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  • Name ________________________________ Class ____________________ Date_____________

    Ancient China

    Lesson 4

    MAin ideAs 1. Han dynasty government was based on the ideas of Confucius.

    2. Family life was supported and strengthened in Han China.

    3. The Han made many achievements in art, literature, and learning.

    4. Buddhism spread to China along the trade routes from other lands.

    Key Terms and People

    sundial a device that uses the position of shadows cast by the sun to tell time

    seismograph a device that measures the strength of an earthquake

    acupuncture the practice of inserting needles through the skin at specific points to cure disease or relieve pain

    silk a soft, light, highly valued fabric

    diffusion the spread of ideas, goods, and technology from one culture to another

    Lesson summary HAn dYnAsTY GOVeRnMenT After the end of the Qin dynasty, Liu Bang (lee-oo bang) won control of China. He lowered farmers’ taxes and made punishments less severe. His government was based on that of the Qin. His successor, Wudi (woo-dee), made Confucianism the official government policy. A person had to pass a test based on Confucianism to get a government job.

    FAMiLY LiFe A class structure took hold during Han rule. Peasants were the second class in this Confucian system. Merchants were the lowest class because they only bought and sold what others made. This social division did not indicate wealth though. Peasants were still poor and merchants were still rich.

    What was one aspect of the Qin government that the Han changed?

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    Underline the sentence that explains why Confucian thinking devalues merchants.

    © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

    80 Guided Reading Workbook

    DO NOT EDIT--Changes must be made through “File info” CorrectionKey=NL-A

  • Name ________________________________ Class ____________________ Date_____________

    Lesson 4, continued

    During Wudi’s reign, children were taught to respect their elders and the father had absolute power. Chinese parents valued boys more highly than girls. Some women, however, gained power and could influence their sons’ families. An older widow might become the head of the family.

    HAn ACHieVeMenTs During Han rule, art and literature thrived and inventors developed many useful devices. Artists painted portraits. Poets developed new styles of verse. A historian wrote a history of China up to the Han dynasty. The Han Chinese also invented paper. Other innovations were the sundial, the seismograph, and the Chinese medical practice of acupuncture (ak-yoo-punk-cher). These and other Han inventions and advances are still used today.

    Advances in manufacturing, such as the iron plow and wheelbarrow, increased productivity. Silk production also increased. Weavers used foot-powered looms to weave fabric. Silk garments were expensive. The Chinese were determined to keep their process for making silk a secret.

    BUddHisM COMes TO CHinA Over time, the Han government became less stable. Buddhism seemed to offer more hope than Confucianism or Daoism. It offered a rebirth and a relief from suffering.

    Buddhism caught on in China with both the poor and the upper classes. Buddhism’s introduction to China is an example of diffusion, the spread of ideas from one culture to another. Chinese culture changed in response to it.

    CHALLenGe ACTiViTY Critical Thinking: evaluate Do you think the Han dynasty would have flourished as well if the Qin had not set up a strong government? Write a brief essay providing your point of view.

    Underline the sentence that explains which women could become heads of families.

    Which Han dynasty invention made books possible?

    __________________________

    Why did Buddhism become popular in China?

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    Why do you think it was important to keep the silk production process a secret?

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    __________________________

    © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

    81 Guided Reading Workbook

  • Name ________________________________ Class ____________________ Date_____________

    Lesson 4, continued

    DIRECTIONS Write a word or phrase to describe the term given.

    1. acupuncture ______________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________

    2. seismograph ______________________________________________________

    3. sundial ___________________________________________________________

    4. diffusion _________________________________________________________

    5. silk ______________________________________________________________

    DIRECTIONS Read each sentence and fill in the blank with the word in the word pair that best completes the sentence.

    6. _______________________ became the first Han emperor by winning control of China after the fall of the Qin dynasty. (Wudi/Liu Bang)

    7. Under the _______________________ dynasty, the Chinese made advances in art, literature, medicine, and science. (Qin/Han)

    8. The spread of ideas, goods, and technology from one culture to another is _______________________. (diffusion/innovation)

    9. A soft, light, highly valued fabric is called _______________________. (silk/acupuncture)

    DIRECTIONS Look at each set of three vocabulary terms following each number. On the line provided, write the letter of the term that does not relate to the others.

    ______ 10. a. acupuncture b. paper c. Great Wall

    ______ 11. a. Buddhism b. diffusion c. Liu Bang

    ______ 12. a. Han b. Qin c. iron plow

    © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

    82 Guided Reading Workbook

    DO NOT EDIT--Changes must be made through “File info” CorrectionKey=NL-B