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LEADERSHIP PAPER TASKCHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION
By:NAME: OKTAVIKA ALRINA MARDIYANTINIM: 125030207121004MAJOR: Business Administration
Assalamualaikum wr.wb,Thank God I pray to God Almighty because of the blessing of God, I can finish this paper as part of the prerequisite courses Leadership. Not sure I thank the lecturer of the course which has given an opportunity to make this paper in order to increase our knowledge as students, especially in the field of leadership.In this simple paper,I want to discuss about tentng charismatic leadership in organization of business.I would be grateful if the reader wishes to give suggestions or criticism to improve this simple paper.Perfection of this paper will widen the window opening knowledge leadership for all of us.Hopefully, this paper can really useful for all readers.Wassallamualaikum Wr.Wb.
Malang, September 2013
iTable of Contents
PREFACEiTABLE OF CONTENTSiiI. INTRODUCTION11.1 Background11.2 Problem Formulation11.3 Destination2II. DISCUSSION 32.1 Charismatic Leadership32.2 Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership42.3 Selft-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership... 72.4 Consequences of Charismatic Leadership. 10 2.5Dark Side of Charisma.............. 11 2.6 Light Side of Charisma.... 12III. CASE....... 14IV.CLOSING15Conclusions and Recommendations.. 15REFERENCES16
1.1 BackgroundThe success of an organization in the present and in the future can not be separated from the organization's leaders. In the context of travel and the existence of the organization, the leader can be described as the holder of the wheel that determines the direction and goals of the organization as well as its existence in the future.Usually a person is considered to have charismatic leader, because the leader is able to attract followers in a success which makes1.2 Problem FormulationIssues to be discussed in this paper is formulated as follows:1. How charismatic leadership?2. Why linkage relationship of charisma that is determined jointly by the leader, follower, and situation.?3. How consequences for followers of charismatic leaders and organizations?
11.3 DestinationThis discussion paper is intended to:1. Understanding the theory of charismatic leadership.2. Understanding the relationship of charisma that is determined jointly by the leader, follower, and situation.3. Understand the positive and negative consequences of charismatic leaders.
2.1 Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic leadership theory was first promoted by Max Weber .Charismatic derived from the word " kairismos " , in Greek has the meaning of a person who blessed and inspired a regal also be interpreted as a gift given by the gods to man .It means that a person is charismaticif the person has a blessing or a talent that many of his followers an extraordinary Max Weber defines charisma (which is derived from the Greek word meaning "grace") as "a particular trait of a person, which distinguish them from most people and is usually seen as the ability or quality of the supernatural, superhuman, or at least special forces .It's really ingrained belief so whatever the leader says is viewed as a mandate that must be executed.So charismatic leader is a leader who has a fascination remarkable personality who is able to control the mind, the will, the soul, and the soul of his followers.Charismatic leadership does not rely on external authority and power but uses magnetism personality. Because it does not use the power and authority of the charismatic leader is usually informal institutional leaders.Robert Weber House later develop thinking by developing scientific theories about the charismatic leadership in 1977. According to House, a charismatic leader must have the criteria as a high level of self-confidence, strong beliefs and ideals as well as able to influence others (Robbins, 1994). In addition he must be able to communicate in a persuasive and motivate subordinates.Theory of charismatic leadership of House emphasis on personal identification, generation motivated by the leader and the leader influences the goals and the confidence of the followers. Attribution theory of charisma (Conger and Kanungo) more emphasis on personal identification as a major influence and internalization process as a secondary process. Theory emphasizes the concept of self-internalization, identification and social influence on the ability of the leadership to the role that has only a little to personal identification.3Meanwhile, social contagion theory explains that behavior is influenced by the followers of the leader may bethrough personal identification and other followers are influenced by processes of social contagion. On the other hand, the psychoanalytic explanation of charisma gives clarity to us that the influence of the leader comes from personal identification with the leader.2.2 Attribution Theory of Charismatic LeadershipIn addition to Robert House, Conger and Kanungo (in Yukl, 2001) also proposed a theory of charismatic leadership based on the assumption that charisma is a related phenomenon (attributional). According to this theory, attribution followers of charismatic qualities for a leader jointly determined by behavior, leadership skills and aspects of the situation. There are three assumptions were used in drawing the followers of charismatic leaders, namely: (1) the attractiveness and elegance is the capital needed to attract followers, (2) self-confidence is the basic need of a leader, and (3) followers will follow the the people they admire.According to the theory of charismatic leadership in Robbins Conger and Kanungo (2005 ) , the followers triggered on the ability of the leader's heroic or extraordinary abilities when they observe certain behaviors of the leader . From the results of studies conducted , Conger and Kanugo ( in Robbins , 2005) identifies personal karakterteristik charismatic leader in four important ways. Among others : ( 1 ) The leader who has a vision ( 2 ) Have a willingness to take risks for the sake of achieving the vision , ( 3 ) has a sensitivity to environmental constraints , ( 4 ) has a sensitivity to the needs of the followers , ( 5 ) shows the behavior can be outside. These five characteristics above can be explained in terms of the following : The key characteristics of a Charismatic Leader1 . vision and articulation : Has a vision that is expressed as an ideal destination which assumes that the future is better than the status quo , and is able to clarify the importance of the mission that other people can understand .
