Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

download Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

of 22

  • date post

    03-Jun-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    219
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    1/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/

    www.forensicmed.co.uk

    Homepage > pathology > wounds > firearms > gunshot wounds - rifled weapons

    gunshot wounds - rifled weapons

    Source: solexlife.com

    Rifled weapons include handguns pistols and revolvers, and rifles. The following section describes the

    wound characteristics of these types of weapons.

    An important aspect of describing and documenting gunshot wounds is the ability to recognise not only whether the

    wound represents an entry or an exit wound, but also from what range the weapon was discharged.

    gunshot wounds - the big picture

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/home/http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/pathology/http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riflehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolverhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riflinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riflinghttp://photos.solexlife.com/post/12712050950http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/pathology/http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/home/http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/home/
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    2/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 2

    Use the mindmap below to see how gunshot wounds fit into the

    'bigger picture' of the forensic classification of wounds and injuries.

    entrance wounds

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    3/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 3

    Bullet wound trajectory through JF Kennedy's skull

    Source: Wikipedia

    When a bullet hits the skin surface, it causes indentation before perforation. Following perforation,

    elasticity causes the skin to recoil, and the resulting round, circular defect is of a slightly smaller diameter

    to that of the bullet. An accurate estimation of the calibre size cannot therefore be made from measuring

    the radius of the wound, unlike in the movies!

    The mechanical passage of the bullet through the skin causes abrasion, and the circular defect is lined by a rim of

    abrasion the abrasion collar. This tends to dry out like all abrasions, and may be easier to discern with the

    passage of time (more useful to pathologists).

    Lead alloy based bullets and dirty bullets may also leave a greasy rim (bullet wipe) around the entrance defect

    (Besant-Matthews 2000, DiMaio 1999, Dana and DiMaio 2003).

    Another feature of entrance wounds, of short to intermediate distance is the presence of powder markings or

    tattooing. Powder tattooing results from the forceful in driving of powder into the skin, whilst stippling is the term

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JFK_skull_trajectory.jpg
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    4/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 4

    used where the powder causes impact markings only.

    The abrasion collar can also be of use in approximating angle of fire if the bullet impacts perpendicular to the skin

    surface, it will be round, but if the bullet hits at an angle, the abrasion collar will be uneven, and more distinct at the

    point of bullet entry (Spitz 1993).

    Higher velocity bullet wounds may exhibit less of an abrasion collar, but may have minute tears around the wound

    entrance. If the wound is made over bone, the defect may not be circular at all these wounds tend to be stellate inshape with ragged and torn edges caused by the overstretching of skin and tearing under tension (Dana and DiMaio

    1999).

    In a review of contact gunshot wounds to the head, from handguns, rifles and shotguns, Faller-Marquardt and Pollak

    (2002) described the presence of 'stretchmark-like skin tears' of the facial skin around the mouth, forehead,

    submental region, around the eyes, and within the naso-labial folds.

    Shots in the mouth also gave rise to radial tears in the skin around the mouth. These stretch marks and tears

    appeared to follow the lines of tension (Langer's lines), and they postulated that they were caused by subcutaneous

    or intra-oral expansion of muzzle gases and/or the radial forces of the bullet causing 'ballooning' of the facial soft

    tissues.

    At the end of a bullets range it begins to lose axial stability and may tend to yaw and possible tumble end-over-end. I

    this happens, or if the bullet strikes an intermediate target (including another part of the victims body in a re-entrant

    wound) and becomes deformed, the resultant entry wound may be very irregular, or even slit-like, and not resemble

    an entrance wound at all.

    Careful examination of the wound edges, however (with a hand lens and good light source if necessary) may reveal

    inverted wound edges and a variable abrasion rim, revealing its true nature.

    As will be described in the range of fire section, secondary projectiles from the muzzle of the weapon, such as hot

    gases, soot, powder and metal fragments from the barrel or the bullet casing etc can also give rise to characteristic

    wound patterns, and their presence can assist in the determination of whether or not a wound is an entrance or exit

    wound.

