H.K. Moffatt A SelfConsistent Treatment of Simple Dynamo Systems
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Crwphys . A s t r o p h y i . Fluid Dynamics, 1979,Vol. 14,pp. 147 660 o r d o n a n d Breach Science Publishers, Inc., 1979Printed i n Great Br i tainO ~ O ~  I Y ~ Y / ~ Y / I ~ O I  O I7 roa.so/o
A Se l fCo nsis tent Treatmentof Simple Dynamo SystemsH. K. MOFFATTSchool of Mathematics, University of Bristol.a Received Februury 5 , 1979; in , f inu l forrn M u y 17, 1979)In Part I , the simple homopolar disc dynamo of Bullard (1955) is discussed, and it is shownthat the conventional description is oversimplified and misleading in an important respect,in that it suggests the possibility of exponential growth of the magnetic field even in the limitof perfect disc conductivity, whereas, from fundamental considerations, it is known that theflux of magnetic field across the disc must in this limit remain constant. This contradiction isresolved through consideration of the effect of the azimuthal current distribution which is, ingeneral, inevitably induced in the disc when the conditions for dynamo action are satisfied.By considering a refined model, it is shown that the field growth rate then tends to zero asthe disc conductivity tends to infinity. The stability characteristics of this model aredetermined.
In Part 11, an analogous contradiction arising in fluid dynamo theory is identified, viz. thatwhereas the a2dynamo in a spherical geometry suggests the possibility of exponential fieldgrowth even in the limit of perfect conductivity, fundamental considerations (Bondi andGold, 1950) show that the dipole strength of the field is, in this limit, permanently bounded.Two possible ways of resolving this contradiction are discussed. The first, following asuggestion of Kraichnan (1979), involves consideration of an inhomogeneity layer on thesurface of the sphere within which a and the eddy diffusivity b) falls to zero; diffusion of fluxacross this layer is analogous to diffusion of flux across the rim of the disc in the simpler discdynamo context. The second involves introduction of a time lag in the conventional linearrelationship between mean field and mean electromotive force; this represents in a crude waythe process by which flux has to diffuse into the interior of each helical eddy within whichthe fundamental field regeneration effect occurs. By either means, compatibility with theBondi and Gold result may be achieved.
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PART I: The selfexciting disc dynamo.1. INADEQUACY OF THE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENTThe selfexciting disc dynamo (Bullard 1955, for a recent account, seeBullard 1978) has frequently been invoked as a simple prototype of
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148 H . K . MOFFATTdynamo action, analogous to the dynamo process that is believed tooperate in the liquid conducting core of the Earth and in the convectiveenvelope of the Sun. The disc dynamo system, in its simplest form, isillustrated in figure 1; i t consists of a solid conducting disc which rotateswith angular velocity 2nRk (either constant, or a function of time) aboutits axis, and a wire twisted around the axle and making sliding contactwith the rim of the disc (at the point A in the figure), and with the axle atthe point B.
UFIGURE 1 The selfexciting disc dynamo (Bullard 1955).
The conventional description of the dynamo process for this system isas follows. Suppose that a current I ( t ) flows in the combined circuit Cconsisting of disc plus wire, the current in the disc being radial, and beingscooped off at A . This current gives rise to an associated magnetic fieldB(x, t ) ,and the flux of this field across the disc is
O ( t )= ss B z ( r ,8,0, t ) r d r d8,disc
0here the plane of the disc is chosen to be z =0. The induced electric fieldin the disc is6 = U x B =27cR(k x X ) x B = ~ T c Q x B , ,
and so the potential difference between the axle and rim, averaged over 0,is given by .A 4 = (27cI ss b , d r d f I = R @ ,disc (1.3)
using (1.1) and (1.2). This potential difference drives the current I ; and ifR is the total resistance associated with the circuit C, and L its self