2 . Personal risk : Willing to take high personal risk , incur huge expenses , and sacrifice for the measure in that vision .3 . Environmental sensitivity : Charismatic leader is able to perform realistic calculations of the resistance of the environment and resources need to seek a change .4 . Sensitivity to follower needs :Others and the ability to accept responsibility for their feelings and needs .5 . Unconventional behavior : Have behaviors that are considered new and contrary to custom . Charismatic leaders exhibit behavior ( constructive ) out of the ordinary and often defy the norm ( destructive ) are rooted in society , but to change the direction of improvement , such reforms .This is explained further by Yukl ( 2001) on the five characteristics of charismatic leaders . First , charisma is more likely linked to the leader suggesting a vision as opposed to the status quo . Second , charisma is more likely to be connected with the acting leader unconventional to achieve the vision . In a sense , leaders do something memorable for the followers who reveals that he is an outstanding leader . The third characteristic is the leader is more likely to be viewed as a charismatic leader when they commit self-immolation , taking personal risks and medatangkan high cost to achieve the vision . At this point , trust becomes an important component of charisma , and more followers trust leaders who are less motivated by personal interests . The fourth characteristic is that leaders are more confident about their proposal would more than likely be seen as a charismatic leader who seemed indecisive and hesitant . The fifth characteristic is the more followers by connecting charismatic leader whose vision and making use of persuasive appeal than the leader 's authority .
5Yukl (2001 ) explains that the theory of attribution of charisma is more about personal identification as a major influence and internalization process as a secondary process . The main effect is the process of personal identification , whose influence is derived from a desire to please and emulate followers leaders. Where pmimpin charismatic looks so incredible because they have the strategic insight , the establishment of a strong , self-confidence , unconventional behavior and dynamic energy , that the leaders of their subordinates idolized and wanted to be like them . The influence of a charismatic leader is also caused by theinternalization of new values and beliefs by the followers . Conger (1989 , in Yukl , 2001) menenkan that it is important for followers to take a leadership attitudes and beliefs about work rather than simply imitate the artificial aspect of the behavior of leaders such as temperament , gestures , and speech patterns . A charismatic leader who inspires a vision serves as a source of intrinsic motivation to carry out the mission of the organization .Robbins (2005 ) says there are four stages in the process of influence made by a charismatic leader . The first stage is the vision statement of the leader . Vision ( vision ) is a long-term strategy to achieve the goal or set of goals . The vision put forward a charismatic leader to give the feel of continuity for followers in which he attempts to connect with the current state of a better future for the organization . In the second stage , after the vision and mission established leader then communicates high performance expectations in the belief that his followers were able to achieve the vision expressed . The effect of this belief makes the followers more confident .After the leaders communicate expectations , in the third stage , the charismatic leader declaring through words and actions , a new set of values , and through his behavior , an example to be imitated his followers . A vision statement should be his vision ( vision statement) , which is a formal statement of the vision or mission of the organization in action .
6Charismatic leaders can use to embed the vision statement aims and objectives into the minds of his followers . In the end , in the fourth stage , the charismatic leader involve himself emotionally and often behave in unusual stance to show the courage and the vision that has been set . Tempers emotional contagion within the charismatic leader who " arrested " by his followers .Charismatic leadership theory also developed by Samir , House and Arthur based on the concept of self . The theory is built on the theory of charismatic leadership that had previously been developed by the House . Some indicators of charisma still remains the same , including the affections of the followers of the leader , emotional involvement in the mission of the group or organization , the belief that leaders can not contribute to the success of the mission , and a commitment to the goals of high performance . However, in the new theory of charismatic leaders turn a number of motivational processes that were previously not included in the theory by the House .
