Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

of 65 /65
Table of content Contents Introduction................................................. 3 1 CHAPTER ONE............................................... 4 1.1 BACKROUND OF MOHA......................................4 1.1.1 BRIEF HISTORY.......................................4 1.1.2 Standards achieved..................................5 1.1.3 Markets........................................... 5 1.1.4 Corporate Citizenship and Social Responsibility.....5 1.1.4 Future Plans..........................................6 1.1.5 Projects under Implementation.........................6 1.1.6 Investment Projects.................................6 1.1.8 Background of Hawassa millennium plant..............6 1.2 Main product of the company.........................7 1.3 Main customers of the company..........................7 1.3.1 Objectives of the company..........................7 1.3.2 Vision of the company..............................7 1.3.3 Mission of the company.............................8 1.3.4 Strategies of the company..........................8 1.3.5 Values of the company..............................8 1.3.6 Future program of the company......................8 CHAPTER TWO................................................. 10 2 OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE............................10 2.1 The way to the company................................10 2.3.1 Description of the Plant......................13 2.3.5 Bottling line machines.........................15 2.4.2 Variable frequency drives........................37 CHAPTER THREE............................................... 39 OVERALL BENEFITS............................................39 3.1 Practical skill.......................................39 3.2 Theoretical knowledge.................................40 1

Transcript of Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Page 1: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Table of content

Contents

Introduction.................................................................................................................................3

1 CHAPTER ONE.................................................................................................................4

1.1 BACKROUND OF MOHA.........................................................................................4

1.1.1 BRIEF HISTORY.................................................................................................4

1.1.2 Standards achieved.....................................................................................................5

1.1.3 Markets....................................................................................................................5

1.1.4 Corporate Citizenship and Social Responsibility.................................................5

1.1.4 Future Plans..............................................................................................................6

1.1.5 Projects under Implementation.................................................................................6

1.1.6 Investment Projects...............................................................................................6

1.1.8 Background of Hawassa millennium plant...............................................................6

1.2 Main product of the company.......................................................................................7

1.3 Main customers of the company......................................................................................7

1.3.1 Objectives of the company................................................................................7

1.3.2 Vision of the company......................................................................................7

1.3.3 Mission of the company....................................................................................8

1.3.4 Strategies of the company.................................................................................8

1.3.5 Values of the company......................................................................................8

1.3.6 Future program of the company........................................................................8

CHAPTER TWO......................................................................................................................10

2 OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE......................................................................10

2.1 The way to the company...................................................................................................10

2.3.1 Description of the Plant........................................................................................13

2.3.5 Bottling line machines.........................................................................................15

2.4.2 Variable frequency drives........................................................................................37

CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................................39

OVERALL BENEFITS............................................................................................................39

3.1 Practical skill..............................................................................................................39

3.2 Theoretical knowledge...............................................................................................40

3.2.1 A little about PLC (PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER)...................40

3.2.2 A little about sensors.........................................................................................43

3.3 Communication skill..................................................................................................44

3.4 Team playing skill......................................................................................................44

3.5 Leadership skill..........................................................................................................45

3.6 Entrepreneurship skill................................................................................................451

Page 2: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

3.7 Work ethics................................................................................................................46

4 Conclusion........................................................................................................................47

Recommendation......................................................................................................................48

References.................................................................................................................................48

Introduction Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola plant is found in the southern region of Ethiopia and

SNNPRS on the southern edge of Hawassa city. It is licensed under MOHA soft drinks

2

Page 3: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

industry as 7th plant of its sister companies. In 1999 the foundation of the plant was laid and

completed the whole building as well as more advanced technology machinery erection done

and in august 2007 it started production. The plant was inaugurated on September 03/2007

and started producing its licensed products for its customers officially.

As its applying very sophisticated machinery and advanced technology it is producing 36,000

bottles per hour of 300ml soft drink like Pepsi, Mirinda Orange, Mirinda Apple, Mirind Tonic

and 7up are produced by the plant.

Hawassa Pepsi Cola being distributing the products for local customers mainly southern parts

of Ethiopia.

. During the course of production of such products, a series of processes are carried out from

the start to the end when a product is finally dispatched for consumption. These processes are

carried out a serise of machines and their is also utillity lines help to prepare an ingredient or

product to be consumed in the corse of production of a product.

The power distribution of the plant is its main supply is EEPCO . Its contoll system is mainly

PLC control system.

The speed of AC motor generally depends on the frequency of the supply voltage and the

numberof magnatic pols per phase in the stator. Early speed controls depend on switch in

numbers of pols and contrll was only avilabel manually and in crud steps. Modern electronic

inverters make continuselly variabel frequncy supplys possibel permitting close loop speed

controll. For speed controol induction motor however, the supply voltage must cchange in

unison with the feriquency. This requires special voltage/hertz controller. This systm of speed

control is variabel feriquency drive(VFD).

1 CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKROUND OF MOHA

1.1.1 BRIEF HISTORYPepsi Cola traces its origins to 1898 when Caleb Bradham, a pharmacist in New Bern, North

Carolina, crated a curative drinks for dyspepsia called Pepsi Cola. Pepsi Cola later referred to

simply as Pepsi was a mixture of carbonated water, cane-sugar syrup, and an extract from

3

Page 4: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

topical kola nuts. To sell this product, Bradham formed the Pepsi Cola Company in 1903. In

addition to selling the drink at drugstore counters, Bradham bottled Pepsi for sale on store

shelves. At this time, bottling was a new innovation in food packaging.

However, due to major increases in the price of sugar, Bradham began to lose money on Pepsi

and in 1923 he filed for bankruptcy. The Craven holding company of Craven country, North

Carolina, purchased the company’s assets. In 1931 Charles G.Guth of the loft company in

New York City purchased Pepsi cola from the holding company. Guth had difficulty getting

the business going again, but he increased sales by selling larger bottles at an unchanged

price. By 1933 Pepsi cola was sold by 313 franchised U.S. dealers bottled in the United

States, Cuba, and England and sold in 83 countries.

MOHA soft drinks Industry S.C was established on May 15, 1996 acquiring Nifas Silk Plant,

Tekle Haimanot Plant, Gondar Plant, and Dessie Plant from the Ethiopian Privatization

Agency with paid capital of Birr 108,654,000. The Company currently has seven operating

units including Summit Plant, Bure Plant, and the recently inaugurated Hawassa Plant in the

Southern Nations & Nationalities People's Region.