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S I M P L E DYNAMO SYSTEMS 149inductance, the conventional equation for I is
Ldl ld t +RI = C l@ . (1.4)Furthermore,
@ = M I ,where M is the mutual inductance between the circuit C and the rim ofthe disc. Hence
Ldlldt +RI =MRl. (1.6)Note that Land M are determined wholly by the geometry of the system
Suppose now that the disc is driven at constant speed (i.e. Rnd do not depend on R.
=constant); then clearly
I ( t )= I (O ) eP and @ ( t ) = @ ( 0 ) e P f , (1.7)
~ = L  ( R M R) , (1.8)where
and we have dynamo action (i.e. spontaneous growth of current, magneticfield and associated magnetic energy) providedO M >R. (1.9)
The inadequacy of this description, which has been reproduced andelaborated in many papers, is most clearly revealed by considering thelimiting behaviour when R+O, a limit that is realised when the conductivity CT of the disc and wire tends to infinity. According to (1.7) and(1.8), we still have exponential growth of @ with p=RM/L>O. But it is a.fundamental result of electromagnetic theory that when CT+ CO , the fluxthrough any closed curve moving with the conductor is conserved; in thepresent context, when R=O (i.e. o=m) the flux (D through the closedcurve consisting of the rim of the disc is therefore constant, in blatantcontradiction with the conclusion that @ increases exponentially.in the brief description of the disc dynamo given in the introductorychapter of Moffatt 1978 (hereafter referred to as M78), but was notadequately resolved in that discussion. In Part I of the present paper, thisomission is rectified, and the basic inconsistency in previous treatments ofthe disc dynamo is resolved.
L This difficulty, that is so conspicuous in the limit R0, was recognised

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150 H. K. M O F F A T T2. SELFCONSISTENT TREATMENT O F A "SEGMENTED"
DISC DYNA MOThe inconsistency discussed above is associated with the oversimplifiedrepresentation of the current field j(x,t) in terms of a single current loopI ( t ) . This is inadequate within the disc where current can flow around theaxle as well as in the radial direction. When l ( t ) is timedependent, theassociated flux has to diffuse across the rim of the disc, and this diffusionprocess is associated with an induced azimuthal current distribution in thedisc. The instantaneous relationship ( lS), although correct in a staticsituation, is not correct when I is timedependent.
To deal with this situation in a simple way, let us suppose that the discis constructed in such a way as to permit azimuthal current flow only ithe immediate neighbourhood of the rim r = u . This can be achieved bythe insertion of n ( %1) insulating strips (figure 2) at Q = 2 m n / n (rn=0,1,2, ...,n  1 ) along radii between r=O and r = a ( l  E ) where c issmall; any azimuthal current is then concentrated in the region a(1 E ) < r< U. Let J ( t ) be the total azimuthal current that flows in this region andlet R' be the corresponding resistance.
8 , ,
J
\ insulat ing0t r i psF I G U R E 2neighbourhood of the rim.The segmented disc, which permits azimuthal current flow J ( t ) only in the
We now have two current loops I ( t ) and J ( t ) . Let L,L: be thecorresponding selfinductances, and M the mutual inductancet; then thefluxes CD, and D 2 through the loops are 6
PIf the wire has radius EU, a n d if the disc has thickness EU, h en L a n d L! are both of orderp0 u( log 8c  ' 2 ) (Abraham and Becker 1932, p . 166 et seq.). If the loop of the wire isseparated from the disc by a distance b( < U ) , then M is of order pou[log(8b/a)2].