2.3Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic LeadershipShamir et.al ( in Yukl , 2001) extends the theory House by incorporating new developments in thinking about human motivation and more detailed picture of the influence of leaders and followers . Their assumptions about human motivation , among others : ( 1 ) the behavior is an expression of one's feelings , values and self-concept as well as target-oriented and pragmatic , (2 ) self-concept consists of a hierarchy of identities and social values , (3 ) people are intrinsically motivated to strengthen and maintain the confidence and self-worth , and ( 4 ) people are intrinsically motivated to maintain consistency among the various components of their self-concept and self-concept among those with behavior .
7Self-concept theory of charismatic leadership explaining that charisma visible indicator of the relationship between leaders and followers . A charismatic leader has a deep influence and unusual on his followers . The followers have always felt that what was believed to be the true leaders and they will try to stick with it , no affection to the leader and emotionally involved in the mission of the group or oraganisasi and have the high performance goals .Characteristics and behavior of leaders is also an important determinant of the charismatic leader . According to the theory of self-concept , charismatic leaders are more likely to have a strong need for power , high self- confidence and a strong stance in their own beliefs and ideals . Some important characteristics and behavior of the charismatic leader in attitudes and behavior affect the follower is ( 1 ) present an exciting vision , (2 ) use a powerful form of communication and expressive when delivering the vision , (3 ) take personal risks and make sacrifices itself to achieving the vision , (4 ) expressed the hope ( expectation ) is high ; ( 5 ) shows the confidence in the followers , (6 ) the role of modeling behavior that is consistent with the vision , (7 ) managing the impression followers will be the leader ; ( 8 ) build identification with the group or organization and ( 9 ) gives authority to the followers .Influence processes that affect social behavior in the charismatic leadership comprised of personal identification , social identification , and the ability internasiliasi yourself . First , personal identification, personal identification is a process that dyadic influence that occurs in some people followers , but not on others . This process will be the most common among the followers who have low self-esteem , low self-identity , and a high need to cleave to powerful figures . Shamir and his colleagues acknowledge that the personal identification may occur in some people followers of charismatic leaders , but they are less stressed in the explanation because there are still other processes .
8Second , social identification. Identification is a process of social influence concerning the definition of themselves in relation to a group or collectivity . The charismatic leader of social identification increases by making the relationship between self- concept and individual followers perceived values shared and group identities . A charismatic leader can increase social identification with the group giving a unique identity , which distinguishes the group with the other groups .Third , internalization. Charismatic leaders influence followers to embrace new values , but it is more common for charismatic leaders to promote the interests of the values present on the followers and by connecting it with the goals of the task . Charismatic leaders also stressed the symbolic aspects of the job and expressive , which makes the work more meaningful , noble , heroic , and morally right . The charismatic leader is also no emphasis on extrinsic rewards in order to encourage the followers to focus on inbalan - intrinsic rewards and increase their commitment to the objective targets .Fourth , self-efficacy. Individual self-efficacy is a belief that the individual is capable and competent to target mencpai difficult task . Collective self-efficacy refers to the perception of the members of the group that if they were together, they would be able to produce things extraordinary . The charismatic leader of the followers raise hopes that the collective efforts of their individual and collective missions to carry out , will be successful . Berbedea with attribution theory of charismatic leadership , personal identification is not emphasized . In theory the concept of self is the most important source of social identification , and internalization of self and collective abilities .
2.4Consequences of Charismatic LeadershipFrom the study of the historical leadership of charismatic revealed that there were positive and negative . A better approach is to distinguish between positive and negative charismatic is in terms of the value of their personality ( House & Howell , 1992; Howell , 1988 ; Musser , 1987 , in Yukl , 2001) . Not all charismatic leaders are always working on behalf of his organization . Many of these leaders used their power to build the company in accordance with their own image . They often confuse the boundaries of personal interests with the interests of the organization . Worst case , this selfish charisma makes the leaders put the interests and personal goals above the goals organsisai ( Sashkin , 2003 ) . They do not like being criticized , surrounded by people who are always obedient and have the properties "from father happy " and create a climate that makes people afraid to question or challenge the " king " or " queen " when the leader made a mistake ( Robbins , 2005) .Yukl (2001 ) explains that the negative has power orientation charismatic in person . On this side , they ( charismatic leader ) put more emphasis on the influence of self-identification rather than internaliasi . And intentionally Endeavor for more menanmkan loyalty to themselves rather than idealism that must be reached . Charismatic leaders use ideological appeal but only to gain power , after which it was changed arbitrarily ideology according to the leader's personal goals . The charismatic leader attempted to dominate and conquer followers by keeping them weak and dependent on the leader . In addition , based on the decision-making authority of the leader , the followers and the award minus using penalties to manipulate followers . Information is limited to preserve the self-image as well as the self-righteousness of any faults and exaggerate external threats to the organization . This negative behavior reflects greater attention on the worship of self and maintain power rather than seek the welfare of followers .