    When a bullet impacts bone, it is also possible to infer whether the overlying tissues have suffered an entrance

    wound, and to some extent at what angle they were struck.

    The outer table of the skull, for example is punched inwards, creating a circular defect (or a keyhole defect if theangle was less than perpendicular), whilst the inner table exhibits a rough chipped or bevelled defect where the

    amount of bone displaced covers a larger area than that lost at the outer table.

    (For a review of the characteristics of gunshot wounds in the skull, see Quatrehomme and Iscan (1999)).

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    5/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 5

    Skull showing 'keyhole' gunshot trauma. Civil War Collection, National Museum of Health and Medicine, Armed

    Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C.

    Source: Wikipedia

    These features can also be seen in other bones particularly flat bones such as ribs and phalanges, although they

    are not nearly so obvious (Dana and DiMaio 2003).

    Thali et al (2002 (a)) describe the use of high speed photography combined with their skin-skull-brain model to

    investigate the creation of entrance wounds, and to delineate their morphology.

    They describe entrance wounds having the following characteristics:

    Central defect (substanzdefekt) the diameter approximates that of the penetrating projectile

    Ring of dirt (schmutzring) bullet wipe due to black powder residue, gun oil or dirt rubbed off the projectile

    during penetration

    Abrasion ring (schurfsaum) symmetrical, concentric ring around the central defect during a head-on impact

    of the projectile. Tangenital shots result in asymmetric abrasion rings with the semi-lunar abrasion or broadest

    width pointing toward the gunshots origin. This is attributed to contact of the exterior of the projectile with the

    skin.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_speed_photographyhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Gunshot_skull_civil_war.jpg
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    6/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 6

    They go on to say that there is no consensus as to how and when the wounds characteristics develop in the skin.

    Analysing high speed photographs of the development of an entrance wound, they make the following observations:

    The skin moves away from the projectile in a cone-like shape, upon impact. It bulges outward and the

    temporary entrance hole contracts after the projectile passes through

    The head of the projectile causes tissue destruction on impact, whilst the periphery suffers irreversible

    compression.

    The ring of dirt comes from the head of the bullet not the body (which does not contact the wound edges)

    The abrasion ring is caused by temporary overstretching of the skin adjacent to the site of penetration. This

    skin dries out and appears to be an abrasion (it perhaps should be called a stretch mark)

    The ring of contusion is analogous to the temporary cavity in soft tissue. The tissues found at the periphery of

    the cone shaped crater are overstretched and cause bleeding beneath the skin.

    summary features of entrance wounds

    Circular defect (unless entrance at an angle then more tear-drop shaped)

    Abrasion collar or rim

    Inverted edges

    Stellate shaped in higher velocity weapons, or hard contact over bony parts of the body

    Slit-like or irregular if bullet deformed or tumbling

    Presence of soot soiling, powder tattooing, stippling etc

    Shallow angled wounds may graze the surface

    exit wounds

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    7/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 7

    Bullet Hole (1988) - Matt Collishaw

    Source: Wikipedia

    In general, exit wounds are larger than entrance wounds. They are also more irregular in outline, and

    their edges are everted. They exhibit no abrasion collar, and they do not have any features of secondary

    muzzle product projectile impact, such as soot soiling, or powder tattooing (Besant-Matthews 2000; Knight

    1996).

    As the bullet travels through the body it looses kinetic energy, and looses stability. As it exits, it may do so at an

    angle, or the bullet itself may have been deformed in the body, for example after striking bone.

    The exit wound in such circumstances may resemble a knife wound or a laceration caused by blunt trauma. In

    addition to the wound caused by the exiting bullet, secondary projectile damage may be caused by fragments of

    bone, particularly in headshots.

    Muzzle velocity is of vital importance when considering the characteristics of an exit wound high velocity rifles

    rounds, for example can pass straight through the body unless they strike bone, and if the round has not been

    deformed, the defect can be rounded.

    There exists a particular type of exit wound that often causes problems with interpretation. This is the shored exit

    wound, and arises where the part of the body being exited by the bullet is supported by tight clothing or a structure

    such as a concrete floor etc (DiMaio 1999).