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S I M P L E D Y N A M O SYSTEMS 151
Il LZ +M J ,# * = M l + C J ,and we have the inequality
LE >M ~ , (2.2resulting from the positivedefiniteness of the quadratic form representingthe magnetic energy of the current system. The equations determining Z ( t )and J ( t ) are now
(2.3where R, as before, is the resistance in the current loop I ( t ) (unaffected bythe insertion of the insulating segments).Note that, if the insulating segments extend to the rim of the disc (i.e.t :=O) , then R ' = m and J = O ; we then have Ql LZ,Q 2 = M Z , and (2.3a)reduces to (1.6). Equation (1.6) does therefore correctly represent thesituation when the current is totally constrained to flow in the radialdirection (by essentially the imposition of a severely anisotropicconductivity).When E >O , so that R'< m, (2.3b) and (2. lb) give
dQ2 R'd t L'~ =   ( Q 2  M I ) , (2.4)
so that, as implied in the discussion above, there is indeed a lag betweenthe current Z and the flux Q2 , the time constant being the natural decaytime E/R' for the current J ( t ) ; this process of current decay is of coursethe same as the process of field diffusion across the rim of the disc, aprocess that becomes instantaneous only when R'=co. The need for thechanging field to diffuse into the region where inductive action occurs is offundamental importance for the dynamo process.Equations (2.1) and (2.3) admit solutions of the form
(1 ,J ,Q l,0, c e p ' ( 2 . 5 )where p is a root of the quadratic equation
( L L '  M Z ) p 2 + (RL:+R'L)p+R'(RMR)=O. ( 2 . 6 )By virtue of (2.2), the sum of the two roots is obviously negative. Also, ifQ M >R, the product of the roots is negative, and so one is negative and

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152 H . K . MOFFATTone positive. The condition (1.9) is still therefore the correct condition fordynamo action. The positive root is then given by
p1=[I RL:+RL)+ (RL:+ R L ) ~+ 4 R ( M Q  R ) ( L L :  M 2 ) } 1 2 ] / 2 ( L L :  M 2 ) . (2.7)
As R+O, we now have p l + O (irrespective of the value of R ) ; his is nowconsistent with the fact that the flux across the disc remains constant inthe limit of infinite disc conductivity.?If we remove the insulating segments, the azimuthal current j e ( r , ) is nolonger representable in terms of a single current loop J ( t ) , and a propertreatment of the problem would require consideration of the p a r t i a edifferential equations governing j and B within the disc. While such atreatment might be illuminating in some respects, it might also obscurethe simple features that are best revealed by the above elementaryanalysis.
,
3. DYNAMICAL CHARACTERISTICS O F THE SEGMENTEDDISC DYNAM OSuppose now that the disc is driven by a prescribed steady torque 27cGThere is also an electromagnetic torque given by
G, = [ x x f i x B)dV=  jB,(x. j)dV (3.1 1disc
Now B , is approximately axisymmetric on the disc, andss r j , dOdz = 1.disc
HenceG e z k I [ B , r d r z  k l D 2 / 2 n .
(3.2)
(3.3)0Let C be the moment of inertia of the disc and axle about the zaxis.Then the equation of motion of the disc is
CdR/dt =G  0 2 , (3.4)and we have now to consider this equation in conjunction with (2.1) and
? If R =R and L = C , nd if N =1M2/L? is small, then it is easily shown from (2.7) thatp1 is maximal as a function of the magnetic Reynolds number R , = M R / R at a valueR , = O ( N  L 3 ) , and there p1 = O ( R N  1 / 3 ) .

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SIMPLE DYNAMO SYSTEMS 153Q2 and R as the basic variables, I and J being then2.3). We regardgiven by
There are two equilibrium states (Si ay) of this third order system, viz.@, = + I ~ ( G / M ) ~ , @2 = f G M ) , R = R/M. (3.6)
Defining nondimensional variablesM RR = (3.7 )
a1Y=Q 25 =  t , x=L ( C M ) L ( G / M ) 0 quations (2.1), (2.3) and (3.4) reduce to7X = r (Y  x ),Y= mX  1+ m)Y+ x z ,i =g ( l +mX2  ( l +m) XY) ,
where(3.9)M 2m= L ~r=R(LEM)
and the equilibrium states are now given byX = Y = f l , z = 1 . (3.10)
The stability of these states may be investigated by a standard smallperturbation approach. Let0 X = f l + ( , Y = f l +v , z=1+i , (3.11)
substitute in (3.8) and linearise in [, q , i; e obtain
?This third order system is similar, but not identical, to the system studied by Lorenz(1963). The difference however is not one that can be eliminated by any simple changeof dependent variables. The general system of which (3.8) is an example may clearly bewritten in the compact form
X,=a ,+b .  XJ J.+c . .lk X J X k

