodulation:Mechanisms

    15

    The exact mechanisms: not very well understood; the available

    theories often can NOT predict the level or even sign of the change in

    TKE.

    Some basic mechanisms: all them require the particles be large

    enough that they can not follow the flow and there is a substantial

    instantaneous relative velocity between two phases.

    16

    Turbulencemodulation:Mechanism1

    16

    Through the carrier-phase mean velocity

    The effects of carrier mean flow distortions on the carrier turbulence can be

    predicted by single-phase turbulence models.

    ipj

    i

    jij

    ij

    i Fxu

    xxp

    xuu

    tu

    ,)()(

    If the mean carrier-phase velocity field is changed by the addition of particles,

    the mean strain field and the turbulence production rate will also be changed.

  • 17

    Turbulencemodulation:Mechanism2

    17

    Unsteady particle wakes behind relatively large particles.Important when p is not small and Rep is in the vortex shedding regime.

    (Experimental) Dye streaklines produced by dye introduced at cylinder surface (Rep=140)

    18

    Turbulencemodulation:Mechanism3

    18

    Extra dissipation of turbulence by particles.

  • 19

    Turbulencemodulation:Mechanism3(cont.)

    19

    Som

    e

    Fluctuating kinetic energy of the particles

    Producing local flow distortions around each particle

    A particle that cannot respond to fluctuations exerts a force on the fluid that opposes the relative motion. When the particles are heavy, the relative motion is produced mostly by the carrier-phase fluctuations.

    The cloud of dispersed particles produces a non-uniform force field that instantaneously opposes the carrier-phase velocity fluctuations, extracting energy from the turbulence.

    20

    Turbulencemodulation:Mechanism4

    20

    Preferential concentration & sweeping of particles.

    Preferential concentration occurs when particles (with particle time constants comparable to eddy time scales) are swept out of vortex cores and concentrated in convergence zones.

    Particles apply an angular impulse opposing the vortex rotation as they are spun out of a simple vortex.

    For St1, the ratio of the angular impulse to the initial angular momentum of the vortex is 1.3 MLR / St. This would act to suppress vortices (whose time scales are close to the particle time constant).

  • 21

    Turbulencemodulation:Mechanism5

    21

    Eddy distortion.

    Particles are expected to produce significant local distortion of the small-scale motions.

    The fact that the particle diameter is comparable to the Kolmogorov scale (dp/) indicates that the particles experience significant velocity gradients rather than the locally uniform flow assumed in most models. This means that the particles experience forces transverse to the relative velocity.

    The fact that the average particle spacing (Lbetween-p) is so large means the force applied is not continuous. This is likely to produce a significant distortion of the energy-containing eddies and could lead to a higher turbulent dissipation rate.

    22

    Howtostudymodulation:Analytical(1)

    22

    A common approach to modeling the effects of particles on turbulence

    is to treat the particles as applying a continuous force field onto the

    fluid phase where the force is the reaction force (to the particle drag).

    (1) Write down the modified N-S equations, by including fluid-particle inter-phase

    forces

    (2) Apply Reynolds decomposition; subtract the mean flow component; square

    & average the fluctuati