The major products of MOHA Soft Drinks Industry S.C. are: Pepsi Cola, Mirinda Orange, 7-

Up, Mirinda Tonic, Mirinda Apple (all Pepsi Brands), and Kool (Bure Kool and Tossa bottled

water products.)

The Annual Turn-over of the company has reached to Birr 556 million and sales stands at an

average annual growth rate of 12%.

1.1.2 Standards achieved

 MOHA Soft Drinks Industry S.C. has adhered to Pepsi Cola International Standards and

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). 

1.1.3 Markets

MOHA holds 52% of the market share in soft drinks industry in the country. With an

expansion and replacement of obsolete machinery, production capacity of the plants has

increased substantially.

MOHA, in addition to the initial purchase price of the Soft Drinks factory, has invested Birr 8

Million for the expansion of new projects, Birr 153 million for refurbishment and replacement

4

Page 5: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

of existing plants and Birr 241 million for marketing, infrastructure, excluding advertisement

and sponsorship expenses. Also, a significant growth over the years of production, sales, and

profitability due to reorganization of operations has been achieved. Productivity has improved

tremendously with major cost savings and has insured a regular supply of high quality

products. It has also succeeded in reaching new market areas across the country.

1.1.4 Corporate Citizenship and Social Responsibility

The company has to-date paid Birr 656 million as excise and sales tax to the government. It

provided 2485 jobs for citizens out of which 1095 are new employment opportunities since

acquisition. MOHA has been successfully implementing its social obligation by way of

sponsoring different events and supporting initiatives. It has contributed Birr Two Million for

victims of natural disaster. It has also backed initiatives and supports HIV/AIDS victims in

the Company.

MOHA is well known for its multifaceted participation in community activities of which the

'Merkato Adarash' modern city bus terminal project under the motto of "Beautifying the City

Together" is a recent paradigm.

1.1.4 Future Plans 

An average annual increase of 15% in sales volume and a corresponding profit growth is

anticipated. 

1.1.5 Projects under Implementation

1.1.6 Investment Projects

I. Adigrat Pepsi Cola Bottling Plant

1. Project Location:   Adigrat , Tigray Region

2. Total Estimated Investment Cost: Birr 208,000,000

II. Dessie Pepsi – Cola & Carbonated Water Plant

1. Project Location:     Dessie, Southern Wollo Region

2. Total Estimated Investment Cost: Birr 91,000,000

5

Page 6: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

III. New PET-line at Summit Plant: 12,000 bottles per hour with 1.5 liter bottle capacity

(both for soft drinks and bottled water) will be effective in October 2010.Total Estimated

Investment Cost: Birr 130,000,000.

MOHA (Mohammed Hussein Al-Amoudi) soft drinks Industry S.C. was formed and

registered under the commercial code of Ethiopia on the 15 th of may1996. This company was

formed after the acquisition of four Pepsi Cola plants located at Addis Ababa (Nifas Silk &

T/Haimanot), Gonder and Dessie which were purchased by Sheik Mohammed Hussein Al-

Amoudi on the 18th of January 1996, through BID which was tendered by Ethiopian

privatization agency. The hand-over of the factories was finalized on the 4th of April 1996.

1.1.8 Background of Hawassa millennium plantHawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola plant is found in the southern region of Ethiopia and

SNNPRS on the southern edge of Hawassa city. It is licensed under MOHA soft drinks

industry as 7th plant of its sister companies. In 1999 the foundation of the plant was laid and

completed the whole building as well as more advanced technology machinery erection done

and in august 2007 it started production. The plant was inaugurated on September 03/2007

and started producing its licensed products for its customers officially.

1.2 Main product of the companyAs its applying very sophisticated machinery and advanced technology it is producing 36,000

bottles per hour of 300ml soft drink like Pepsi, Mirinda Orange, Mirinda Apple, Mirind Tonic

and 7up are produced by the plant. In addition to these the plant also producing co2 gas for the

beverage purpose and according to the efficiency of producing co2 the plant could sale co2

gas for home consumption and supply it for customers who need it for food preservation

purpose. To produce the mentioned products of MOHA soft drinks industry got a franchised

license from International Pepsi Cola Company. This company, International Pepsi Cola

controls the quality of the products in the market.

1.3 Main customers of the companyHawassa Pepsi Cola being distributing the products for local customers from southern region

(Hawassa, Hossana, Arbaminch, Dilla, etc.) and some parts of Oromia region (Shashemene,

Zeway, Meki, Borena, Bale, etc.).

6

Page 7: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

1.3.1 Objectives of the companyThe business purposes of MOHA soft drinks industry S.C. as stipulated in the memorandum

of association are:-

1. To manufacture, buy, sell, bottle, distribute and otherwise deal

in non-alcoholic beverages, mineral and aerated waters and the

ingredients there of Ethiopia and elsewhere.

2. To manufacture, sell, and distribute bottles, corks, corkscrews

and all type of crates.

3. To manufacture, sell, and distribute carbon dioxide.

4. To invest in other business enterprises, to establish and manage

in Ethiopia or abroad, such subsidiaries, branches or agencies

as may be deemed desirable.

5. And generally, to carry on and engage in other activities which

the company may deem necessary incidental or related to the

attainment of any of the purposes.

1.3.2 Vision of the companyTo see Pepsi Cola being the biggest soft drinks industry in the country and remain dominant

in the market share.

1.3.3 Mission of the companyWe are committed to marketing our products to all groups, treating all customers with respect,

sensitivity and fairness, while providing some of the greatest products on the earth.

1.3.4 Strategies of the companyHawassa Millennium plant uses push and pull marketing strategies.

1.3.5 Values of the companyOur products are designed to give the benefit and satisfaction to the customers with an

affordable price.

1.3.6 Future program of the companyThe future program of Hawassa Millennium plant is going to settle to expand the market share

and fully satisfy the southern part and some part of Oromia of our country.

7

Page 8: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

1.4 Organizational structure of the company

8

Page 9: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Figure 1.1: organizational structure

CHAPTER TWO

2 OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE

2.1 The way to the company

First of all i would like to thank my mentor who help me join the hosting company by

communicating with the plant technical manager. Before I get into the company things came 9

Page 10: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

in my mind; how one goes about getting a place in the company, I think it's important that you

do have a bit of concept. . After I joined this company I practice as an intern for 105 days.

