History 324

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History 324 History 324 The Renaissance in Italy The Renaissance in Italy 1250–1520 1250–1520

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History 324. The Renaissance in Italy 1250–1520. Italy. Commune Contado Guelf Ghibelline Aristocratic commune Concio/Arengo Consorteria. Jakob Burckhard, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) Civic Humanism. Important Terms. San Gemignano. San Gemignano. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of History 324

History 324 History 324

The Renaissance in ItalyThe Renaissance in Italy

1250–15201250–1520

ItalyItaly

Important TermsImportant Terms

CommuneCommune ContadoContado Guelf Guelf GhibellineGhibelline Aristocratic Aristocratic

communecommune Concio/ArengoConcio/Arengo ConsorteriaConsorteria

Jakob Burckhard, Jakob Burckhard, The Civilization of The Civilization of the Renaissance in the Renaissance in ItalyItaly (1860) (1860)

Civic HumanismCivic Humanism

San GemignanoSan Gemignano

San GemignanoSan Gemignano

Aristocratic Commune Aristocratic Commune Knights move into the cities for economic Knights move into the cities for economic

and political advantageand political advantage Their agents emerge as leading merchantsTheir agents emerge as leading merchants Knights build fortified towersKnights build fortified towers They gradually displace the bishops as They gradually displace the bishops as

political authority (12political authority (12thth & 13 & 13thth centuries) centuries) Use conflict between pope & emperor Use conflict between pope & emperor

(Guelf v. Ghibelline)(Guelf v. Ghibelline) Knights join together as a commune, bound Knights join together as a commune, bound

by oath, form by oath, form concioconcio (assembly), elect (assembly), elect ConsulConsul

Political DevelopmentPolitical Development

Rival families (noble and common) form Rival families (noble and common) form alliances (consorteria) to protect interests alliances (consorteria) to protect interests – Usually formed of two or more familiesUsually formed of two or more families– Lived in fortified buildings: “Tower Societies”Lived in fortified buildings: “Tower Societies”– Rivalries often led to violence and vendettaRivalries often led to violence and vendetta

Concio looks to outsiders to bring orderConcio looks to outsiders to bring order– Podestá assumes absolute authority, usually Podestá assumes absolute authority, usually

for short period, then leftfor short period, then left

Social ClassesSocial Classes

Aristocrats: 10%Aristocrats: 10% Popolo Grasso:Popolo Grasso: major guild major guild

members, some nobles, 30%members, some nobles, 30% Popolo Minuto:Popolo Minuto: minor guild minor guild

members (60%)members (60%)– Soto posti:Soto posti: non-citizens (apprentices, non-citizens (apprentices,

day laborers, servants, those w/o day laborers, servants, those w/o property)property)

– Fluid bottom: immigrants from the Fluid bottom: immigrants from the contado, drifters, thieves, protitutescontado, drifters, thieves, protitutes

Popular GovernmentPopular Government

Emergence of the Popular Commune Emergence of the Popular Commune gradualgradual– Restrictions on nobility who lose tax Restrictions on nobility who lose tax

exemptionexemption– Towers torn down to reduce noble Towers torn down to reduce noble

influenceinfluence Private retinues (bodyguards) and prisons Private retinues (bodyguards) and prisons

abolishedabolished

– New official: the Captain of the PeopleNew official: the Captain of the People Equivalent to the Podestá, but answers to Equivalent to the Podestá, but answers to

new popular body, the Council of Elders new popular body, the Council of Elders (Concio Anziani)(Concio Anziani)

Political IdentityPolitical Identity Use of political Use of political

propaganda to assert propaganda to assert authority of the popular authority of the popular communecommune– Construction of Palazzi Construction of Palazzi

Publico (higher than Publico (higher than aristocratic towers)aristocratic towers)

– Horse races (the Horse races (the Pallio), public plays, Pallio), public plays, religious/secular religious/secular processions (Corpus processions (Corpus Christi)Christi)

– The Nine in SienaThe Nine in Siena

Politics in ArtPolitics in Art

Siena in the 13th Century

Politics in ArtPolitics in Art

Black Death 1348-1361Black Death 1348-1361

ConsequencesConsequences– Towns depopulated (up to 70% decline)Towns depopulated (up to 70% decline)– Workers organize for better conditions Workers organize for better conditions

and payand pay– Seek political representationSeek political representation– Owners seek to restrict these demandsOwners seek to restrict these demands