    An exit wound that is at the level of a brassier support, or a trouser belt for example, may be irregular in outline, and

    have abraded edges. Care must be taken in such circumstances to examine clothing and obtain details about the

    circumstances surrounding the shooting, as well as looking for other wounds consistent with an entrance wound

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullet_Hole
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    8/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 8

    before a shored exit wound is described as anything else.

    Rifles give rise to the same sorts of entrance and exit wounds, but the higher velocities involved inevitably lead to

    larger wounds.

    When the edges of an entrance wound are brought together, there is always a central defect, or a missing area of

    skin this is not the case with an exit wound, unless there has been massive tissue destruction, and a piece of skin

    has not been located.

    summary features of exit wounds

    Usually larger than entrance wounds

    Irregularly shaped

    Everted skin edges

    No powder tattooing, soot soiling or stippling etcMay have abraded edges (shored exit wounds)

    hollow point handgun ammunition - what

    happens to the bullet?

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    9/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 9

    Examples of expanded hollow point bullets - note how the end of the bullets have peeled back

    like petals, leaving sharp points that might injure the pathologist when removing the bullet

    from a body

    Source: http://ammo.ar15.com/project/Self_Defense_Ammo_FAQ/index.htm

    range of fire determination

    An assessment of the wound characteristics can give a rough estimate of the range of fire, but the only method of

    gaining a more accurate assessment involves the test firing of a suspect weapon and ammunition, and comparing

    patterns of soot soiling and powder deposition etc with those seen on the skin surface, and on clothing (Spitz 1993).

    Range of fire animation (Flash animation from NFSTC)

    contact/ close range

    http://gallery.nfstc.org/swf/ContactShotDistanceScale.html
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    10/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 10

    Hard Contact wounds

    A contact wound is described as a hard contact wound where the weapon has been pressed firmly against the skin

    surface. The action of pressing firmly causes underlying tissues to be compressed and indented, and forms a seal

    around the weapons muzzle. This seal prevents the escape of the gases of combustion and soot deposits etc from

    the barrel of the gun, and they are forced into the wound track (DiMaio 1999).

    The muzzle becomes hot following firing, and where contact is made with clothing interposed between the gun and

    the body, synthetic material can be melted, and cotton fibres torn. If contact is made with unclothed skin, searing or

    burning of the wound edges occurs.

    Hard contact wounds often exhibit muzzle imprints surrounding the central hole. These arise where combustion

    gases force the skin to balloon outwards at discharge, and the skin is forced around the end of the muzzle. The skin

    is abraded and bruised, and may give a fair representation of the outline of the muzzle, including identifying features

    such as the weapons site.

    Thali et al (2002 (b)) recreated the formation of muzzle imprints utilising their skin-skull-brain model and high speed

    photography. They found that the bruise imprint is created by the following mechanism:

    The skin bulges and presses against the muzzle in a contact shot. The skin is split.

    Retrograde gas pressure forces the skin against the muzzle resulting in an imprint being formed

    The gas pressure undermines the skin, creating a powder cavity

    Bruising and marginal tears are caused by overstretching

    Contact discharges also exhibit cherry-red discolouration of wound track tissues caused by the release of carbon

    monoxide from the muzzle that causes the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin and carboxymyoglobin in the

    subcutaneous tissues.

    Where rifled weapons are discharged in hard contact with the head, the muzzle gases and contents are forced into

    the potential space between the scalp and underlying bone, and the edges of the entry wound are forced outwards

    and the resulting wound is often stellate in appearance, with ragged splitting of the wound edges.

    Wound edges are abraded, and there will be evidence of soot and powder deposition in the wound, assisting in the

    differentiation between entrance and exit wounds.

    Contact wounds made by higher velocity rifles cause massive destruction of the head due to the explosive effect of

    the expanding gases leaving the muzzle. Centre fire weapons produce more destruction than rim fire weapons, in

    general, and where the torso is the point of entry, there may be massive internal disruption at a distance from the

    wound track.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxyhaemoglobinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_monoxidehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muzzle_%28firearm%29
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    11/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 1

    Loose contact wounds

    When the muzzle of the weapon is not held in such close approximation with the body (for example due to the

    interposition of clothing or hair between muzzle and body), there exists an escape route for some or all of the muzzle

    gases and discharge products.

