Jean marc, presentation, 13th october

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Transcript of Jean marc, presentation, 13th october

  • 1.Shade coffee in East Africa: Whats in it for farmers and biodiversity? Jean-Marc Boffa

2. Background: Global coffee sector Decline of world prices (25% of 1960 prices in real terms) Oversupply and stagnant consumption Market deregulation (breakdown of quality control, input systems on credit, coffee quality) Trading and roasting segments more concentrated and capture higher proportion of profits Farmers get a declining share of coffee market value Quality, a secure investment for restoring value Growing specialty coffee segment, 17% of volume and 40% of value of US coffee market 3. Coffee in East Africa Rapid development from 1930s to 1980s (new cultivars, state intervention, abundant land). 24% of African exports in mid 1980s Global coffee crisis, liberalization of coffee sector, age and productivity decline of coffee plantations. 11% of African exports in late 1990s Coffee >50% of current export earnings in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Uganda. 30%, 3rd export crop in Kenya. East and Central Africa is 4th largest growing area; estimated 1.2 million farmers and 4 million ha of land Growing interest in and development potential of East African coffee renowned for its natural quality 4. Why an interest in shade coffee? Small landholdings, declining soil fertility, labor scarcity, unaffordable inputs. Intensive production models unfit for smallholder systems. Need for higher profitability, income stability, lower risk through diversification, environmental friendliness, and enhanced quality for the market. Renewed interest on shade systems and their contributions to coffee quality and profitability, environmental sustainability, and diversification. 5. Outline of presentation 1. Impact of tree shade on coffee production 2. Relations between shade and coffee quality 3. Potential benefits of shade coffee for smallholders inEast Africa 4. Shade coffee and biodiversity conservation Not covered are issues of carbon sequestration andwater 6. Coffees native habitat Naturally found as under/midstorey forest plant Coffea arabica, understory shrub in Coffea canephora, midstorey tree,Ethiopian tropical montane forests lowland Congo river basin, 1600-2800m; mean 20C; 1600-2000mm0-1200 m altitude, mean 25C, rainfall uprainfall;to over 2000 mm over 9-10 months and 3-4 month dry cool seasonhigh constant air humidity Does not tolerate high temperatures and Does not well in low temperatureshumidity Recommended conditions (DaMatta, 2004) Coffea arabica Coffea canephora 18-21C 22-30C 1200-1800mm rainfall 1200-1800 mm rainfall, > 2000 mm>1000 m altitude, deep soils, >2000 mm rainfall, 4-mo. dry season,wind protection (Vaast and Harmand, 2002) Divergence on lower range between authors/countries Frequently grown outside these recommended intervals 7. Controversy on shade The use of shade has been questioned and researched since the beginning of its cultivation. Initially grown under or close to forest cover. Originally thought indispensable to coffee growing in mid altitudes in the tropics Successful fun sun experiments with intensive management followed by massive promotion programs Breeding of modern cultivars adapted to sun. 40% of Middle America, Caribbean and Columbia coffee is in full sunOptimal conditions Removal of shade increases coffee yields (several authors) 45% artificial shade reduces 3-year cumulative production of fertilizedcoffee by 18% (Vaast et al, 2006) Often decline in coffee qualitySuboptimal conditions (low altitudes, higher temperatures) 3-year cumulated fertilized coffee yielded 16% and 49% less in full sun than under Terminalia ivoriensis (dense shade) and Eucalyptus deglupta (light shade) respectively in suboptimal conditions (Vaast et al, 2006) 8. shad e Small or no response to fertilizers High response to fertilizers-> Reduces photosynthesis and -> Light is limiting factormetabolismHigher no. of flower buds per node Reduced flower induction Higher no. of coffee nodes per branch Longer internodes Reduced branch length Lower number of fruiting nodes Higher vegetative growth Heat stress of plant and faster leaf lower no. of leaves per branch senescence and fallbut larger leaf area Higher leaf to fruit ratio Longer life span of leaves 9. shade Increased flowering and fruiting Sink effectLower fruit loads Resources going to seeds Fewer nodes but higher final berry Increased fruit dropload per node bec. lower berry drop Reduced maturation period Longer maturation period Smaller bean size Larger bean sizeReduced shoot elongation and branch weight Balanced of fruit and vegetative Reduced production potential the outputs following year. Weakened plant and Reduced variations in alternate dieback. Biennial /alternate bearingbearing 10. Productive soilsPoor soilsyieldyield shaded unshadedshadedunshaded Lowoptimumhigh Low optimumhighelevation elevationSource: Beer et al., 1998 Fertilized yields 1800-3000 kg/ha Fertilized yields 300-1800 kg/ha Shade reduces photosynthesis, transpiration, metabolism and growth and therefore, the demand on soil nutrients and so enables crop to be obtained on soils of lower fertility. (Purseglove 1968)Influence of tree density on yields through underground competition. Optimal densities varies according to site and species. 