Beginning from that day I tried to see the whole process and workflow of the company.

After i join the company it generally observation of instruments and power distribution of the

company for two consecutive weeks. That were as follow:

2.1.1 Power distribution

Input 15kv from EEPCO which is step-down by two transformers to 380-415 AC. There

is also a generator from main which used when power interruption from main supply. But

this generator is not an automatic since the power from EEPCO fluctuates for small period

of time which damages the generator. To protect the generator switch on/off manually.

Then the voltage described above go to LV (low voltage) room which sophisticated and

the voltages to all machines are distributed. Since the power (voltage) and current is in

phase in any power system but here the current lag the voltage because of inductive load.

So, it needs a compensation, that means the currents and voltages are become in phase by

a capacitor. The power factor is about 0.97.

15kv Utility

mmmnbnbg

ttttt

tttttdtdcfcftt

10

Transformer

Generator With the power of 1250kva

Page 11: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

trttttttttttttttttttan

tttttrtvcvbcbvdfvn

Maximum load of plant is 450kw

BUS BAR

................

LOAD

Figure 2.1 power distribution

2.1.2 Instruments

2.1.2.1 Cable assignment

Power cable: which caarris power from Iv room to the machine according tto the

rating its size would be different. It ranging from 1.5mm2 to240mm2

Data cabel: it is used to communicate the input , control and the output so as to

control the system efficiency it also use for synchronization process.

11

AUTOMATIC TRANFER SWITCH

Page 12: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Data cable types are:

1. proof bus (process field bus)

2. ASI bus (actuator sensor in terrace)

It size would be 0.5mm2 to 1mm2

2.1.2.2 . Control system

The control system of the company are PLC, microprocessor, PID control system,

VDF are mostly used .

2.1.2.3 Actuator

Electrical actuator

Pneumatic actuator

Hydraulic actuator

2.1.2.4 Sensors

The plant have different types of photo electric (p.e) cell that are used to detect

the presence of bottles and to control the speed of the conveyor belt. We have

also different types of proximity sensors transmitter they install to perform

their purpose.

There are also different types of temperature sensor(transmitter)

these are: Resistance thermometry

Temperature transmitter

Mercury thermometer

-Level sensor

-Weight detector

-Flow sensor

2.2 Sections of the company were i working

The plant has several section which help to produce its product. But i try to describe some of

them.

These are:-

a. Distribution (Sales) section

b. Production section

c. Technical section

12

Page 13: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

During this internship period i tried to see things that are related to my stream (power and control engineering) which is in the production and technical section. Work flow in the section

2.3 The work flow in this section is

Figure 2.2: Work flow in the section

In this report I tried to present what I have seen in the production and technique section.

2.3.1 Description of the PlantHawassa Millennium Plant produces Pepsi Cola products i.e. Pepsi, Mirinda Orange, 7up,

Mirinda Apple and Mirinda Tonic. During the course of production of such products, a series

of processes are carried out from the start to the end when a product is finally dispatched for

consumption. These processes are carried out by machines with the following capabilities:

a. Unpacking the bottles from the cases

b. Case washing

c. Bottle washing

d. Electronically inspecting bottles for different tests

e. Mixing ingredients

f. Filling the product in to bottles

g. Inspecting the bottles for fill level

h. Date coding on the bottle showing date of production

13

Plant manager

Production manager Technical manager

Production supervisor

Production forman

Senior electrical engineer

Elctrical Maintenance supervisor

Technical maintenance tecnicians

Page 14: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

i. Packing the bottles back to the cases

j. Conveying the bottles and cases in the whole process.

Besides to the above machines, utility lines help prepare an ingredient or a product to be

consumed in the course of production of a product. These include:

a. Carbon Dioxide plant

b. Boiler plant

c. Chiller and Compressor plant

2.3.2 Carbondioxide (Co2) plant The raw material for the production of CO2 is oil. The process of production is started by burning oil in the burner. The flue gas which among other things contains CO2 and small amount of sulfur dioxide(SO2) is scrubbed in the flue gas scrubber where the SO2 is removed .From the flue gas scrubber the flue gas goes to the absorber where the CO2 is absorbed by a liquid solution of MEA in counter flow with the flue gas. The rest of the flue gas leaves the top of the absorber. To take the flue gas through this system an exhauster is installed. The MEA which is absorbed the CO2 is pumped from the bottom of he absorber through the ley cooler (MEA-MEA section)where it is preheated . It continues to the stripper where the CO2 is boiled out of the MEA. The stripper is connected with the boiler and from here the MEA which is now without CO2 is pumped through the lye cooler (MEA water section) where it is cooled down and pumped back to the absorber.

The carbon dioxide together with some steam leaves the top of the stripper and goes to the gas cooler where the steam is condensed and the carbon dioxide cooled. 2.3.3 Air compressor In this room two task is performed .those are : 1. Air oppression and

2. Chiller (Refrigeration)Let as see there operation one by one.

2.3.3.1 Air compression

It used to collect air from the atmospheric air by using electrical motor. This motor collect the air through air sucking valves. Since the collected air is mixture of water, dust particles and other molecules it should be filtered to get pure air . the mixture is separated by fluid oil(light oil) .after the fluid oil separate the mixture the air is moved to dryer. In the dryer if there is mixture in the air it is removed by the air filter. Then it finally stored to the air storage tanks. Then it is distributed to where it is needed.

2.3.3.2 Chiller (Refrigerator)14

Page 15: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

This is the second machine found in the air compressor room. Its function as the name indicates to cool the water for different purpose. The cooling operation is made by using Liquid Ammonia and Glycol.Since ammonia is a gas at room temperature it obtain as liquid at lower temperature which easily cool another liquid near to it. Here the cooling process have been done by conduction. The liquid ammonia cool the glycol then the glycol cool the water by conduction again. The refrigerated water is then distributed to the production area.