Statue of Labourers in England, 1351Statue of Labourers in England, 1351 Harsh treatment of rebellionsHarsh treatment of rebellions

Early Capitalism in ItalyEarly Capitalism in Italy

Reliance on unskilled labor (Reliance on unskilled labor (sotto sotto postiposti) who made up to half of ) who made up to half of populo populo minutominuto– No political or economic rightsNo political or economic rights

Key features of early capitalismKey features of early capitalism– Separation between owners and workersSeparation between owners and workers– Lack of centralized productionLack of centralized production– Lack of permanence or continuity of Lack of permanence or continuity of

productionproduction

Woolen TradeWoolen Trade

Complex: many Complex: many stepssteps

Competitive and Competitive and lucrative, high lucrative, high demanddemand

Dominated by a few Dominated by a few families in each cityfamilies in each city

Prone to revolt by Prone to revolt by workers, e.g. the workers, e.g. the Ciompi in 1378Ciompi in 1378

Ciompi Revolt, 1378Ciompi Revolt, 1378

Condition of Condition of sotto postisotto posti– No political rights, forbidden to form guildsNo political rights, forbidden to form guilds– Urban revolts commonUrban revolts common

Marxist historians see emergence of proletariatMarxist historians see emergence of proletariat Others see complex economic and social Others see complex economic and social

changechange Result: magnates unite against common peopleResult: magnates unite against common people

CiompiCiompi– Led by Micheli de Lando, gonfalionieri, or Led by Micheli de Lando, gonfalionieri, or

flag-bearer of the lower guildsflag-bearer of the lower guilds

DemandsDemands– Est. of new guilds for dyers, Est. of new guilds for dyers,

shirtmakers and woolen workers shirtmakers and woolen workers (Ciompi)(Ciompi)

– Debt relief and abolition of guild courtsDebt relief and abolition of guild courts– Tax reform: end exemptions and impose Tax reform: end exemptions and impose

income taxincome tax Over threw government, but then Over threw government, but then

suppressed by united magnatessuppressed by united magnates Many killed or exiledMany killed or exiled

– Replaced by foreign workersReplaced by foreign workers

Renaissance FamilyRenaissance Family Best source=Best source=CatastoCatasto (1427) detailed tax survey (1427) detailed tax survey

compiled in Florencecompiled in Florence Term for extended families varies by area:Term for extended families varies by area:

– Florence = consorteriaFlorence = consorteria– Genoa = albergoGenoa = albergo– Venice = fraternaVenice = fraterna

Breakdown of Breakdown of consorteriaconsorteria into nuclear families into nuclear families– Change in family dynamicsChange in family dynamics– Building of Building of palazzi,palazzi, variations in wealth variations in wealth

Change in marriage patternsChange in marriage patterns– Pre-plague, men marry at 35-40 years, women c. 18Pre-plague, men marry at 35-40 years, women c. 18– Post-plague, c. 29, women at 15-16Post-plague, c. 29, women at 15-16– By 1460, men back to 35-40By 1460, men back to 35-40

Rise of VeniceRise of Venice

Rise of VeniceRise of Venice

451: Foundation451: Foundation 697: Doge 697: Doge 1172: Great 1172: Great

CouncilCouncil 1297: Closing of 1297: Closing of

the Great Council; the Great Council; SenataSenata

1405: Creation of 1405: Creation of Venetian contadoVenetian contado

Cathedral of San MarcoCathedral of San Marco

Venetian GovernmentVenetian Government

DogeDoge Ducal CouncilDucal Council Senate (300 men)Senate (300 men) Grand CouncilGrand Council Council of 10, Council of 10,

DieciDieci General Assembly General Assembly

/Arengo /Arengo (abolished 1453)(abolished 1453) Bridge of Sighs

Doge Leonardo Loredan

DespotismDespotism

Consolidation of the Consolidation of the statestate

Signoria (lordship)Signoria (lordship) VicariateVicariate

– Papal or imperial vicarPapal or imperial vicar CondottieriCondottieri

– Contract soldierContract soldier RomagnaRomagna

– Ezzelino da Romano, Ezzelino da Romano, lord of Verona, 1lord of Verona, 1stst despotdespot