    These can form secondary projectiles, particularly powder flakes or debris, and metal particles from the barrel of the

    weapon or bullet casing etc (Dana and DiMaio 2003, DiMaio 1999).

    Entry wounds made in these circumstances can be seen as circular defects surrounded by a large amount of soot

    soiling. However, there is still not enough room for the deposition of powder except perhaps within the wound edges

    themselves. In addition, heat searing or burning of the wound margins is minimal. Muzzle imprints are also unlikely to

    be found.

    Heat searing of the wound edges may also be seen, and hairs may be singed or clubbed, where their keratin melts

    at the tip and re-solidifies as a 'blob' (Knight 1996).

    Contact wounds arising from the weapon being discharged at an angle to the bodys surface may demonstrate

    features allowing the angle of fire to be assessed. For example, if the angle of discharge allows gases to escape in

    one direction (the direction in which the weapon is being discharged), the pattern of soot staining and wound edge

    searing will exist only on the side of the wound at which there was enough of a gap to allow the passage of discharge

    products to exit. The resultant shape of soot soiling etc can bethought of as a teardrop shaped pattern.

    If the angle is acute enough, there may be enough distance for there to be deposits of powder flakes or particles.

    These give rise to so-called powder tattooing, where particles of powder impact the skin and cause punctate

    abrasions and bruising.

    DiMaio (1999) prefers the term 'stippling' to describe multiple punctate skin abrasions caused by the impact of

    fragments of foreign material, and where this material is gunpowder, he uses the term 'powder tattooing'.

    If this material is nor gunpowder, however, the term 'pseudo-powder tattooing' is preferred. Psuedo-powder tattooing

    may also be caused by;

    glass (e.g. where a bullet passes through glass prior to to hitting the victim)

    fragments of the bullet core and metal jacket (high-velocity bullets)

    secondary fragments from a hard surface (where bullets ricochet)

    fragments of plastic casing (enclosing shot in handgun shot cartridges)

    steel wool packing material (crude silencers)

    post-mortem

    hair follicles from shaved areas around a wound

    sutures removed from a wound

    petechiae

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suppressorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel_woolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricochethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    12/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 12

    Powder tattooing may also be simulated by various materials - 'pseudo-soot' - and DiMaio (1999) describes such

    materials as fingerprint dusting powder, graphite, powdered asphalt and powdered lead as causing interpretive

    problems.

    Near contact wounds are those produced when the muzzle is not quite touching the skin surface, but is not held so

    far away that there is sufficient distance to allow powder tattooing to take place.

    intermediate range wounds

    As the range of fire increases, features of intermediate range wounds are seen. There is a gradual reduction in the

    amount of soot soiling seen around the wound, as well as a reduction in the amount of heat searing. Soot soiling is

    generally seen up to about 15 cm whilst powder tattooing can be found at up to 30-45 cm. These distances can be

    doubled for rifles (Knight 1996).

    The length of the barrel also has an effect on the area of skin exhibiting soot soiling a snub nosed revolver for

    example will spread soot over a larger area than from a pistol with a longer barrel. (Spitz 1993). The use of silencers

    on handguns reduces the area of soot soiling and powder tattooing, and cause difficulties in determining range of fire.

    However, powder particles leaving the muzzle are able to impact upon the skin surface, giving rise to powder tattooing

    at a distance of about 10 mm from the average handgun muzzle.

    Where small fragments of metal from the bullet or the barrel impact the skin surface, the term fouling is used. These

    fragments are not easy to remove (unlike soot which can be wiped off), and where the victim survives an inflammatory

    reaction occurs to these foreign bodies (Spitz 1993).

    Unburnt explosive flakes may also be seen small glistening and often coloured particles, depending upon the

    manufacturer.