10In contrast to the negative charismatic , charismatic positive social dominance orientation . Charismatic leader emphasizes the internalization of values rather than personal identification . They are trying to instill loyalty to ideology rather than loyalty to yourself . While the authority delegated to the limit is quite large , openly shared information , encouraging participation in decision making and rewards are used to reinforce the behavior that is consistent with the mission and goals of the organization . The result is their leadership will be beneficial for the support of followers even though the consequences can not be avoided if the strategy is not driven by the right leader .2.5Dark Side of CharismaOptimism and self-confidence is very important for mempengaruihi others to support the vision of the leader , but the excessive optimism of the leader will be difficult to identify deficiencies in the vision . Will experience success and cult leader subordinates can lead to believe that a judgment can not be wrong . In search diligently to achieve that vision , a charismatic leader can ignore and deny the evidence that his vision is unrealistic and leads to failure . And the leaders who believe that leaders are prevented to point out the flaws or repairs present .On the other hand , impulsive and unconventional behavior that is causing some people look at a charismatic leader will be offended and against others who view such behavior as it is disturbing and inappropriate. Establishment of a strong leader on the ideology of the traditional will not alienate people who remain true to traditional ways of doing things . Negative consequences of charisma can be summarized in the following table :
Some Negative Consequences of Charismatic Leader The desire for acceptance by leaders inhibit criticism from followers Worship by creating imaginary followers will not be able to make mistakes Confidence and excessive optimism blind leaders of the real danger Rejection of the problems and failures reduces organizational learning Project risks are too large will likely fail separately Take the utmost praise for the success will alienate some followers are important Impulsive behavior is not traditionally made enemies as well as those who believe The dependence of the leaders will hinder competent successor Failure to develop successors created a crisis of leadership in the end2.6Light side of charismaCharisma also has a bright side . By Yukl (2001 ) bright side of charisma or influence of charisma posotif among others mentioned that the followers would be so much better when shared with a charismatic leader charismatic leaders whose positive than negative . Together with positive charismatic leader , the followers have the potential to experience psychological growth and development of their skills and the organization will be able to adapt to a dynamic environment , hostile and competitive . Charismatic leader is usually able to create a positive culture of a one that " success -oriented " ( Harrison , 1987 in Yukl , 2010) , " high- performance system " ( Vail , 1978 in Yukl , 2010) . Here , it can be said that the organization has to understand the mission that embody social values and not just profits or growth , the members of all levels are also given the authority to make important decisions how to implement strategic and do their work , open communication and shared information , and organizational structures and systems to support its mission.12Therefore , a leader , to be able to be an effective leader , he can not solely be perceiving the current state of his subordinates . Because of the ability of perceiving is not enough , then a leader is required to have personal maturity , capable of comprehensive thinking , want to see the condition of subordinate performance not only its current condition , but also throughout the performance track record of subordinates thoroughly to avoid mistakes and taking action attribution .
Being a leader is the most desirable woman , especially men laki.Bahkan People also compete for being a charismatic leader . So whether charismatic leaders are born with special traits ? And , people can learn to be a charismatic leader ?
5.1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSEverything must have a positive side and a negative side. Similarly, the present leadership in Indonesia. However, appropriate personal character of each can he dikatan by a distinguished leader charisma to its members? So, will you especially students will next be argued that charismatic leaders in the organization?
Sumber, GaryYukl. 2001. Kepemimpinan dalam Organisasi. Terjemahan Budi Supriyanto. 2010. Jakarta: Indeks.Conger,Jay A.dan Kanungo,Rabindra N.Charimatics Leadership in Organzation.1989.USAhttps://translate.google.com/?hl=id&tab=TT