2.3.4 Boiler plantThis plant is used for te production of steam by using water as a raw material.

2.3.5 Bottling line machines

2.3.5.1 Packer and Unpacker

Figure 2.3: Packer or Unpacker Machine

The Basic parts of the packer and unpacker machines are:a. Gripper head with gripper head operating mechanism

b. Pack conveyor system

c. Container conveyance

15

Page 16: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Electrical Components used in Automating the Machinea. Minimum container supply sensor

b. Container supply stop sensor

c. Maximum container supply sensor

d. Motors with associated encoder and variable frequency drives(VFDs)

e. Pneumatic control

f. Photoelectric sensors

Functional descriptionThe basic function of the machine is to carry bottles to the cases from the conveyor or away

from the cases in to the conveyors. In automatic operation, the machine operates in cycles. In

this mode, the following functional units are activated:

a. Product conveyor

b. Pack conveyor

c. Insertion frame operating mechanism and crate centering device

d. Gripper head with gripper head operating mechanism for inserting the products

into packs

e. Lift controller

The movement processes within the functional groups run sequence-controlled. The

functional sequence of the groups is partially carried out simultaneously. The working speeds

of the functional groups are matched to each other so that smooth, uniform operation is

achieved. In the following the operating sequence within the individual functional groups is

described.

2.3.5.2 Case washea

Functional Description

16

Page 17: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

The function of the machine is to properly wash the cases (bottle containers) and remove dirt

residing in the cases.

2.3.5.3 Bottle washer machines

Figure 2.4: Bottle Washer Machine

Electrical Components used in Automating the Machinea. Synchronous drive motors with their associated encoders and VFDs

b. Pressure monitoring gauges with limit contacts

c. Temperature sensors and gauges17

Page 18: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

d. Conductivity sensors

e. PH meters

f. Solenoid valves

g. Limit switches

h. Ultrasonic transmitters and receivers

i. Force transducers

j. Level sensors

k. Pump motors and induction motors

Functional Description The function of the machine is to properly wash the bottles and remove dirt residing in the

bottles. They are cleaned in such a way that a product is safe to be filled into.

Water Flow

Fresh water

Cold water

Warm water 2

Warm water 1

prejetting

high-pressure prejetting

The fresh water flows like a cascade through the machine in the direction opposite that of

bottle conveyance. By doing so, the contents of the tanks are continually rejuvenated. The

alkalinity is continually reduced, and the temperature of the re-cooling sections is

automatically and optimally graduated. A pressure reducer ahead of the fresh water valves

optimizes water consumption by ensuring that the fresh water pressure is maintained constant.

The fresh-water feed is shut off if the machine is stopped. This prevents unnecessary

consumption of fresh water. The last warm water used for intermediate or caustic-free jetting

flows into the pre-heating- section: This results in a heat recovery and at the same time a

gentle pre-warming of the bottles. The waste water generated during operation of the machine

is led into the waste water tank via the overflow of the pre-jetting. With the waste water, the

high-pressure prejetting for pre-cleaning of the bottles is operated. The waste water

overflowing from the waste water tank is led into the drain channel.

18

Page 19: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Synchronous Drive: Due to their design, the synchronous drives rotate in synchronization to

the rotating field in the stator. The rotating field is specified by a frequency converter from a

speed of zero up to the nominal speed.

If the drive fails to start up despite repeated attempts, it is highly probable that there is a

mechanical overload, e.g. jamming, chain maladjustment or blockage of the bottle cell carrier.

The gearboxes are protected against overloading.

Should the synchronous position of a drive become misadjusted, e.g. due to repair work

or power failure, the machine is automatically synchronized during the next start-up.

All drives are equipped with an absolute phase-angle sensor. Their position in relation to

each other is permanently set.

2.3.5.4 EBI (EMPTY BOTTLE INSPECTION)

Figure 2.5: EBI Machine

(2) = Height detection P. E. sensor assembly

(4) = neck finish inspection

(5) = IR residual liquid detection

(6) = HF residual caustic detection

(7) = Base, inner side-wall inspection

Machine stopped if bottles too high or fall over (machine stop cross-over conveyor)

Machine stopped if there is a gap (infeed star wheel/worm)

(B) = Rejection at machine infeed

(C) = Base blower

(D) = Rejection of broken bottles

(E) = Rejection of broken dirty bottles

19

Page 20: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Electrical Components used in Automating the Machinea. Cameras

b. Encoders

c. VFDs

d. Transmitters

e. Receivers

Functional DescriptionThe main function of the machine is electronically inspect different aspects of the bottle, such

as:

a. Neck of bottle

b. Inner-side of bottle

c. Base of bottle

d. Residual liquid and

e. Caustic inside bottle

Using a cross-over conveyor, the incoming bottles are separated in such a way that a

minimum amount of space remains between them. Primarily the machine have the following

capability:

a. Detection of over-height and under-height bottles ahead of the machine infeed, in

conjunction with a stopping function or rejection by a pusher.

b. Bottles inspection in the first module of the side-wall inspection unit

c. Bottle guidance through the machine with two pairs of opposed belts, whose distance

from each other can be adjusted.

d. A blower is used to remove residual foam and lubricant from the bottle base.

e. IR residual liquid detection and HF residual caustic detection, as well as base

inspection, inner side-wall inspection.

f. Round bottles are turned approximately 90° due to the differing speeds of the guide

belts. This allows the production of images of other bottle views in the second side-

wall inspection module.

g. Rejection of faulty bottles on the discharge conveyor with a pusher.

The Drive Systema. The infeed conveyor is driven by the synchronous motor of the discharge conveyor by

means of a mechanical transmission.

b. The guide belts are driven by the synchronous gear motors.

20

Page 21: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

c. The conveyors and guide belts operate synchronously.

d. The machine speed is infinitely variable

e. Detection types

2.3.5.4.1 Detection of Fallen-Over bottles

Figure 2.6: Fallen-Over bottles Detection Sensor

Left:

The fallen-over bottle is not detected - the bottle enters the machine.

Right:

The fallen-over bottle is detected - the bottle is rejected and/or the machine is

stopped.

21

Page 22: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

2.3.5.4.2 Detection of Broken, Fallen-over, Over-height, and Under-height bottles

Figure 2.7: Broken, Fallen-over, Over-height, and Under-height bottles Detection Sensor

If a bottle is detected as being over-height, under-height, having fallen over, or being broken,

it will be rejected

A: Bottle is the correct height and is conveyed into the machine.

