JAPANESE EXPANSION IN CHINA 1931 - 37 3 Reasons Social Reasons Economic Reasons Political Reasons...

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Transcript of JAPANESE EXPANSION IN CHINA 1931 - 37 3 Reasons Social Reasons Economic Reasons Political Reasons...

  • JAPANESE EXPANSION IN CHINA1931 - 37

  • 3 ReasonsSocial ReasonsEconomic ReasonsPolitical Reasons

  • Social ReasonsRapid growth of Japans population1900 : 45 million1930 : 64 millionIntense pressure on agricultural sector which could not supply Japans needsFood had to be importedPressure on Japans limited landMuch of Japan is mountainous and unsuitable for settlementNew territories overseas would solve this problem by providing homes and jobs

  • Economic ReasonsInternal economic problems of 1920s

    The Great Depression in the early 1930s

    NB : All other explanations for economic reasons derive from these two main factors

  • Economic ReasonsInternal economic problems of 1920sJapan experienced trade boom because of WWIBut by 1921, Europe began to recover its lost marketsSignalled the start of Japans economic problemsUnemployment and industrial unrest increasedFarmers badly affected by falling price of riceThen came the Great Depression (GD)

  • Economic ReasonsThe GD severe impact on the economyJapans exports shrank disastrouslyExports of manufactured goods dropped by 2/3Japans two main exports : raw silk and cotton goodsMost of the silk went to USAGD reduced demand pushed prices downBy 1932 price of raw silk had fallen to less than 20% of the 1923 price

  • Economic ReasonsAbout of Jap farmers relied on production of raw silk and rice for their livelihoodSituation created widespread poverty

    Drop in world trade in 1930s Countries had less $ to buy imported goodsJapan earn less unable to buy the imported food needed to feed its growing population

  • Economic ReasonsJapans industries badly affectedJapan had few natural resources and raw materialsThus its industries depended heavily on imported materials such as iron, tin, cotton, rubber and oilWith declining income from exports, Jap industries could not afford to buy these materialsOne possible solution With its own overseas empire, easier and cheaper to supply Jap industries with raw materials

  • Economic ReasonsMore difficult to export its products in the GDUSA and other countries solve their own economic problems by imposing tariffs or taxes on foreign imports protect their own industriesWorsened Japans economic problemsForced Japan to look for markets elsewhereThe 2 main factors had an important political impactPeople unhappy with democratic governmentLooked to the military for possible solutions to Japans economic problems

  • MANCHURIA

  • Economic ReasonsMANCHURIA had many valuable resources which Japan neededForestry & minerals (oil, iron, coal and aluminium)It also had space 3 times the size of Japan28 million peopleLots of land for new settlers

  • Economic ReasonsAlternative market for Japanese exportsJapan already had substantial economic interests thereControlled the most important mines, ports, factories and railwaysJap interests protected by a large army, the Kwantung army, stationed in southern Manchuria

    Acquisition of Manchuria would solve Japans severe economic and social problems!!

  • Economic ReasonsThe attractiveness of the land does not arise from the scarcity of the population alone; its wealth of forestry, minerals and agricultural products is also unrivalled elsewhere in the world.

    An extract from a letter written by PM Tanaka to Emperor Hirohito in 1927

  • EMPEROR HIROHITO

  • Political Reasons1920s Japan isolated itself from WWI allies

    Many Japs believed it to be in Japans best interests to build an empire in East Asia than to stay on good terms with the rest of the world

  • Political ReasonsFIVE ReasonsThe Peace Settlement after WWIThe Washington Naval Conference, 1921-22The USAs Immigration PoliciesThe USAs Economic PoliciesGrowing Dissatisfaction with the Japanese Government

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons1.THE PEACE SETTLEMENT AFTER WWI

    Japan disappointed with some aspects of the peace settlements despite getting the Liaotong PeninsulaAsked that the Covenant (Agreement) of the new League of Nations include a statement to declare all races in the world equalEventually not included because of Europeans superiority complex

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons2.THE WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE 1921-22

    Called by US to reduce naval arms and ease tension in the Far EastFelt threatened by Japans growing power and influence in ChinaMain agreement limited the size of the navies in the Pacific (no of ships)

    US : Britain : Japan 5 : 5 : 3

    The powers also agreed not to build any more ships for 10 years

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons2.THE WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE 1921-22

    Conference meant to improve relations between Japan and USInstead, it made things worseJapan felt it was treated as a second-rate powerNationalists, especially military felt that Japans honour had been betrayed by the agreementGovt signed agreement very reluctantly however, it was still blamed for this disgrace

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons3. THE USAs IMMIGRATION POLICIES

    Many Japs migrated to USShortage of landRising populationAt first, US accepted them freelyEarly 20th C US Govt concerned at the level of immigrationStarted to put some restrictions

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons3.THE USAs IMMIGRATION POLICIES

    1922 Supreme Court ruled that only Japanese born in the US could become citizens1924 USA immigration policy changed to exclude all Orientals, including japaneseJaps felt insulted by this discriminationMeant that those with relatives who migrated earlier to the US could no longer join them there

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons4.THE USAs ECONOMIC POLICIES

    USA and other countries imposed tariffs on imports in 1920s and 1930sResult Japan did less and less trade with USMore isolated from the US as it was less necessary to maintain good relations with the US GovtJapan also began to look for other markets for its goods

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons5.GROWING DISSATISFACTION WITH THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT

    1920s Democratic government not seen to be successful for a few reasons

    It did not solve Japans economic and social problemsFarmers and workers tried to organize a political party ruthlessly put down by policeGD caused farmers and workers to resent the govt even moreBlamed for wide-spread poverty and other economic problems

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons5.GROWING DISSATISFACTION WITH THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT

    2.Democracy was not popular with the armyGovt seen as weak and ineffectiveEvidence : Baron Shidehara, Foreign Minister from 1924 to 27 Advocated peaceful economic expansion policy in ChinaTried to gain more trading privileges through a policy of friendship with ChinaArmys view policy too soft on the ChineseNot the right way to strengthen Japans economic hold over ChinaSaw such policies as weakening Japans position

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons5.GROWING DISSATISFACTION WITH THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT

    Democracy was not popular with the army

    Armys solution to solve Japans problem An aggressive foreign policy using the armed forces to build up an overseas empire and make Japan strong and powerfulAnother aspect of militarismArmy felt that govt had betrayed Japan in its dealings with foreign powersEvidence : The Washington Naval Conference humiliating and showed disregard for Japans national security

  • Political ReasonsFIVE Reasons5.GROWING DISSATISFACTION WITH THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT

    Democracy was not popular with the army

    Most army recruits were peasants who suffered in the 1920sRank-and-file as well as officers disgusted with the weak democratic governmentArmys discontent with the govt was a direct cause of the Mukden IncidentLed to Japan seizing control of Manchuria in 1931-32

  • Copyright reserved 2001From the histerical notes of the Ancient Library of