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154 H . K . M O F F A T T
(3.12)  r
 g ( l + m )  g ( l + m ) 0This linear system has solutions (t, ~ , )cheP' provided p satisfies the cubicequation
f ( p ) = p 3 + p 2 ( r+ 1+m )+ pg(1 + m )+ 2 rg =0. (3.13)This equation has roots 0, pf iv , where a>0, and the condition forlinear instability ( p>0) is
i.e.(3.14)' L2, or equivalently >1+ m ) 2r >  1 m R L L :  2 M 2 '
The corresponding region of the ( r , m )plane (with r > 0 , m > 0 ) is indicatedin figure 3.
r
11 rn
FIGURE 3turbation analysis, as given by (3.14).Stable and unstable regions of the ( r , m ) plane determined by small per
A solution of the system (3.8) may be represented by the motion of apoint P ( T ) with Cartesian coordinates [ X ( T ) , ( T ) , Z ( T ) ]as in the tradi

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S I M P L E D Y N A M O S Y S T E M S 155tional treatment of the coupled disc dynamo system whose stability wasanalysed by Cook and Roberts 1970see M78, $12.4). The phase spacevelocity field is given by
U = (8 ,Xi)= r ( ~  x ) ,mX  1+m)Y+XZ, g ( l + m X 2 1+ m ) X Y ] ,(3.15)
which has uniform negative divergencedu , 2u2 du,ax OY a 2.u=+,+=  ( l + m + r ) . ( 3 . 1 6 )
m)  (1 + it seems probable that all trajectories tend totwo equilibrium points given by (3.10). When r > (1m)trajectories in the phase space presumably tend to a limit set ofpoints which may be a surface, or possibly a strange attractor [see e.g.Marzek and Spiegel, 19781.The Bullard limit is obtained by letting r + c o for fixed m and g. Thethree roots of (3.13) are then(3.17)
When r = co,we apparently have neutral stability, but for any large butfinite r , the states S, both remain unstable for m < 1 (although the growthrate of the instability is small). The flow of azimuthal current in the disctherefore has an important influence (both quantitative and qualitative) onthe dynamical stability characteristics of the system.
PART II: Fluid dynamos in the high conductivity.limit.4.ME AN FIELD ELECTRODYNAMICS AND THE aEFFECT
In the following sections, we shall focus attention on a very puzzlingcontradiction that arises when the now standard methods of meanfieldelectrodynamics are pushed to the high conductivity limit o+ O. Thecontradiction is in some respects analogous to the contradiction described(and resolved) in Part I above in the disc dynamo context. In order toprovide a convincing discussion, it will be necessary first to review some ofthe salient points of dynamo theory, if only to pinpoint later possiblesources of the contradiction.

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156 H. K . MOFFATTFirst, let u ( x , t ) be a turbulent velocity field in a fluid of infinite extent,statistically steady, homogeneous and invariant under rotations of theframe of reference, (but not under the parity transformation x ' =  x ). Theturbulence is then isotropic in a weak sense, but pseudoscalar meanquantities, such as the mean helicity ( u . V ~ u ) , re not in general zero.The properties of such turbulence are discussed at length in (M78).Let B(x , t ) be a magnetic field evolving according to the inductionequation
dB/& =V x (U A B )+AV2B, (4.1)where A=(,u0cr' is the magnetic diffusivity of the fluid, and suppose thatB(x,O) is nonrandom and varies on a scale L much larger than any scal1, characteristic of the turbulence. For t >O , we may write Y
B(x , t )= B(x , t ) )+Mx, t ) , (4.2)where the angular brackets indicate averaging over any scale I , satisfying
1, < ,

