It ’ s their cloud, not yours!
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contentsresidents & visitors
bring your own everything
approaches to personalisation
the personal cloud: a glimpse at a future
how do we respond?
residents & visitors
Web-users are either residents or visitorsa new way of framing types of users conceived by David White (Oxford University)
We found that our students could not be usefully categorised as Digital Natives or Digital Immigrants. i.e. This distinction does not help guide the implementation of technologies it simply provides the excuse that some people just dont get it which is why your new approach has failed so badly
In effect the Resident has a presence online which they are constantly developing while the Visitor logs on, performs a specific task and then logs off.http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2008/07/23/not-natives-immigrants-but-visitors-residents/
bring your own everything
bring your own device?
bring your own infrastructure!
approaches to personalisation
It's Not Information Overload. It's Filter Failure
Clay Shirky, 2008
building better filters
library activity dataThe University of Huddersfield Library
We have collected 3.9 million library circulation records over 15 years.
If you do not use the library, you are over seven times more likely to drop out of your degree. 7.19 to be precise."http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/reports/2012/activity-data-delivering-benefits.aspx
Local context, expressed as activity dataanalytics are fashionable
evidence-based service provision is the goal
highly responsive service delivery is something to aim for
predictive analytics are the holy grailhttp://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/reports/2012/activity-data-delivering-benefits.aspx
Jerome: axes of personalisationWhere?which campus do you study on? Which library do you want to use? how far from the University do you live? Are you a distance learner/researcher?Who?are you a student? Undergraduate or postgrad? Or a member of staff? Teaching- or research-focused [or both]? Or maybe youre one of our Associate Readers or a visitor to the Library?What?which subject(s) do you study/teach/research, within which of the Universitys faculties?
emerging issues:accuracy, privacy, control
poor characterisations of individual userscurrent recommender systems do not work so well, especially when the context is broad. Within a single, focussed application, they can be made to work, but not across the internet
data is gathered anonymously and from poorly differentiated contexts
this adds up to what Eli Pariser, in The Filter Bubble, calls:
a bad theory of you
cookies"The one site that installed the most was Dictionary.com. A visit to Dictionary.com resulted in 234 trackers being installed on our test computer [...] the vast majority of the trackers (200 out of 234) were installed by companies that the person visiting the site probably had never heard of."http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129298003From the Wall Street Journals What do they Know About You?
privacy, control & the Facebook experimentwe gain personalised services at the expense of the possibility of having any control over what were willing to reveal
the regular mistakes made by Facebook have all eroded the users control over their privacy in the system by making it very, very hard to understand
contract of adhesion - a contract between parties of greatly unequal bargaining power....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Kessler
but - this is not the internet, its just one application. Facebook will fade....
the world is experimenting with privacy
uncoordinated personalisation everywherethe only place this can really be coordinated in a future-proof way is by the clienteither acting directly as a user
through some proxy which is instructed and trusted by the user
attention (data) is a valuable currency
expectations are changing - VRMfrom Customer Relationship Manager (CRM) to Vendor Relationship Management (VRM)
Principles of VRMCustomers must enter relationships with vendors as independent actors
Customers must be the points of integration for their own data
Customers must have control of data they generate and gather. This means they must be able to share data selectively and voluntarily
Customers must be able to assert their own terms of engagement
Customers must be free to express their demands and intentions outside of any one company's controlhttp://cyber.law.harvard.edu/projectvrm/Main_Page
the personal cloud: a glimpse at a future
The Personal Cloud will replace the Personal Computer as the centre of users' digital lives by 2014
defining the personal cloud (1)those remote, digital services used by you, personally
essentially, you have your own infrastructure, provided by a number of suppliers
you choose (within quite narrow constraints) which systems you use
defining the personal cloud (2)as for definition 1, but with the following constraints:
data: you decide what data to store and control access to it
apps: you decide which apps to use from which vendors and what data they can access
terms: you define your own terms of service for anybody interacting with the data or the apps on your personal cloud. You can easily move your personal cloud to a competing hosting vendor if you so desirehttp://personal-clouds.org/wiki/Main_Page
VRM: fourth partiesa new type of business on the net
third parties who work for the user, rather than the service provider
the fourth party represents the users interests
in other words, an agent, or broker, or mediator
a new breed of companies providing such services starting to appear
the live weba very different way of looking at the Web
the Web is fundamentally based on a request-response paradigm
the requests can be enriched by applying contextual information supplied by the client - under the control of the user
mixing APIs, rules and events
when this event happens, send this message to this service
agents which can act as the users persona - presenting a constrained and focussed interface to the world
filters which learn and adapt to changing priorities, sources & rules in a chaotic world
a secure place for them to curate data about themselves and their preferences
systems which use contextual information curated by the user or by their agent, and which deliver accurately personalised services and recommendations
the future - APIs for users?
how do we respond?
responsive (Web?) designdesigning for interaction with users through the same systems interface but on different:
devices (desktop & laptop computers, tablets, smart-phones, even not-so-smart phones)
applications (apps)Image taken from the Kineo website: http://www.kineo.com/mobile-learning/responsive-e-learning-for-multi-devices.html
new patterns - notifications, trusted application...users have expectations about the sorts of features they expect from online services, e.g.:
notifications - presented in a standard way (not so much through RSS as through dedicated apps)
integration and trust relationships between systems they are already happily using - e.g. OAuth
changing attitude of institutional IT supportBYOE is welcome opportunity for customers, unwelcome problem for staff
What excites IT leaders in higher education most about BYOE are opportunities to diversify and expand the teaching and learning environment, while the greatest challenges are issues that pertain to faculty and staff use of their own devices for work-related purposes.
