Karrasch ESSD 09.04.13 2 Leena

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Leena Karrasch COAST – Center for Environment and Sustainability Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany Climate Adaptation in Coastal Regions The Case of Krummhörn

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Karrasch ESSD 09.04.13 2 Leena

Transcript of Karrasch ESSD 09.04.13 2 Leena

Climate Adaptation in Coastal Regions The Case of KrummhrnLeena Karrasch

COAST Center for Environment and Sustainability Research,Carl von Ossietzky Universitt Oldenburg, Germany

Content1. Climate Adaptation in Coastal Regions The Case Study of Krummhrn

2. Stakeholder Involvement in Integrative Planning and Assessment

Ahlhorn et al. (2010)

Climate Adaptation in Coastal Areas

12 million people live in the flood prone area of the southern North Sea regionClimate change threatens the area: - sea level rise - changes in hydrological cycles

Changes within the society: - shifts in demographic distributions - technical innovations - economic incentives

There is a need for sustainable and adaptive land use management strategies Ahlhorn et al. (2010)

Interactions between Land Management, Climate Change and Ecosystem Services

Project Overview 10 Universities in Germany

January 11 December 15Northern Europe Coastline Area: 76 km

Case Study Region Northwest-German Coastal LowlandsKrummhrn(GER)



Main dike River Water body Border

Protected by dykes Total dyke line length of Lower Saxony: 700 km

Ahlhorn et al. (2010)

Impacts of Climate Change Climate change leads to: - sea level rise - increasing wave and wind conditions - 20 % less rain in summer (2070-2100) - up to 50 % more precipitation in winter (2070-2100)


Problems Flood events

Increased pumping costsSalinization of groundwater

Scarcity of resources Competing interests


Climate Adaption ScenariosFour concrete, area defined scenarios focusing on climate adaptation and changing land management with different goals

1. Trend

2. Water Management

3. Carbon Sequestration

4. Stakeholder-based

1. Trend Business as usual

Agriculture, dairy farming,nature conservation

2. Water Management Establishment of freshwater polders

Retention of freshwaterUse of reeds for green energy Restriction of flooding

3. Carbon Sequestration Establishment of polders

Active peat formationRestoration of former vegetation

4. Stakeholder-based Extensive participation of stakeholders that represent important sectors in the society (agriculture, coastal protection, water management, tourism, nature conservation, policy) Evaluation of the land management scenarios Assessment of stakeholder preferences Development of future land use strategies

The Ecosystem Service Approach Ecosystem services are defined as the benefits people obtain from ecosystems (MA 2003) Ecosystem service approach: A framework for including the concept of ecosystem services into decision-making


Ecosystem Services Each land use scenario focuses on the provsion of ecosystem services (ESS).Project-led scenariosEcosystem services Trend + ? + Water management + + + +

StakeCarbon holder sequesbased tration 0 ++ + ? ? ? ? ?

Food production Green energy production using reeds Flood prevention Carbon sequestration by peat production from reeds Prevention of brackish groundwater intrusion

Perception of safetyRecreation Conservation of biodiversity

?+ +

?+ -

?? ?



Biomass production Dominant reeds

Biodiversity Butomus umbellatus in extensively used pastures

Synergies Provisioning of green energy Shift from dairy farming to reed farming

Reeds at the Weser estuary yielding high biomass.

Polder Huntewiesen in Winter 2009: iceskaters as an example for ESS recreation.

Response and Effect ChainDriversClimate scenario Hydrological scenario Land use scenario



Ecosystem function / propertyWater cycle

Water supply and aerationBiomass removal

Plant species abundances and traits

Greenhous gas emissions Standing Biomass

Species richness

Response and Effect Chain (continued)Ecosystem function / propertyWater cycleGreenhous gas emissions Standing Biomass Species richness Direct costs from public databases

Assignments of values

Coastal Assessments ecosystem service of valuesFood production Green energy Carbon sequestration Expert assessment

Experiments Red lists

Flood prevention Conservation of biodiversity Identity WTP & risk assessment


From Theory to Practice Stakeholder Intergration in Participatory Planning and Assessment Scarcity of space and impacts of climate change are becoming major drivers of land use and adaption management today. Changes in land use affect peoples life (social impact) and the provision of ecosystem services Dilemma: maintenance of the status quo vs. necessary change processes to meet future challenges. Stakeholder collaboration: A process of interactive learning and empowerment stakeholders are working collectively towards a common goal.