B: Bottle with large broken area. Rejection

C: Bottle is over-height. Rejection

D: Bottle is under-height. Rejection

E: Bottle is has fallen over. Rejection

2.3.5.4.3 Lateral Neck Finish Inspection

22

Page 23: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Figure 2.8: Lateral Neck

Finish Inspection Sensor

(1) = Camera

(2) = Light source

(3) = Special optical components

(4) = Frame grabber

(5) = Touch-screen

(6) = Controller and analysis method

(A) = Analysis, interruption

(B) = Analysis, roughness

(C) = Ring analysis

(D) = Customer-specific analysis

(7) = Tracking controller

(8) = Rejection unit

(9) = Crown

(10) = Screw cap

a. Using a stroboscope lamp (2), the ring/thread of the bottle is made visible for the CCD

camera (1).

b. Special optical components (3) are used to produce an image of the lateral neck finish

with a CCD-Camera (1).

c. The trigger signal trips the camera imaging process started by the controller (6).

d. The image data are copied directly to the controller, where they are processed and

analyzed according to various methods.

e. Interruptions in the thread/ring and worn threads are clearly shown as an interruption

in the spiral/ ring.

23

Page 24: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

f. The digitized image data can be displayed on the touch-screen (5).

g. If a container is faulty, a signal will be transmitted to the rejection unit (8).

2.3.5.4.4 HF Caustic Detection (High-Frequency system)

Figure 2.9: HF Detection Sensor

1. Transmitter

2. Antenna

3. Receiver with analysis

4. Rejection unit

a. The bottle passes the high-frequency emitter.

b. The antenna with the HF receiver measures the different conductivity levels of the

different media.

c. If analyzed signal exceeds the set threshold value, a signal will be transmitted to the

rejection unit.

Detection principle:

24

Page 25: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Different conductivity levels of the individual media

a. More energy reaches the antenna when there is liquid in the bottle

(higher signal at receiver)

Figure 2.10: Conductivity Vs Medium

2.3.5.4.5 Residual Liquid Detection (Infra-Red System)

Figure 2.11: Infrared Detection Sensor

1. Light source

2. Residual liquid

3. Receiver

4. Controller and analysis method

5. Rejection unit

6. Trigger

25

Page 26: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

a. The bottle is illuminated from below.

b. Liquid absorbs the IR light.

c. The receiver measures the amount of infrared light transmitted.

d. If the measured value is lower than the set threshold value, a signal will be

transmitted to the rejection unit.

Detection principle:Different media absorb different quantities of infrared light.

a. Liquids tend to absorb large quantities of light from a wave length of 1,500 nm.

b. Liquid in the container can be easily detected.

Figure 2.12: Intensity Vs. Wave Length

Base BlowerThe base is constantly blown with air to avoid blockage of the light during base and residual

inspection.

26

Page 27: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Figure 2.13: Base Blower

2.3.5 .4.6 Base Inspection

Figure 2.14: Base Inspection Sensor

(1) = Camera

(2) = Light source

(3) = Frame grabber

(4) = Optical filter

(5) = Touch-screen

(6) = Controller and analysis method

(A) = Faulty area analysis

(B) = Ring analysis

(C) = Block analysis

(D) = Radial analysis

(E) = Light transmission analysis

(F) = Film detection

27

Page 28: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

(G) = Customer-specific analysis

(7) = Tracking controller

(8) = Rejection unit

a. Using a stroboscope lamp, the bottle base is optimally illuminated with transmitted

light.

b. The trigger signal trips the CCD camera imaging process started by the controller

c. The image data are copied directly to the controller, where they are processed and

analyzed according to various methods.

d. With an additional filter sets, film or glass fragments can also be reliably detected.

e. The digitized image data can be displayed on the touch-screen (5).

f. If a bottle is faulty, a signal will be transmitted to the rejection unit (8).

2.3.5.4.7 Inner Side-Wall Inspection

Figure 2.15: Inner Side-Wall Inspection Sensor

(1) = Light source

(2) = Camera

28

Page 29: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

(3) = Frame grabber

(4) = Controller and analysis method

(A) = Faulty area analysis

(B) = Ring analysis

(C) = Block analysis

(D) = Radial analysis

(E) = Light transmission analysis

(F) = Customer-specific analysis

(5) = Touch-screen

(6) = Tracking controller

(7) = Rejection unit

a. Using a stroboscope lamp, the bottle base and bottle wall are optimally illuminated.

b. The trigger signal trips the camera imaging process started by the controller (4).

c. The sensor in the camera creates a digitized image of the bottle 's inner side wall.

d. The image data are copied directly to the controller, where they are processed and

analyzed according to various methods (4).

e. The digitized image data is displayed on the touch-screen (5).

f. If a bottle is faulty, a signal will be transmitted to the rejection unit (7).

2.3.5.5 Mixer

29

Page 30: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Figure 2.16: Mixer Machine

1. Base frame

2. Deaeration tank

3. Vacuum pump

4. Dosing pump for syrup

5. Deaeration tank

6. Carbonation, recirculation pumps

7. Control panel, control cabinet

8. Acoustic warning unit, signal beacon post

9. Air service unit

10.Connections for CO2

11.Product water connection

12.Connection for syrup

13.Product feed pipe to the filler

Electrical Components used in Automating the Machine

a. temperature sensors

b. pressure sensors

c. flow meters

d. CO2 measurement and analyzer

e. Brix measurement and analyzer

f. Pumps

g. Solenoid and proportional valves

Functional DescriptionThe function of the machine is to mix the different ingredients so that a uniform product of

the required recipe is prepared.

The actual mixing and/or homogenization process takes place at several points in the

machine:

a. At the actual dosing point

b. In the carbonation, recirculation pumps

c. In the carbonation recirculation circuit

d. In the carbonation tank

30

Page 31: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

e. In an additional recirculation circuit at the discharge of the carbonation tank.

2.3.5.6 Filler

Figure 2.17: Filler Machine

1. Carrousel with filling units

2. Guards

3. Grouped valves

4. Bottle infeed with bottle stop

5. Front table with handling parts

6. Bottle discharge

7. Control panel

8. Acoustic warning unit and signal beacon post

9. Closer

Electrical Components used in Automating the Machinea. Proximity detectors

b. Level detectors

c. Temperature detectors

d. Encoders

31

Page 32: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

e. Motor drives

f. Position transducers

g. Valves

h. Shift registers

Functional descriptionThe main function of the filler machine is filling the already prepared product to the bottles to

the required level and covering the bottle with a metal cap.

