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    85:1544-1555, 1998.J Appl PhysiolSebastianelliWilliam J. Kraemer, Jeff S. Volek, Jill A. Bush, Margot Putukian and Wayne J.supplementationheavy-resistance exercise with or without nutritionalHormonal responses to consecutive days of

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    can be found at:Journal of Applied PhysiologyaboutAdditional material and information

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    ISSN: 0363-6143, ESSN: 1522-1563. Visit our website at http://www.the-aps.org/.Physiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD 20814-3991. Copyright 1998 by the American Physiological Society.those papers emphasizing adaptive and integrative mechanisms. It is published 12 times a year (monthly) by the American

    publishes original papers that deal with diverse areas of research in applied physiology, especiallyJournal of Applied Physiology

    http://jap.physiology.org/content/85/4/1544.full.html#ref-list-1http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.full.pdfhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.full.htmlhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.abstract.htmlhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.abstract.htmlhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.full.htmlhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.full.pdfhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.full.pdfhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.full.htmlhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.abstract.htmlhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.full.htmlhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.full.pdfhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.abstract.htmlhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.full.htmlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.full.pdfhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.full.htmlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.abstract.htmlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.full.htmlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.full.pdfhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.abstract.htmlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.full.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.full.pdfhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.full.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.abstract.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.full.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.full.pdfhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.abstract.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.full.htmlhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.full.pdfhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.full.htmlhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.abstract.htmlhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.full.htmlhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.full.pdfhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.abstract.htmlhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.full.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/85/4/1544.full.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/85/4/1544.full.htmlhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.full.pdfhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.full.htmlhttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/287/1/E1.abstract.htmlhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.full.pdfhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.full.htmlhttp://www.jacn.org/content/23/4/322.abstract.htmlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.full.pdfhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.full.htmlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/81/6/1442.abstract.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.full.pdfhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.full.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.abstract.htmlhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.full.pdfhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.full.htmlhttp://endo.endojournals.org/content/152/1/164.abstract.htmlhttp://jap.physiology.org/content/85/4/1544.full.html#ref-list-1
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    creased immediatelypostexercise and stayed elevatedabove baseline through 60 min postexercise.Comparedwith placebo, lactate concentrationswere significantlylower during supplementation at several time points ondays2and3. Immediately postexercise on days1 and2duringplacebo, there was a significant increaseinCKactivity which remained above preexercise values theentire60minon day1 and15minpostexerciseon day2.Therewerenosignificantdifferences between treat-ment conditionsinCK activity. Serumglucose concen-trations were significantly elevated above preexerciseconcentrations at30 and45minpostexerciseon days1and 2and 15 and 30 minpostexercise on day3duringsupplementation, whereas glucose remained stable dur-ing placebo. Compared with placebo, supplementationresulted in significantlyhigher glucose concentrationsat 30 and 45 min postexercise on day2 and a signifi-cantly lowerpreexercise value on day3.

    Serum total testosterone and SHBG responses areshown in Fig. 2. Testosterone significantly increasedimmediately postexercise for both treatmentconditionson all 3 days. After the immediate postexercise in-

    crease, total testosterone concentrations declined tobelow resting values on day 3 during placebo and ondays 2 and 3 during supplementation. Testosteroneconcentrations were significantly higher during pla-ceboat restand45minpostexerciseon day2andat30min postexercise on day 3. There were no significantdifferences for any time points on days2 and 3 com-paredwithcorresponding timepoints on day1.Serum

    SHBGconcentrations tended toincreasewithexerciseand thendecline below resting values.Comparedwithday1, immediate postexercise values during supplemen-tation were lower on days 2 and 3. Similar to totaltestosterone, SHBG values during placebowere signifi-cantly higher at several time points compared withthose during supplementation. There were no signifi-cant differences in the free-androgen index (total testos-terone/SHBG) between treatment conditions at anytime pointon any day (Table 4).

    Serum growth hormone concentrations significantlyincreased immediately postexercise and returned toresting concentrations by 60 min of recovery (Fig. 3).On day1,growth hormoneconcentrationsat0, 15,and

    Fig. 2. Serum total testosterone (A) and sexhormone-binding globulin (SHBG; B ) r esponses t o 3 consecutivedays of heavy-resistance exercise. During the supple-ment condition, subjects consumed a protein-carbohy-drate drink2 h beforeand immediatelyafterworkouts,and duringplacebo conditionsubjects consumeda pla-cebodrinkat the sametime points.Values are means 6SE. 0, 15, 30, 45, and60,postexercisetimepoints (min).*P# 0.05 from co rrespondingpreexercise value. P#0.05 from corresponding value for Placebo. P# 0.05from corresponding time pointon day1.

    1548 RESISTANCE EXERCISE, SUPPLEMENTATION, AND HORMONES

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    increased clearance of lactate via gluconeogenesis inthe liveroroxidation by skeletal muscle.

    Testosterone concentrations increased immediatelypostexercise and then returned toward resting levelsover the next 60 min of recovery for placebo. In con-trast, testosterone fell to below resting values duringsupplementation. Chandleret al. (8) observed a similarphenomenon in men who consumed a liquid supple-ment containing both protein and carbohydrate com-pared with a noncaloric placebo. These data indicate

    that calories, in the form