How to develop participatory and adaptive strategies for sustainable land use management including the ecosystem service approach and social impacts?

Methodology Participatory planning process, based on the concepts ecosystem service approach and social impact assessmentHuman Well-being Sustainable Development Ecosystem Services Ecosystem Service Approach Social Impacts Social Impact Assessment

Participatory Planning

Methodology Process Scheme

Methodology From Science Driven towards Stakeholder Driven Decision Support -

Methodology - Setting

Methodology Categorization of Social Impacts and Ecosystem ServicesCategory Constitutive Personal Impacts Constitutive Development Impacts Indicative Economic Impacts Social impact Attachment to place Obligation to ancestors and traditions Participation in decision-making Need for adaption measures Placement of new land use strategies Competing land uses Compliance with property rights and values

Constitutive social impacts: essential parts of the planning processService Food production Provisioning Forage production Services Green energy production Freshwater retention for agricultural use Prevention of saltwater intrusion Regulating Salt marshes Services Hazard regulation by water retention Indicative social impacts: Erosion control serve as indicators, direct influence on ecosystem Cultural Community identification and connection services Services Recreation, tourism Biodiversity Supporting Quality of soil Services Reduction of greenhouse gases Category

Security of income Economic prosperity and resilience of the region Maintenance of agricultural and grassland Security of food and drinking water supply Combat negative influences of increasing sea level, Indicative Climate Change inland water levels, droughts, dike overtopping Provision of safety Impacts Indicative Landscape Impacts Indicative Ecological Impacts Aesthetic quality, beauty of the landscape Presence of tourists Cultural-historical values Beauty of nature Organic management, sustainable use of resources

Methodology - Profiling

Methodology Integration of Ecosystem Services and Social Impacts

Results Integration of Ecosystem Services and Social ImpactsAttachment to place

Kind of land use Habitats Adaptation to climate change

Effects of urbanisation

Results - ExamplesIndicative social impactsEconomic: Prosperity of the regionDemand Supply

Ecosystem services

Provisioning: Food production

Climate Change: Combat negative influences

Regulating: Hazard regulation

Landscape: Beauty of landscape

Cultural: Community identification

Ecological: Sustainable use of resources

Supporting: Soil quality

Conclusion The scientific background of the ecosystem service approach is not easy to communicate. The stressed social impacts lead to the ecosystem services by translating the stakeholders language into scientific approaches. The operationalization of the ecosystem service approach and social impact analysis shows that social demands and provision of ecosystem services are inherently connected. Stakeholder collaboration promotes social learning processes, consideration of different world-views and cooperation and agreements. The work on a common goal improves decision-making processes.

Conclusion Climte change is one major driver of land use and adaptation management today. Adaptive strategies are the basis for a sustainable land management. Together with experts and decision-maker of the region, concrete and action oriented adaptive strategies can be developed.

Thank you for your attentionFor more information, please contact

[email protected]


References Ahlhorn et al. (2010): Speichern statt pumpen. Abschlussbericht im Rahmen des F+E-Vorhabens "Biosphrenreservate als Modellregionen fr Klimaschutz und Klimaanpassung". Herausgegeben von Bundesamt fr Naturschutz (BfN) und Nationalpark- und Biosphrenreservatsverwaltung "Niederschsisches Wattenmeer". MA Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Ed.), 2003. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. A Framework for Assessment. Island Press, Washington, 245 pp. Vanclay, F., 2002. Conceptualising social impacts. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 22, 183-211.

Figures: http://www.entwaesserungsverband-emden.de/index.php?page=projekte_wassermanagement http://www.lbeg.niedersachsen.de http://www.metrovancouver.org/planning/development/ecologicalhealth/Pages/default.aspx

Discussion Stakeholder involvement right from the beginning is an important step in informal decision-making processes. > How can stakeholders be integrated in decision-making processes? > There are different stakeholdergroups. How does a collaboration succeed? Climate change is one driver for adaption measures. > What are other drivers? > How can different adaption measures be interlinked in one region?