Automatic Speed Control SystemThe machine's automatic speed control system modulates the operating speed, dependent on

container flow conditions prevailing before and after the machine.

The operating speed is modulated, dependent on bottle flow conditions, by releasing and

locking the container stop, which, in turn, is controlled by monitoring switches at the bottle

infeed/discharge.

If there is a lack of bottle at the infeed OR if the bottles back up at the discharge,

a. The bottle stop will be locked.

b. The machine will be emptied.

c. The machine will decelerate to the minimum speed.

Once the malfunction has been eliminated, the machine will accelerate to the preset speed.

32

Page 33: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

2.3.5.7 CHECK MATE

Figure 2.18: Check Mate Machine

Functional DescriptionThe main function of the unit is inspecting a bottle for underfilling/overfilling and whether it

is capped or not.

Inspection Systems

Fill Level Inspection Unit The bottles are inspected for under filling/ overfilling.

With one inspection unit, only one inspection can be performed at a time

33

Page 34: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

(1) An emitter (2) (radioactive) and a receiver (3) are used for inspection

2.4 Work Task

The work task given to me by company supervisor was:-

1. To show how to re-wind an electrical motor based on the name plate of the burned

motor.

Normally they re-wind motor by using the method that they get through experience.

The way they take data is not familiar with the course we takes. Data they takes

from the burned motor are:-

a. Number of slots

b. Number of turns(counting manually)

c. Number of poles(counting manually)

d. Differentiating the type of winding( lap or concentric)

e. wire diameter(using micro meter)

Disadvantage of this method is if the motor totaly burned out no way to rewind the

motor again.

But, I shows for the technicians how to re-wind the motor from the name plate of the burned

motor. Data used for this method are:-

a. Power factor (cos θ)

b. Motor speed (in rpm) taken from the name plate

c. Operation current and voltage

2. Whenever there was a technical problem and break down in the plant I have a duty

to take part how to solve the problem. To mention some of them:-

a. In Co2 plant, the problem was the frequency converter(FC) of the

exhauster motor not functioned properly. We tried to know the

problem and the problem was the 2µf capacitor on the FC burned.

Finally we fix the problem by changing the FC by newer one.

b. In boiler room, the problem was the water level sensor not detect the

water level. We tried to fix the problem but we can’t get specific

problem, after some steps we decied to shunt the system.

3. Princile variabel frequency drive to control the speed of the motor.

34

Page 35: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

2.4.1 Control system principles

2.4.1.1 Open loop system (Manual control)

In an open loop control system the controlling parameters are fixed or by an operator and the

system finds its own equilibrium state.

In the case of a motor the desired operating equilibrium may be the motor speed or its angular

position. The controlling parameters such as the supply voltage or the load on the motor may

or may not be under the control of the operator.

If any of the parameters such as the load or the supply voltage are changed then the motor will

find a new equilibrium state, in this case it will settle at a different speed. The actual

equilibrium state can be changed by forcing a change in the parameters over which the

operator has control.

2.4.1.2 Closed loop systems (automatic control)

Once the initial operating parameters have been set, an open loop system is not responsive to

subsequent changes or disturbances in the system operating environment such as temperature

and pressure, or to varying demands on the system such as power delivery or load conditions.

For continual monitoring and control over the operating state of a system without operator

intervention, for more perfect or faster response automatic control systems are needed.

Negative Feedback

To meet these requirements “closed loop”systems are necessary. Also called feedback control

systems, or negative feedback systems,they allow the user to set adesired operating state as a

target or reference and the control system will automatically move the system to the desired

operating point and maintain it at that point there after.

Closed Loop Control System

signal

Feedback loop

Figure 3.1 close loop system35

comparisonon

Actuator/

Plant/system sensor

Page 36: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

A sensor is used to monitor the actual operating state of the system and to feed back to

input of the controllerr an analogue or digital signal representing the output state. The

actual and desird or reference states are continually compared and if the actual state is

different from the reference state an error signal is generated which the controller uses to

forces a change in the controllable parameters to eliminate the error by driving the system

back towards the desired operating point.

2.4.2 Variable frequency drivesThere are many and diverse reasons for using variable speed drives. In general, variable speed drives are used to:

Match the speed of a drive to the process requirements Match the torque of a drive to the process requirements Save energy and improve efficiency

The needs for speed and torque control are usually fairly obvious. Modern electricalVFDs can be used to accurately maintain the speed of a driven machine to within ±0.1%, independent of load, compared to the speed regulation possible with a conventional fixed speed squirrel cage induction motor, where the speed can vary by as much as 3% from no load to full load.The benefits of energy savings are not always fully appreciated by many users. These savings are particularly apparent with centrifugal pumps and fans, where load torque increases as the square of the speed and power consumption as the cube of the speed.Substantial cost savings can be achieved in some applications.The general wiring diagram of a load with variable frequency drive includes the power supply, protection devices, the frequency drive itself, the motor and the load.

Figure 3.2 wiring diagrm of FVD

In actual diagrams, the variable frequency drive includes particularly the following modules: The rectifier module where AC is converted to DC The DC link module where the rectified DC is smoothened by a capacitors and

inductors The pre-charge module where the capacitor is pre-charged by a DC power before the

actual power is connected to protect it from damaging surge. The inverter module where the DC is converted back to AC of variable frequency The controller module which controls the proper functionality of the drive and

monitors the drive for any undesired status e.g. over voltage, ground fault, over temperature etc

36

Page 37: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Figure 3.3 variable frequency drive The speed of an AC induction motor can be controlled by adjusting the frequency and

magnitude of the stator voltage. Motor speed is proportional to frequency, but the voltage must be simultaneously adjusted to avoid over-fluxing the motor.

The AC motor is able to develop its full torque over the normal speed range, provided that the flux is held constant, (V/f ratio kept constant). A standard AC motor reaches its rated speed, when the frequency has been increased to rated frequency (50 Hz) and stator voltage V has reached its rated magnitude.

The speed of an AC induction motor can be increased above its nominal 50 Hz rating, but the V/f ratio will fall because the stator voltage cannot be increased any further. This results in a fall of the air-gap flux and a reduction in output torque. This is known as the field weakening range. The performance of the AC motor in the field weakening range is characterized by constant power, reduced torque.