IT infrastructure is middle-ware between institution and users infrastructure
Think of IT infrastructure as BYOE "middleware" the commodities that bridge users, their devices, and their consumer-level applications to the institution's data, services, systems, and enterprise-level applications. IT middleware should be robust, yet nimble.Eden Dahlstrom, BYOD and Consumerization of IT in Higher Education Research, 2013,http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/executive-summary-byod-and-consumerization-it-higher-education-research-2013
serve residents & visitorsbuild a picture of which of your users are residents, and which are visitors
be mindful that users who are visitors in the library context, may be residents elsewhere
consider how you might reach out to the residents in their wider residency
consider how library services (will) appear in each users personal cloud
turn the problem into an opportunitynew literacies
Those of us who work with students must guide them to build their own personal cyberinfrastructures [...] And yes, we must be ready to receive their guidance as well.Gardner Campbell, A Personal Cyberinfrastructure, http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/personal-cyberinfrastructure
we should surely embrace this empowerment of the user?
Very few faculty or administrators are curious enough about the Internet, or eager enough to learn about the participatory culture it empowers, to even begin to imagine how to use or empower personal, interactive, networked computing in meaningful, effective ways in teaching and learning.Gardner Campbell http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/wild-card-character-bring-your-own-panel-discussion
implications for the librarywe need to:
be ready to anticipate a growing demand from our users that they control the relationship more than webe ready to respond to pressure to reform how users activities are tracked (c.f. new Cookie legislation)consider how our services (will) fit into each users personal cloud
the library system:the notion of the user visiting the library system to find resources will become increasingly anachronisticbrowsing as a human activity will fall away, search is king for nowover time, search will gradually become less apparent to the user too the ratio of software to human agents interfacing with the LMS will shift away from the human
thank you!Paul [email protected]@paulwalkhttp://www.paulwalk.net
image creditsIphone: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iphone_4G.jpgGoogle logo: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Googlelogo.pngiCloud: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apple_iCloud.pngAmazon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Amazon.com-Logo.svgAmazon Kindle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Amazon_Kindle_logo.svg
Some Jisc-funded work led by Oxford University refutes common misapprehension that this is something to do with age.Its residents were mostly talking about herethe enterprise is having to learn how to adopt commodity ITBYOD is a disruptive phenomenon - its costing us money and forcing us to re-think our services.Also being called Bring Your Own Cloud, or BYO EverythingTheres an app for thatFor advanced users - Linode - can run everything themselves - for peanuts. Could add EasyBib perhaps...
much of our efforts to provide more targeted or personalised services are in pursuit of better filters.Weve pursued two, contrasting approaches: targeting our users, and allowing our users to personaliseA (tentative) distinction between targeting and personalisationA scale from targeting to personalisation, with recommender systems being at the cutting edge of targeting, and true personalisation not yet in evidenceWeve concentrated recently on activity data and recommendationIn the UK, Huddersfield has been a pioneer in exploiting activity data:of course, this approach extends beyond the libraryThis approach is growing in importance - spilling over into analytics (what we used to call business intelligence) Everyone has a stake in this. At the business level, this is pretty much widely acceptedActivity data & analytics lead us to this kind of approach to personalisationJerome project at Lincoln UniversityI would call this targeting, rather than personalisationThey plan to add Why, When, How, and for things they cant predict, Huh? :-)
targeted recommendation is patchy at bestfilter bubble - where algorithms imposed on you separate you from information which disagrees with your perceived viewpoint - isolating you in a cultural or informational bubble BP example Deepwater Horizon spill or investment opportunityCookie legislation is struggling to find the balance between privacy and usabilityCookies are not the issue - but we see here the start of some real concerns about the easy abuse of systems which exploit our relaxation of privacyit would appear that we have entered into a Faustian pact (not about privacy per se, but about control)Friedrich Kessler - the dominant party can impose a "take it or leave it" demand on the weaker party (think of those terms of service we agree to with a click) attention - sooner or later users are going to want to start banking it a controlling how it is spentVRM coined by Mike Vizard and made popular by Doc Searles of Harvard Business SchoolGartnerthe simple, loose definition of the personal cloud nowExample - comments on blogs. If this is to become a significant part of academic practice then users (academics) need control over the comments they make on other peoples work.Personal Cloud right now is barely beyond the Homebrew Computer Club stage, but things are happening.Already herePrivowny - french company - browser toolbar which allow complete control over what is submitted to sites + monitors what they are tracking.Slightly further out - the technology exists but the demand is not yet therePhilip WindleySome way out yet but it pays to consider where this is all headingWe think of APIs as something we offer to users - what if were required to consume them? OpenID Connect is an example of this.Not necessarily for the web anymoreDid you hear about Google Readers demise? Implications for RSS
Eden Dahlstrom, Educause studyanalytics will help with first pointDoes the library service offering force them into a visitor role?Gardner Campbell, Educause study, (my emphasis) - he also writes about helping students to build a Personal CyberinfrastructureIt starts with a domain!