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S I M P L E D Y N A M O S Y S T E M S 157Then the relevant values of CI and P are given by
a= lim a1 t ) , p = lim P I ( t ) , (4.8)icc t + l
provided these limits exist. Evidence for the convergence of both expressions in a time of order lo /uo (where uo is the rms velocity) is providedby Kraichnans (1976b) computer experiments involving numerical simulation of maximally helical homogeneous turbulence. The convergence ofthe expression (4.6) as t + ~s certainly plausible. The convergence of theexpression (4.7) is harder to accept since it requires cancellation of thepositive infinity appearing in the second term (when a # 0 ) by an equalnegative infinity in the third term, which seems intrinsically unlikely.Kraichnan has nevertheless argued that this is what happens in general,and his computation of D l ( t ) (Kraichnan 1976b, figure 2) certainlysupports this conclusion. Support for this conclusion is also given byearlier Markovian model studies of Vainshtein (1970).Let us then for the moment suppose that the expressions (4.8) doconverge, and that, when i 0, CI and p have orders of magnitude
CIuo, P U010 (4.91(independent of A). If we retain only the first two terms of the series (4.5)(on the grounds that the scale of (B ) is very large), then (4.4) becomes
(d /d t ) (B)=aV x (B )+PV2 (B ) , (4.10)(since V . (B ) =O) . This equation is known to have exponentially growingsolutions in an infinite medium (M78, $9.2). It also has exponentiallygrowing solutions in a spherical geometry; to be specific, if it is supposedthat ( B ) satisfies (4.10) for Ixla, then exponentially growing, ,solutions of dipole symmetry exist for0 lala/p >4.49, (4.11)(Krause and Steenbeck, 1967; M78, 99.4). (Of course, .the homogeneousturbulence description is now tenable only if 1,

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158 H . K. M O F F A T Tbounded, no matter how complicated or artificial the velocity field in thefluid may be. A proof of this result, which is more complete than that ofBondi and Gold, is given in the following section.
5. BOUNDEDNESS OF T H E DIPOLE M O M E N T , WHEN A=O.As is well known, the dipole moment p( t ) of a current distribution j(x,t)= p i V x B in a conducting sphere V : x1< a is given by
p ( t ) = ( p O / S ~ ) ~ y xjdV= (8n) jvx x (V x B)dV (5.1)If B = VY for 1x1 > a, then
where r = 1x1, and S n ( O ,$) is a surface harmonic of degree n .The integral (5.1) can be manipulated by the divergence theorem to give8np(t)=jSxx (n x B)dS+2JVBdT/; (5.31
where S is the surface r = a . Now n A B s continuous across S, and so thesurface integral becomesjsx x (n x V Y ) = aJsn(dY/3r)dS+ajVYdS. (5.4)I,Clearly, the second term on the righthand side vanishes. Moreover, onlythe dipole term of (5.2) contributes to the first integral on the right of (5.4)[by virtue of the orthogonality of the surface harmonics S,(Q,4)and
S,(fl, (b), ( n> l)]. Hence
and so (5.3) yieldsAt)= 3/87C)jVB(X, (5.6)
We note in passing that when B can be decomposed [equation (4.2)] intoa mean and fluctuating part, the fluctuating part must integrate to zeroover the fluid domain, and so (5.6) gives equivalently
& ) = (3/WjV(B)dT/: (5.7)A further use of the divergence theorem shows that (5.6) is equivalent

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S I M P L E D Y N A M O S Y S T E M S 159to
p ( t )= (3 /Sn)lSx(B.n)dS. (5.8)This form for p ( t ) permits the simplest proof of the Bondi and Goldresult. Let S , be that part of S on which B . n > O , and S  that part onwhich B . n

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160 H. K . M O F F A T Twhich by virtue of the effect of the boundary, is necessarily inhomogeneous. Clearly, if U . n = O on r = a, then there must be an inhomogeneitylayer on r = a   , of thickness 6 say, and i t is to be expected that 6 = O ( l o ) .The turbulent intensity may be expected to decrease as r t a , (and it willdecrease to zero if the noslip condition u = O is satisfied on r = a ) .Likewise, the electromotive force 6 and the associated coefficients a, i , . . .may be expected to be smaller within this layer than in the core region
The important effect that this may have on the growth rate of unstablemodes of equation (4.4) may be appreciated by considering the extremesituation in which a and f i are both zero within the layer L, :U < r