Despotism: Despotism: illegitimate one-man illegitimate one-man rulerule

RegimesRegimes– Milan: Giangaeazzo Milan: Giangaeazzo

ViscontiVisconti– Verona: della ScalaVerona: della Scala– Padua: CarraraPadua: Carrara– Ferrara: d’EsteFerrara: d’Este– Mantua: GonzagaMantua: Gonzaga

Rise of MilanRise of Milan

Visconti of MilanVisconti of Milan– Ghebelline familyGhebelline family– Matteo Visconti Matteo Visconti

becomes Captain of becomes Captain of the Peoplethe People

– Purchase title of Purchase title of imperial vicarimperial vicar

– Rule through small Rule through small councilscouncils

The Visconti in MilanThe Visconti in Milan

Visconti in MilanVisconti in Milan– Uniform legal Uniform legal

system throughout system throughout contado contado Removed local law Removed local law

codescodes

– Appointed local Appointed local officersofficers

– Fiscal policyFiscal policy– Supports educationSupports education– Standing armyStanding army– Used ambassadorsUsed ambassadors

Visconti gonfalone

Rise of the Medici in Rise of the Medici in FlorenceFlorence

Albizzi RegimeAlbizzi Regime– Rivals of the MediciRivals of the Medici– Controlled the Controlled the

populo minuto under populo minuto under the Prioratethe Priorate

– Introduce Introduce CatastoCatasto in in 1427 to raise taxes 1427 to raise taxes ((estimoestimo))

– Manipulate crowds Manipulate crowds to achieve political to achieve political endsends

Cosimo de Medici Cosimo de Medici takes power in 1434takes power in 1434

The MediciThe Medici

Cosimo de Medici Cosimo de Medici controls government controls government indirectlyindirectly– Financial resourcesFinancial resources– Has political networkHas political network

AmiciAmici PartyParty Balia (emergency Balia (emergency

committees)committees) Scala (staircase)Scala (staircase)

– Peace of Lodi (1451)Peace of Lodi (1451) Florence and Milan Florence and Milan

against Veniceagainst Venice

The World of HumanismThe World of Humanism

Three major states Three major states in Italy by the in Italy by the early 15early 15thth century century– MilanMilan– Florence Florence – VeniceVenice

Triple Alliance of Triple Alliance of Florence, Milan, Florence, Milan, and Naples, c. and Naples, c. 14801480

Lorenzo de Medici (1449-Lorenzo de Medici (1449-92)92)

Ruled Florence Ruled Florence from 1469 to 1492from 1469 to 1492– Creates Council of Creates Council of

Seventy to control Seventy to control citycity Eight of WarEight of War Twelve of FinanceTwelve of Finance

– Conflicts with Pope Conflicts with Pope Sixtus IVSixtus IV

– Pazzi Conspiracy Pazzi Conspiracy (1478)(1478)

– Rules as tyrant, but Rules as tyrant, but lovedloved

Dante Dante – Not a Humanist, a Not a Humanist, a

medieval personalitymedieval personality Influential writerInfluential writer

– On MonarchyOn Monarchy Theory of the Two EndsTheory of the Two Ends

– The BanquetThe Banquet The “Will to be Virtuous”The “Will to be Virtuous”

– The New LifeThe New Life (La Vita (La Vita Nuovo) Beatrice as an Nuovo) Beatrice as an idealideal

– ComedyComedy New vision of afterlifeNew vision of afterlife Use of Italian rather than Use of Italian rather than

LatinLatin Dante Aligheiri (1265-1321)Dante Aligheiri (1265-1321)

Emergence of HumanismEmergence of Humanism

Father of HumanismFather of Humanism– Vita activaVita activa– Valued the Ancient world Valued the Ancient world

for itself, as a modelfor itself, as a model– Wrote mostly in LatinWrote mostly in Latin– Classics a guide to ethicsClassics a guide to ethics

“ “ It is better to will the It is better to will the good, than to know the good, than to know the truth”truth”

His book, His book, De Viri IllustribusDe Viri Illustribus used biography of ancients used biography of ancients—a secular hagiography—a secular hagiography