The output power is zero at zero speed. In the normal speed range and at constant torque, the output power increases in proportion to the speed.

In the field weakening range, the motor torque falls in proportion to the speed and the output power of the AC motor remains constant.

Figure 3.4

4. Working principle of empty bottel inspection(EBI) with dityl explanation.

This is discused in botteling line above.

37

Page 38: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

2.5 Proceduer i follow while performing my work

Most of the time the computer (controller) shows the default. But sometimes it may

not show during these time they trobel shoot the expected component (material).

During this time they didnot give a chance to the student since the machine is

automated if aproblem in one place the whole system stop. So they quike to solve

the problem.

2.6 Efficency while performing work task

Initially when i start participating in the work task it challeng me so much but

through time with the help of supervisor and technitian it become simplifed.

2.7 Challenge

The challenge I faced in the plant during the internship time was, almost all control systems

controlled by PLC (sensors), that means these things are new concept for me. To go through

this concept I think it takes to much time but I tried to come up with this concept by reading

plant technical manuals, by searching from internate, by asking my company supervisor. Now

I have a little concept about PLC and its applicarion.

CHAPTER THREE

OVERALL BENEFITS

A skill refers to the ability of using that information and applying it in a context.

Lack of practical skills Practice is said to be the best of instructors. Educators admit this

universal truth, but are unable to provide students with opportunities for developing their

practical skills. Most educational programs are focused on theoretical part. Students have to

acquire a lot of theoretical knowledge, though the gap between theory and practice may be

rather broad.

During this internship time I have gained a lot of benefits according to improving my skills .

To mention some of them :-

3.1 Practical skillPractical skills are developed by course design, coursework assessment, feedback, tutorials

and seminars which endorses interactive and participative teaching.

38

Page 39: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Before I joined my hosting company for internship I have blackbox image about the real

world (industries). But in this internship I have seen the practibility of some of the thing that i

have learned in only the subjuct matter; these are:-

a.Motors(squiral cage & synchronous)

b.Generator

c.Transformers

d.Counter

e.Timer PLC

f.Relay

g.Contactor

h.Overload Relay etc

3.2 Theoretical knowledgeWhen people decide that they truly want to learn and master a new skill they need a book that

is dedicated to that subject with details of materials, illustrations of techniques and explicit

patterns to follow or design source books with examples.

This internship have a benefit for an interns to upgrade thier theoretical knowledge. In this

intership program I found many theoretical knowledge that is not familliar with us before;

eg:-

a. PLC

b. Sensors

3.2.1 A little about PLC (PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER)

Introduction of PLCControl Engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans were the main methods for

controlling a system. More recently electricity has used for control and early electric control

was based on relays. These relays allow the power to be switched on and off without a

mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. The

development of low cost computers has brought the most recent revolutions, the

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). The advent of PLCs began in 1970s, and has become

the most common choice for the manufacturing controls.

Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are the control hubs for a wide variety of

automated systems and processes. Programmable logic controllers are used extensively in

39

Page 40: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

diverse industrial applications ranging from machining to automated assembly. They were

designed to replace the necessary sequential relay circuits for machine control.

PLCs have been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant

for some time to come. Other areas of application of PLCs are industrial automation and

control of industrial equipment. Most of this is because of the advantages they offer:

a. Cost effective & Flexible

b. Computational abilities

c. Troubleshooting aids

d. Reliable components

3.2.1.1 Basic Principle operation of PLCProgrammable logic controllers function by interpreting data coming through their inputs and

depending upon their state, turning on/off their outputs. They are programmable via software

interfaced via standard computer interfaces and proprietary languages and network options.

PLCs function using relay ladder logic programming. Unlike traditional programming in

which command functions are read, interpreted, and performed in sequential order, ladder

logic allows programmable logic controllers to perform any command within the loop at any

time without executing previous commands. This allows PLCs to carry on their three basic

functions:

a. Control,

b. Input, and

c. Output - as needed.

In addition to controlling output functions, programmable logic controllers are good for

compiling data from many sources and uploading this data into a computer network.

3.2.1.2 Wiring Diagram – Ladder programmingLadder programming, one of the programming languages of PLC, is the easiest way of

programming a PLC. It is reflection of the wiring diagrams of some control circuits. To get an

easy understanding of the Ladder one should have an idea of what wiring diagrams are and

how can they be made for some control task. Wiring diagrams

a. Provide information about Industrial Control Circuitry

b. Serve two main purposes

c. Are a source of written communication

d. Serves as trouble shooting guide

40

Page 41: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

3.2.1.3 Relay Ladder Logic DiagramThe wiring circuits used in electrical control circuits are referred to as Relay Ladder Logic

Diagram.

a. The term Ladder is derived from the appearance of the diagram.

b. The term Logic is derived from the decision making function that is performed by

relays

Elements of Ladder Circuita. Power Source

b. Input Control

c. Device Load

d. Device Interconnecting Wires

Components used as Input Devicesa. Push

b. Buttons

c. Selection

d. Switches

e. Limit Switches

f. Flow Switches

g. Level Switches

h. Temperature Switches

Components used as Output Devicesa. Direct Devices

Lamps Actuators

b. Indirect Devices

Relays Contactors

3.2.1.4 PLC OperationThere are three steps of operation of PLC:

a. Detect incoming data

b. Process it

c. Generate outputs to control various devices

PLC achieves machine control as a result of

a. program written into its memory

41

Page 42: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

b. the power of its CPU

Program execution by the CPU takes place in 3 steps. It is called Process Scan Cycle. That is:

Scan input image table (PII)

Inputs are scanned and INPUT IMAGE TABLE is updated.

Scan program

CPU scan program Instructions sequentially.

Update output image table (PIQ)

CPU updates the Output Terminals.

Self-diagnostic check is performed by the PLC system

a. On switching power on

b. Any fault is indicated

c. Then the PLC starts the scanning operation

3.2.2 A little about sensorsSensors are devices used to provide information on the presence or absence of an object.

One type of feedback frequently needed by industrial-control systems is the position of one or

more components of the operation being controlled.