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SIMPLE DYNAMO SYSTEMS 16145 requires only that U . n = O on r = u [and not the stronger conditionu=O]. Moreover, the coefficients a, [j,. . . are not in general purely loculproperties of the turbulence, but depend on the statistics of particle paths(see 4.64.8) which determine the field b of magnetic perturbations. Hencei t is by by no means obvious that E , b, . . . must decrease to zero on r = u(although more detailed analyses may reveal that this is in fact the case).
7. OSSIBLE DIVERGENCE O F THE S E R I E S (4.5)The second weak point of the discussion of $4 concerns the neglect of allterms indicated by . . . in the series (4.5). This neglect is plausible when 2is bounded away from zero; however, when A =O , the multiple integrationsover Lagrangian particle paths which appear in the determination ofsuccessive coefficients in the series (4.5) (of which eqn. (4.7) provides onlya foretaste!) may well lead to numerical divergence of the coefficients,despite the helpful factor (1,lL)" in the nth term.?If the series (4.5) in fact diverges when i = O , then i t is necessary torestore the effects of weak molecular diffusivity. We have already noted inthe simpler disc dynamo context the crucial need for the changingmagnetic field to diffuse into the region in which the primitive inductionprocess occurs (i.e. into each helical eddy in the turbulent context). Thissuggests that we may be able to accelerate the convergence of the series(4.5) by incorporating a timelag in the linear relationship between (B)and b. The simplest such relationship is
0
or equivalently&(x, ) = ( l / tA)lracLB'V x + . . )(B)(x,z)e"'"*idz. (7.2)
Formal manipulations of (4.4) and (4.5) provide the relations1
tKraichnan (1979) has shown that the expansion converges (when 2=0) for a particular"kinematically possible" field of turbulence consisting of statistically independent butidentically distributed fields on successive time intervals, provided the turbulence is "not toointermittent". I t is not as yet clear whether this result holds for general dynamicallyrealisable (NavierStokes) turbulence.$More generally, if we write
& = cc'"'(V x )"(B),n = 0
F

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162 H. K. M O F F A T T
The coefficient B' may be regarded as a "renormalised" eddy diffusivity.The time t , is here unspecified, but should simply have the property,characteristic of a diffusive timescale, that
t p c C as A+O. (7.4)The relationship [j=p ' + ,a2 is immediately suggestive in comparisonwith (4.7). Incorporation of a "diffusion" factor exp[  t ) / t ,] under thesecond integral of (4.7) in fact yields the integral
Jh sll ( t )a , z)e('')/'ddz,which converges to t,x2 as t + x . The effects of molecular diffusivity are o ecourse extremely subtle, and nothing approaching an adequate theory isas yet available. Removal of a potential infinity in one of the termscontributing to p in (4.7) by the renormalisation process suggested above,does however seem to provide additional motivation for the procedure.At any rate, we shall now examine the consequences of (7.1), inconjunction with (4.4), and under the assumption that?
t
a' N U " , P'  olo, (7.5)as 2+0. Again we shall neglect the effect of terms in the series in (7.1)represented by . . . . For simplicity, we first examine the growth rate ofI hen
where=
($"I' CA ("1  t , [ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ n  ' ) + ~ ( 1 ) ~ ( n  2 ) + . . , + ~ ( "  1 ) g ~ ~ ) ~ ,n = 1,2, .. . 1.Another possible modif ication of (4.5) (suggested to me by Professor J. T. Stuar t) whichmakes more explicit appeal to the diffusion process is i
28/2Lav2&= (l/rL)k( n ) " (  v x y