– Supported (briefly) Cola di Supported (briefly) Cola di Rienzo, the Roman popular Rienzo, the Roman popular leader (Tribune of the leader (Tribune of the People_People_

– Studia Humanitatis: Studia Humanitatis: rhetoric, grammar, poetryrhetoric, grammar, poetry

– Textual criticism influenced Textual criticism influenced VallaValla

Francisco Petrarch (1304-1374)

PetrarchPetrarch

Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-(1313-1375)1375)

Petrarch’s studentPetrarch’s student Learned GreekLearned Greek Wrote Wrote DecameronDecameron

in Italianin Italian On Noble WomenOn Noble Women

– De mulieribus De mulieribus clarisclaris

Importance of Importance of education to chose education to chose good over evilgood over evil

Civic HumanistsCivic Humanists

Coluccio Salutati Coluccio Salutati (1330-1406)(1330-1406)

Leonardo Bruni Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444)(1370-1444)

Poggio Bracciolini Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459)(1380-1459)

Lorenzo Valla Lorenzo Valla (1405-1457)(1405-1457)

Coluccio Salutati

Moral PhilosophyMoral Philosophy

Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499)Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499)– Learned Greek from ChrysolorusLearned Greek from Chrysolorus– Platonic Academy in Florency (founded by Platonic Academy in Florency (founded by

Cosimo de Medici)Cosimo de Medici)– Tried to synthesize philosophy & religionTried to synthesize philosophy & religion

Giovanni Pico de Mirandola (1463-1494)Giovanni Pico de Mirandola (1463-1494)– Polyglot: Greek, Latin, & HebrewPolyglot: Greek, Latin, & Hebrew– Undertook a synthesis of all religions Undertook a synthesis of all religions – Rejected authority of ChristianityRejected authority of Christianity– Mysticism & magic made human knowledge Mysticism & magic made human knowledge

greatergreater

The Papacy in AvignonThe Papacy in Avignon

In 1305, Clement V declines to return to RomeIn 1305, Clement V declines to return to Rome– Papal court remains at Avignon until 1378Papal court remains at Avignon until 1378

Avignon PapacyAvignon Papacy Seven popes are Seven popes are

FrenchFrench– Clement V (d. 1314)Clement V (d. 1314)– John XXII (d. 1334)John XXII (d. 1334)– Benedict XII (d. 1342)Benedict XII (d. 1342)– Clement VI (d. 1352)Clement VI (d. 1352)– Innocent VI (d. 1362)Innocent VI (d. 1362)– Urban V (d. 1370)Urban V (d. 1370)– Gregory XI (d. 1378)Gregory XI (d. 1378)

Historically seen as Historically seen as corrupt, but?corrupt, but?– Gradual decline of Gradual decline of

ChurchChurch

Decline of Papacy Decline of Papacy (1300-(1300-1510)1510)

Secular claims to authoritySecular claims to authority– Aristotle’s political theory (ascending power)Aristotle’s political theory (ascending power)– Dante’sDante’s De Monarchia De Monarchia (1313) (1313)– Marsiglio of Padua, Marsiglio of Padua, Defensor PacisDefensor Pacis (1324) (1324)– Golden Bull (1356) ends papal choice of emperorGolden Bull (1356) ends papal choice of emperor– Conciliar theory: Church ruled by “head and Conciliar theory: Church ruled by “head and

members”members”– Great Schism (1378-1415)Great Schism (1378-1415)

Papal control of ChurchPapal control of Church– Fiscal and legal innovationsFiscal and legal innovations

Renaissance PapacyRenaissance Papacy Temporal rulers first, Temporal rulers first,

spiritual rulers secondspiritual rulers second– Pius II (1458-1464)Pius II (1458-1464)

Diplomat & scholarDiplomat & scholar– Calixtus III (1455-1458) Calixtus III (1455-1458)

Alonso BorgiaAlonso Borgia– Alexander VI (1492-Alexander VI (1492-

1503) Rodrigo Borgia1503) Rodrigo Borgia– Julius II (1503-1510) Julius II (1503-1510)

Giovanni della RovereGiovanni della Rovere Art patronsArt patrons Goal: to make church Goal: to make church

independent of independent of secular statessecular states

Sixtus IV (1471-1484)