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Histor ic Pre- ban Post- ban Shangrila Shangrila Shangrila 1. Overall, logging declined and forests increased after the logging ban. 2. However, old-growth forest logging accelerated in areas of ecotourism. 3. High-diversity alpine meadows are shrinking rapidly as shrubs expand upwards. Climate change, burning restrictions, and overgrazing are precipitating this ecosystem shift. 4. Despite increasing forest cover, biodiversity can continue to decline, a trend obscured by simple forest-versus-non-forest accounting. Jodi S. Brandt 1 , Tobias Kuemmerle 2 , Michelle Haynes 3 , Li Haomin 4 , Ren Guopeng 5 , Zhu Jianguo 5 , Volker C. Radeloff 1 Increasing forest cover in southwest China’s Himalayas: a shift from old-growth forests and alpine meadows to shrub-dominated ecosystems This work was supported a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship and by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DGE-0549369 IGERT: Training Program on Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development in Southwest China at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Research Questions Old-growth forests in developing countries need better protection. 1. Was China’s national logging ban effective? Ecotourism is expanding rapidly around the world, because it offers a strategy for economic development and environmental protection. 2. How did ecotourism influence deforestation in SW China? In a warming world, alpine ecosystems are of special conservation concern. 3. Why are shrubs suddenly encroaching into biodiversity-rich alpine meadows? Forest cover is increasing throughout the world, a promising trend for biodiversity. 4. Is increasing forest cover in SW China beneficial for biodiversity? Acknowledgements Affiliations Contact Information 1 Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin- Madison 2 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam, Germany 3 Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison 4 Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming, China. 5 Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jodi Brandt Department of Forest Ecology and Management Phone: 608-265-9219 University of Wisconsin-Madison Fax: 608-262-9922 1630 Linden Drive E-mail: [email protected] Madison, WI 53706 http://silvis.forest.wisc.edu 1. Was China’s national logging ban effective? Logging declined throughout the study area, except for around Shangrila city. Old-growth forest clearing accelerated, especially in Shangrila County. Technical Approach We used Landsat images, Support Vector Machines and multi-temporal change classification to analyze forest and alpine change in 3 time periods: Historic (1975-1990) 10 years before the national logging ban (Pre- ban, 1990-2000) 10 years following the logging ban (Post-ban, 2000-2009) Area-adjusted overall accuracy was 92% for the Historic classification and 93% for the Pre-ban and Post- ban classifications. 3. Why are shrubs suddenly encroaching into biodiversity-rich alpine meadows? Between 1990 and 2009, 39% of meadows converted to shrubs. Shrub establishment was triggered by declining snowfall and burning regulations designed to prevent forest fires. Overgrazing accelerated shrub expansion. 4. Is increasing forest cover beneficial for biodiversity? Non-pine scrub forests are not on a trajectory to high- diversity ecosystems. The tourism industry, centered on Shangrila city, has caused rapid development and population growth. Conclusions The overall increase in forest cover represents an increase in the non-pine scrub class (from 11% to 24%), while old-growth and pine forests declined. 2. How did ecotourism influence deforestation? Recent old-growth forest logging supplies timber to build larger houses and more tourist accommodations in Shangrila city and surrounding villages.

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Increasing forest cover in southwest China’s Himalayas: a shift from old-growth forests and alpine meadows to shrub-dominated ecosystems. Jodi S. Brandt 1 , Tobias Kuemmerle 2 , Michelle Haynes 3 , Li Haomin 4 , Ren Guopeng 5 , Zhu Jianguo 5 , Volker C. Radeloff 1. Research Questions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Historic

Page 1: Historic

Historic Pre-ban Post-ban

Shangrila ShangrilaShangrila

1. Overall, logging declined and forests increased after the logging ban.

2. However, old-growth forest logging accelerated in areas of ecotourism.

3. High-diversity alpine meadows are shrinking rapidly as shrubs expand upwards. Climate change, burning restrictions, and overgrazing are precipitating this ecosystem shift.

4. Despite increasing forest cover, biodiversity can continue to decline, a trend obscured by simple forest-versus-non-forest accounting.

Jodi S. Brandt1, Tobias Kuemmerle2, Michelle Haynes3, Li Haomin4, Ren Guopeng5, Zhu Jianguo5, Volker C. Radeloff1

Increasing forest cover in southwest China’s Himalayas: a shift from old-growth forests and alpine meadows to shrub-dominated ecosystems

This work was supported a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship and by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DGE-0549369 IGERT: Training Program on Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development in Southwest China at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Research Questions

Old-growth forests in developing countries need better protection.

1. Was China’s national logging ban effective?

Ecotourism is expanding rapidly around the world, because it offers a strategy for economic development and environmental protection.

2. How did ecotourism influence deforestation in SW China?

In a warming world, alpine ecosystems are of special conservation concern.