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SIMPLE DYNAMO S Y S T E M S 163free modes in an infinite medium (cf. M78, $9.2). These have a forcefree structure satisfying
V x (B) =K(B), V x 8 K b , (7.6)so that (4.4) and (7.1) become
(7.7)(d/dt)(B) =KQ/ZKZ(B),db/c? t=  l/t,)(a(B)+/YK(B)).These equations admit solutions (a, B))cceP where p satisfies the quadratic equation
( p + X Z ) ( p + tn I)&; 1 (.fiK)=O.Provided
there is a positive real root, namelyp 1=  X 2 t , ) + { ( X 2 h )* + 4 t i 1 K ~ x  /1+p)K2))12, 7.10)
and this indicates dynamo action. Now however, as A+O (so that t i 1 0also), we have p , +O and the resulting field structure is therefore steady(rather than exponentially growing) in the limit 1=0.A similar property obviously holds for dynamotype solutions of (4.4)and (7.1) in a spherical geometry. In this case, the relevant solutions donot satisfy the forcefree conditions (7.6), but they do satisfy the higherorder Beltrami conditionsV x V x (B)=KV x (B), V x V x B=KV x Q , (7.11 )(cf. the discussion of M78, 59.4) and it is not difficult to show that thegrowth rate is still given by (7.10) where lKla satisfies
J, , IjZ(1KI40, ( n = 132,. . I , (7.12)J,(x) denoting the Bessel function of order m. The smallest root (withn= 1) s lKla~4.49, nd the inequality (7.9) is satisfied provided
alaJ>4.49(A +pJ). (7.13)Again, however, pl+O as A+O, and in particular the dipole moment of theresulting field structure is constant (rather than exponentially increasing)in the limit A=O . The model described by equations (4.4) and (7.1)therefore shows no inconsistency with the Bondi and Gold constraint.

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164 H . K . M O F F AT TIn the above dicussion we have concentrated on the a*dynamo in aspherical geometry with constant a. This is in fact a rather artificialsituation, but i t has the advantage of being amenable to simple analysis.
In the solar context (in which the behaviour as 10 is of criticalimportance), the aojmodel (Steenbeck and Krause 1969) with a distribution of a that is antisymmetric about the equatorial plane is morerelevant. It is known that the growth rate for this type of dynamo has theform
1
where cob is a typical value of the gradient of angular velocity, and that dynamoaction occurs (Rep>O) If X =w~lalu4/[jZexceeds a critical value X , of orderunity (M78,$9.12). Here again there is a conflict with the Bondi and Gold resultwhenever a> (B2X,/w~Ix])1'4. here seems little doubt that this conflict canagain be resolved by replacement of (4.5) by (7.1), n conjunction with the meaninduction equation.1
8. DISCUSSIONThis paper has been concerned with the growth rates ( p ) of magneticinstabilities in simple dynamo systems, and in particular with the dependence of these growth rates on magnetic diffusivity 3, in the limit A0.In Part I, we showed that the traditional description of the selfexciteddisc dynamo leads to the conclusion p = O ( I b o ) as L+O, in conflict with thefundamental property of flux conservation across the disc in this limit.This conflict was resolved by allowing for an azimuthal current in thedisc, (or equivalently, for diffusion of axial flux across the rim of the disc);the criterion for dynamo instability is then unchanged, but the growth ratesatisfies p = O ( A )as i + O , consistent with the flux conservation principle.In Part 11, an analogous conflict relating to traditional dynamos of ct2and awtype is considered. If, as is widely believed, the generationcoefficient CI and the eddy diffusivity p tend to nonzero finite values as% ~ 0 ,hen the growth rates of these dynamos are again O(3,') as 20, andthis is in conflict with the exact result of Bondi and Gold (1950) that thedipole moment is in this limit permanently bounded (a result closelydependent on the flux conservation principle). Two possible means ofescape from this conflict were discussed in 996 and 7 : (i ) The growth ratesmay be strongly affected by the (necessary) presence of an inhomogeneitylayer within which ( c i and p are greatly reduced, and across which fluxassociated with a dynamo instability must diffuse through the moleculardiffusion process alone; i t seems likely that this effect will reduce growth
0 .,