11. Impact on pests, diseases and weeds Varies according to individual organisms and their response to increased humidity and reduced light under shade Lowers diffusion of coffee berry disease by reducing splashing and free water More pronounced attacks by coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Major reason for the early promotion of tree shade removal Reduces defoliation by brown-eye-spot (Cercospora coffeicola) Higher incidence of the dry season coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Stabilize coffee nematodes or increase coffee tolerance to nematode infestation if shade trees are not hosts Pest regulation by a range of arthropods as natural enemies of insect coffee pests Reduces weed biomass considerably. Aggressive grasses -> broadleaf types. Savings in costs of weeding>tree management costs. 12. Coffee quality under shade Reduction in light exposure and temperature Slower and longer berry maturation period Better bean filling and higher sucrose accumulation Larger bean size. Price determinant at farm gate 13. Effect of shade on coffee quality chemical and organoleptic characteristics Authors AvelinoVaast et al Vaast et al Muschler 01 Guyot et et al 03 06a 06b al 96 Conditions Optimal SuboptimalSuboptimalOptimal Years1999 2000 2001 2002 Catimor Caturra Total acidity+ Caffeine+++ ++ Fat +++ +same Sucrose- - + Chlorogenic- - --+ acids Trigonelline - - --- Body - - --+ + same Bitterness - - --- Astringency- - --same Acidity++++ ++same same Aroma - same same Preference+++ + By reducing flowering intensity and productivity, shade consistently leads to enhanced beverage quality in both favorable and unfavorable ecological conditions 14. Potential benefits for East African smallholder farmersCoffee Potential increase in coffee yields, generally in suboptimal conditions Better quality coffee Reduced damage by hail and rain storms Reduced occurrence of some pests and diseases Longevity of coffee plants reduces need to replantSoils Provision of soil mulch (moisture and fertility, weed suppression) Aeration and drainage of soil for intercrops Reduced soil erosion on slopes Enhanced soil fertility (recycling of deep nutrients and nitrogen fixation) 15. Potential benefits for East African smallholder farmersManagement Reduced weeding costs If compared to full sun systems, can it reduce labor costs? More efficient use of labor and machinery with moreconstant interannual production for harvesting andprocessing. More constant volume and quality of coffee supplies tobuyers Diversification in farm production Alternate income and security from diversity of marketableproducts (timber, fruits, fodder, fiber, etc). Fruit and timber=60% and 3% of farm income inVenezuela (Escalante et al., 87) Shade tree products=28% and 19% of coffee income inPeru and Guatemala (Somarriba et al., 04) 42% farmers market timber and fuelwood products in E.Mt Kenya; $35 per year (Holding et al, 06) Service wood and other non necessarily marketed products+ food crops 16. Some disadvantages of shade coffee Damage by fallen branches to the coffee crop Additional labor for tree pruning Mechanization hampered by trees Implementation of soil erosion measures rendereddifficult by trees Poor shade adaptation of newly bred cultivars Coffee-tree competition Increased occurrence of specific pests and diseases withincreased humidity Allelopathy Trees providing alternate hosts for coffee pests anddiseases Erosion, crop damage and reduced water absorption insoil by leaf drip damage 17. Implications for East Africa Most studies originate from C. and S. America. Limited data on condition of coffee system Characterization and mapping of shade coffee systems in East Africa. Comparative coffee shade versus sun studies to better define the potential of shade in East Africa Central Province of Kenya What areas have optimal and sub- optimal conditions in East Africa? Where and how significant is impact of shade on production and quality? How much shade? Is it sufficient to make a difference? Large contribution of smallholder farming, that includes a diverse tree cover by default. Document, validate, refine recommendation domains Varies by country 18. Estimates Kenya: 50% large full sun industrial plantations-50% smallholder farms Rwanda: Heavy traditional promotion of coffee growing in full sun (ACDI-VOCA) Tanzania: 20% industrial plantations-80% smallholders Uganda: 99% smallholder systems 19. Shade coffee and biodiversity conservation Agricultural system with great potential to conserve biodiversity. Structural diversity and vegetation complexity of original forest vegeta