In this plant almost all sensors are Siemens sensors:-

a. Limit (Level) switches sensors

b. Photoelectric sensors

c. Inductive sensors

d. Capacitive sensors

e. Ultrasonic sensors

f. UV sensors

g. Conductivity sensors

h. Proximity sensors

i. PH sensors and so on

3.2.2.1 Sensor ApplicationsThere are any numbers of applications where sensors can be utilized, and as you have seen

throughout this book there are a number of sensors to choose from. Choosing the right sensor

can be confusing and takes careful thought and planning. Often, more than one sensor will do

the job. As the application becomes more complex the more difficult it is to choose the

42

Page 43: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

right sensor for a given application. The following application guide will help you find the

right sensor for the right application.

3.3 Communication skillThe purpose of communication is to get our message across to others clearly and

unambiguously.

In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with more than 50,000 employees,

communication skills were cited as the single more important decisive factor in choosing

managers. The survey, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh's Katz Business School,

points out that communication skills, including written and oral presentations, as well as an

ability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success.

In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals

continue to struggle with this, unable to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively –

whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly impossible for them to

compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career progression.

From this point of view without improving our communication skill there is no success on our

job.

3.4 Team playing skillTeams need strong team players to perform well.

Teams need people who speak up and express their thoughts and ideas clearly, directly,

honestly, and with respect for others and for the work of the team. That's what it means to

communicate constructively. Such a team member does not shy away from making a point but

makes it in the best way possible in a positive, confident, and respectful manner.

Teamwork has a dramatic effect on organizational performance. An effective team can help

an organization achieve incredible results. A team that is not working can cause unnecessary

disruption, failed delivery and strategic failure. Nowadays it is almost impossible to avoid

being a member of team. If you're not on an official team at work, chances are you function

within one in one way or another. So it's important for our personal and career development to

know our team working strengths and weaknesses.

This implies that team work skill is the backbone of team playing skill.

43

Page 44: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

3.5 Leadership skill

The modern view is that through patience, persistence and hard work, we can be a highly

effective leader. This section of Mind Tools helps me to start finding and developing

leadership qualities.“ Our first tools help you assess your current leadership skills, and explore

your motivation to lead without a strong motivation to lead, you'll struggle to improve your

skills or become an effective leader. However, if you HAVE to lead even if you lack an

intrinsic motivation to do so, our Leadership Motivation Tools article gives you some useful

techniques you can use to build your motivation.We move on to look at how you can harness

ethical sources of leadership power, and think about the many different ways in which you

can choose to lead.“ With these article, Iwill learn how to identify useful leadership styles...

and spot approaches that will probably fail.

3.6 Entrepreneurship skill

A wide range of skills are seen as entrepreneurial and useful to entrepreneurs, these include

both personal traits and skills:

a. Management skills - the ability to manage time and people (both yourself and others)

successfully

b. Communication skills and the ability to sell ideas and persuade others

c. The ability to work both as part of a team and independently

d. Able to plan, coordinate and organise effectively

e. Financial literacy

f. Able to research effectively, for example available markets, suppliers, customers and

the competition

g. Self motivated and disciplined

h. Adaptable

i. Innovative thinking and creative

j. The ability to multi-task

k. Able to take responsibility and make decisions

l. The ability to work under pressure

m. Perseverance

n. Competitiveness

o. Willingness to take risks

p. Ability to network and make contacts

44

Page 45: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Other more specific or business related skills, will be of use to entrepreneurs, these may

include:

a. being able to draw up a business plan for a new venture

b. being able to market and sell a new product or idea

c. financial skills, such as book-keeping and calculating tax

d. awareness of intellectual property and possibly patent law

3.7 Work ethicsThe work ethic is a cultural norm that advocates being personally accountable and

responsible for the work that one does and is based on a belief that work has intrinsic

value. The term is often applied to characteristics of people, both at work and at play.

Work ethics include not only how one feels about their job, career or vocation, but also how

one does his/her job or responsibilities. This involve attitude,behavior,respect,communication,

and interaction; how one gets along with others. Work ethics demonstrate many things about

whom and how a person is.

Thus employer expects employees to develop certain desirable traits that will help them to

perform their jobs well so that the company can succeed. Some of these traits include the

following:

a. Loyalty

b. Honesty

c. Trustworthiness

d. Dependability

e. Reliability

f. Initiative

g. Self-discipline

h. Self-responsibility

45

Page 46: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

4 Conclusion This internship program is the best program for college students because i know what

it puts in our life. So i can say that it is the time the student faces challenges. I hope the student learn from challenges. When i say that i don’t mean they can’t learn from their stuffs of the company they assigned. But most of the time, the stuff members are not that much kind to discuss with them and they look for questions from the students. Any ways if they work hard and eager to know everything they will be good to be power enginer . The following things are or being the following things is un negotiable for one power engineer such as:-

Being practically rich

Being confident in theoretical knowledge

Team working ability

Creativity and problem solving ability

Etc...

The purpose of this Internship (attachment) program was to introduce students with working condition and mostly it helps students to grasp knowledge from practicing the theory which they have been learning in the class. I have been working in Host Company. This program gave me good practical skills and made us familiar to the outside real construction world. Most the theoretical things i have been learned gat illustrated here in this program, which develops more my confidence in the theoretical knowledge. Some of the benefits i gained from the internship program are listed below as:-

Help us to improve our theoretical knowledge and build our confidence Team playing skills and seeking for help in case of difficulties without any shame Leadership skill Kowhaw about PLC and sensor. Helps me to develop professional contacts, for searching job in the future . Assist me in developing greater understanding of my own strength and weakness, Work ethics Enterpreneurship skill

46

Page 47: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

Recommendation1. While I have been working in Hawassa Millinium plant the worker of the plant was

complain about their salary,. This due to the company annual profit is good enough

but the company doesn’t give appropriate incentives for his worker .

2. The company doesn’t afford any pocket money for the interns. But the company gain

many use full services from the interns.

3. Finally I recommend the UIL to aware the hosting company about this policy.

References

Internet

http://www.PLC.net

http://www.google.com.et

47

Page 48: Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant

http://www.krones.com/en/

Litrature

Controllers and Control Systems Technical Information L102EN; SAMSON

AG

Modern Control Technology: Components and System

2nd edition, Kilian

PRACTICAL WORK BOOK For Academic Session 2010 Industrial

Electronics (EL-383) For T.E(EL)

48