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S I M P L E D Y N A M O S Y S T E M S 165rates to O ( 2 ) (an effect that is obviously important in the solar context).(ii) Regarding each helical eddy of the turbulence as analogous to aminiature disc dynamo, it is suggested in $7 that in the customary linearrelationship between Q and (B) , it is physically realistic to incorporate atime lag t , (where t i + s as A+O) between the mean flux across an eddyand the emf generated [eqns. (7.1) and (7.2)]. This leads to the appearanceof a renormalised eddy diffusivity p [eqn. (7.3)] and, more importantly,to model equations for the mean field which are entirely compatible withthe Bondi and Gold result in the limit A+O.These considerations suggest that it would be useful to reexamine thevarious ~ 1 ~ nd acudynamos that have been described in the literatureand, in particular, to determine the influence of (i) an inhomogeneity layerand (ii) a timelag in the relationship between B and (B) , on the growthrates of unstable modes in such models.
A preliminary account of this work was presented at the Woods HoleSummer School, 1978, and I am grateful to Professor Willem Malkus whoinvited me to participate. Discussions with John Chapman helped toelucidate the argument presented in $5.
0
ReferencesAbraham and Becker, T h e Clussical T h e o r y of Elecrricity and Magnet ism, Blackie, LondonBondi, H . and Gold, T . , On the Genera t ion of Magnet i sm by Fluid Mot ion M o n . N o t .Bullard, E . C., The Stability of a Homopola r Dynamo , Proc. Cumb. Phi / . Soc. 51, 744760Bullard, E. C., The Stability of a Homopola r Dynamo , P roc . Cu m b . Phil. Soc. 51, 7 4 4 7 6 0Bullard, E. C., The Disc Dynamo, T o p i c s in N onl i near Dynamics (Ed . S. Jo rna ) , AIPCook, A. E. and Rober ts , P . H. , The Riki take TwoDisc Dynamo System, Proc . Camb.Hide, R., How to Locate the Electrical lyConducting Fluid Core of a Planet from ExternalHide, R., On the Magnetic Flux Linkage of an Electrical lyConducting Fluid, Geophys.Kra ichna n, R. H., Diffusion of W eak Magnetic Field by I sotro pic Turbulence J . FluidKraichnan, R. H., Diffusion of PassiveScalar and Magnetic Fields by Helical Turbulence,Kraichnan, R. H., Consistency of the AlphaEffect Turbulent Dynamo, Phys. L e t t . (toKrause, F. and Steenbeck, M., Some Simple Models of Magnetic Field Regeneration by
(1932).Roy. A s t r . Soc. 110, 607611 (1950).(1955).(1955).Conference Proc. No. 46 , New York, Amer. Inst . of Phys. 373389 (1978).Phil. Soc. 68, 547569 (1970).Magnetic O bservations, N a t u r e 271, 64&641 (1978).Astrophy s . Fluid Dynum. 12, 171L176 (1979).Mech. 75, 657676 (1976a).J . Fluid Mech. 77, 753768 (1976b).appea r ) (1979).NonMirrorSymmetric Turbulence, Z . N utur jor sch 22a, 671 675 (1967).

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166 H. K. M O F F A T TLorenz, E., Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow, J . Atmos. Sci . 20 , 1 3 S 1 4 1 ( 19 63 ).Marzek, C. J . and Spiegel, E. A., A Stran ge Attractor, (Preprint) (1978).Moffatt, H . K., The Mean Electromotive Force Generated by Turbulence in the Limit ofMoffatt, H . K ., Magn et ic Field Generation in Elrc t r icul /y Condu ct ing Fluids . UniversitySteenbeck, M. and Krause , F. , On the Dynamo Theory of Stel lar and Planetary MagneticVainshtein, S. I . , The Genera t ion of a Largesca le Magnet ic Fie ld by a Turbulent Fluid ,
Perfect Conductivity, J . Fluid Mech. 65 , 1 10 (1974).Press, Cambridge, U. K. (1978).Fields, I. AC Dy nam osa f So lar Type , A s t r o n . N a c h r . 291, 4984 (1969).SOL.P hy s. J E T P 31 , 8789 (1970).
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