3. Why are shrubs suddenly encroaching into biodiversity-rich alpine meadows?

Forest cover is increasing throughout the world, a promising trend for biodiversity.

4. Is increasing forest cover in SW China beneficial for biodiversity?

Acknowledgements Affiliations Contact Information1 Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison2 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam, Germany3 Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison4 Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming, China.5 Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China

Jodi BrandtDepartment of Forest Ecology and Management Phone: 608-265-9219University of Wisconsin-Madison Fax: 608-262-99221630 Linden Drive E-mail: [email protected], WI 53706 http://silvis.forest.wisc.edu

1. Was China’s national logging ban effective?

Logging declined throughout the study area, except for around Shangrila city.

Old-growth forest clearing accelerated, especially in Shangrila County.

Technical Approach

We used Landsat images, Support Vector Machines and multi-temporal change classification to analyze forest and alpine change in 3 time periods:

• Historic (1975-1990)• 10 years before the national logging ban (Pre-ban, 1990-2000)• 10 years following the logging ban (Post-ban, 2000-2009)

Area-adjusted overall accuracy was 92% for the Historic classification and 93% for the Pre-ban and Post-ban classifications.

3. Why are shrubs suddenly encroaching into biodiversity-rich alpine meadows?

Between 1990 and 2009, 39% of meadows converted to shrubs.

Shrub establishment was triggered by declining snowfall and burning regulations designed to prevent forest fires.

Overgrazing accelerated shrub expansion.

4. Is increasing forest cover beneficial for biodiversity?

Non-pine scrub forests are not on a trajectory to high-diversity ecosystems.

The tourism industry, centered on Shangrila city, has caused rapid development and population growth.

ConclusionsThe overall increase in forest cover represents an increase in the non-pine scrub class (from 11% to 24%), while old-growth and pine forests declined.

2. How did ecotourism influence deforestation?

Recent old-growth forest logging supplies timber to build larger houses and more tourist accommodations in Shangrila city and surrounding villages.

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Jodi S. Brandt1, Tobias Kuemmerle2, Michelle Haynes3, Li Haomin4, Ren Guopeng5, Zhu Jianguo5, Volker C. Radeloff1

Increasing forest cover in southwest China: a shift from old-growth forests and alpine meadows to shrub-dominated ecosystems

This work was supported a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship and by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DGE-0549369 IGERT: Training Program on Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development in Southwest China at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Study Area

The mountains of Southwest China are China’s only biodiversity hotspot.

Northwest Yunnan is home to the most biologically-diverse temperate forests in the world.

The alpine zones are at the southern edge of the Greater Himalayan region, which is undergoing warming > 3x global average, and rapid vegetation change.

Fig. 4: Landsat TM scene 186/26 Sep. 2000, bands 4,5,3. Note differences in forest cover at the Polish-Ukrainian border

Acknowledgements Affiliations Contact Information1 Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison2 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam, Germany3 Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison4 Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming, China.5 Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China

Jodi BrandtDepartment of Forest Ecology and Management Phone: 608-265-9219University of Wisconsin-Madison Fax: 608-262-99221630 Linden Drive E-mail: [email protected], WI 53706 http://silvis.forest.wisc.edu

1. Was the national logging ban effective to limit logging? How did ecotourism influence LCLUC patterns?

Logging declined throughout the study area, except for around Shangrila City.

Old-growth forest clearing has accelerated in Shangrila County

Technical Approach

Landsat TM/ETM+ images, Support Vector Machines and a multi-temporal change classification.

Area-adjusted overall accuracy was 92% for the Historic classification and 93% for the Pre-ban and Post-ban classifications.

Historic Pre-ban Post-ban

Shangrila ShangrilaShangrila

2. Why are shrubs suddenly encroaching into biodiversity-rich alpine meadows?

Between 1990 and 2009, 39% of meadows converted to shrubs.

Shrub establishment was triggered by declining snowfall and burning regulations designed to prevent forest fires.

Overgrazing accelerated shrub expansion.

Multiple factors, including climate change, policy, and land use practices, interact with each other in highly coupled social-ecological systems and can precipitate rapid shifts in vulnerable alpine ecosystems

3. Is increasing forest cover beneficial for biodiversity?

1990

2009

The tourism industry has caused rapid development around Shangrila City.

Conclusions

The overall increase in forest cover represents an increase in the non-pine scrub class (from 11% to 24%), while old-growth and pine forests declined.

Rapid development may pose inherent risks to forest diversity, even when it is balanced when environmental protection,. Even with increasing forest cover, high diversity ecosystems disappeared.Interactions between climate change, policy, and land use practices can precipitate rapid shifts in vulnerable ecosystems.Simple forest versus non-forest accounting considers all forests equal, limiting its usefulness to monitor biodiversity.

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