Introduction to solar water pumping

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Solar water pumping system

Transcript of Introduction to solar water pumping

  • Presented by Subrahmanya Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • Contents Introduction Typical Solar Configurations Block Diagram of SDPS and BSPS Installing the SWPS Applications Conclusion References
  • Introduction to Solar Water Pumping Solar Basics: A solar powered water pumping system is made up of two components, 1)Solar panels: -Photovoltaic module 2)Pumps: -Centrifugal -Submersible
  • Solar module The power supply consists of PV panels, -PV panel produce Direct Current(DC) and are made up of many cells wired in series. The smallest element of a PV panel is the solar cell. -Each solar cell has two or more specially prepared layers of semiconductors material that produce DC electricity when exposed to light. One or more solar panels installed together is called a solar array. Fig1.Solar panel Fig2.Solar cell Fig3.Solar array
  • Series and Parallel configuration Individual PV panels can be wired in series or parallel to obtain the required voltage or current needed to run the pump. The voltage and current output from panels wired in parallel is the exact opposite of series wired panels. Panels wired in parallel, the current (amps) output is the sum of all the currents (amps) from the panels and the voltage is equal to the voltage output from an individual panel.
  • Power law Manufacturers normally rate voltage(volts) and current(amps) output from PV panels. Peak power (watts = volts * amps) is the maximum power available from the PV panel. The amount of DC current produced by a PV panel is much more sensitive to light intensity striking the panel than voltage. -Roughly speaking, if we halve the light intensity, we halve the DC current output, but the voltage output is reduced only slightly.
  • Types of Solar Powered Water Pumping System There are two basic types of solar powered water pumping systems, 1)Battery based 2)Solar direct A variety of factors must be considered in determining the optimum system for a particular application.
  • Block Diagram of Battery based Solar Water Pumping System Fig 5. Block diagram of BSPS
  • Battery based Solar Water Pumping System(BSPS) Battery based water pumping system consists of photovoltaic(PV) panels charge controller, batteries, pump controller and DC water pump, - Water supply for home or cabin. - Pumping at night.
  • Block Diagram of Solar Direct Water Pumping System Fig 4. Block Diagram of SDPS
  • Solar-Direct Water Pumping System(SDPS) In solar direct pumping system electricity from the PV modules is sent directly to the pump which in turn pumps water through a pipe to where its needed. Solar direct pumping systems are sized to store extra water on sunny days so it is available on cloudy days and at night. Water can be stored in a larger than needed watering tank or in a separate storage tank and then gravity fed to smaller watering tanks.
  • Selecting solar powered water pumping system Cost is a factor that must be considered when selecting a solar powered system. Total cost depends on many factors such as the type of system (Solar-direct, battery based) daily water requirements, complexity of the water delivery system etc. For example low volume solar pumping system keep costs down when compared to higher output solar pumping system by using a minimum number of solar panels and by using the entire daylight period to charge batteries or pump water.
  • Common information required to size a water pump system Maximum number of gallons of water needed daily for each month of year. Total vertical distance that water is to be pumped as measured from the lowest level from the water source to highest level of storage tank. Description of water source. Information on any water pumping equipment distribution system and storage capacity presently being used.
  • Installing the system When choosing a site, it is essential to avoid trees or other obstructions that could cast shadows on the solar panels and reduce their output. The solar array should be mounted facing due south in a location where they receive maximum sunlight throughout the year. Solar panels produce the most power when they are pointed directly at the sun. For maximum energy collection, the panel should be perpendicular to the sun.
  • Advantages Low operating cost Free fuel Environmental friendly Easy transportation
  • Disadvantages Variable yield Water quality Theft
  • Applications Agriculture livestock watering / crop irrigation, home gardens and drip irrigation systems. Domestic portable water for remote homes, campgrounds. Pond water management and water transfer. Water supply for villages in developing world.
  • Conclusion Photovoltaic power for irrigation is cost competitive with traditional energy sources for small, remote applications, if the total system design and utilization timing is carefully considered and organized to use the solar energy as efficiently as possible. In the future, when the prices of fossil fuels rise and the economic advantages of mass production reduce the peak watt cost of the photovoltaic cell, photovoltaic power will become more cost competitive and more common.
  • References Solar Powered Water Pumping Systems, B. Eker Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp 7-11, 2005 Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System and Compare it with Diesel Powered Pump, M.Abu-Aligah Volume 5, Number 3, June 2011 ISSN 1995-666 Solar Water Pumping System, Prof. G. M. Karve ISSN 2250- 2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2013 Solar Photo Voltaic Water Pumping: Harnessing Maximum Power, ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, Feb 2013