    The pattern of tattooing again depends upon range of fire, and as range increases, the areas of skin tattooed

    increases up to the point where powder particles exiting the weapon do not have enough energy to reach and impact

    upon the skin surface (approximately 60 120 cm, depending upon the powder type).

    If the bullet enters the body at a very acute angle, it may travel just under the skin surface before coming to rest

    when this occurs there may be a series of interrupted surface bruises that follow the track.

    Intermediate range rifle wounds still result in massive internal damage.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asphalthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphitehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fingerprint
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    13/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 13

    Detail from lurid VHS cover for 'The Killer Likes Candy'

    Source: VHS Wateland

    distant range wounds

    When the muzzle to skin distance is beyond the range of powder deposition, circular defects are seen with an

    abraded rim, but with no associated searing, soot deposition or powder tattooing. The abrasion rim may be missing

    where skin overlays a bony support (Besant-Matthews 2000).

    Distant shots from rifles may result in a central defect with micro tearing of the wound edges,

    and massive internal destruction.

    summary of range of fire effects on morphology of rifled

    gunshot wounds (adapted from Knight 1996)

    Range of

    http://serialkillercalendar.com/VHSWASTELAND/HIGH-RES-SCANS-OF-HORROR-VHS-COVERS-K.html
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    14/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 14

    fire Effects

    'Hard

    contact'

    Over soft tissues

    circular hole

    abrasion collar

    bruising

    local reddening (heat and CO)

    little or no surface burning

    little or no propellant soiling/ powder

    tattooing

    +/- muzzle impression

    Over bone

    split/ cruciate wound

    local reddening

    bruising

    little or no surface burning/ propellant soiling

    abrasion collar partially lost on skin tags

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    15/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 15

    >40 - 60

    cm

    no burning/ soiling

    no burnt hairs

    no CO

    'Far

    distant' (at

    limit of

    range)

    larger irregular holeirregular abrasion collar

    irregular abrasion rim ('tumbling bullet')

    gunshot wound patterns

    Assessing whether a wound is self-inflicted is assisted by knowledge of epidemiology. The most common

    site for gunshot wound in suicide, for example, is the head (74%), usually the right temple (39%), followed

    by chest and abdomen. Men are more likely than women to shoot themselves in the head.

    Karger et al (2002) evaluated records of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies in Germany, and carried out binary

    logistic regression analysis in order to identify characteristics of suicidal and homicidal gunshot wounds.

    They noted that females constituted more of the homicide victims than suicide victims (26.3% vs 10.6%), and that

    more than 1 gunshot was found in 5.6% of suicides (maximum 5 shots) compared to 53.9% of homicides (up to 23

    shots).

    Suicidal gunshots were fired from contact or near-contact range in 89% (7.5% of homicides), and the typical entrance

    wound sites were the temple (36%), mouth (20%), forehead (11%) and left chest (15%). However, uncommon sites

    did occur, including the back of the head, eye, ear and nape of neck.

    They also analysed the wound track in order to identify characteristics of suicide vs. homicide, and noted that in

    suicidal wounds to the right temple, the majority of tracks were oriented front-to-back and upwards (or parallel), whilst

    homicidal wound tracks were oriented back-to-front or downwards. Suicidal gunshots to the left chest were oriented

    right-to-left or parallel, whilst homicidal shots were frequently left-to-right. Shots were oriented upwards and

    downwards in both groups.

    It can therefore be concluded that an analysis of wound patterns can give clues to the likely manner of death, but

    atypical patterns occur relatively frequently, and a full scene examination and multidisciplinary investigation is

    therefore essential in all firearm deaths.

    acting capability following gunshot wounds

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    16/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 16

    Gunshot wounds to the head are not invariably fatal, and an individual shot in the head may

    still be capable of making purposeful movements/ actions.

    A case from Edinburgh in the 1930s, reported in the Police Journal in 1943, illustrates this

    well:

    An elderly professional man, slightly eccentric and living alone in a small

    private hotel, went out one winter evening and did not return. His

    disappearance caused no particular alarm, as his habit of walking around

    at night was well known. The following morning the bell to the street

    door rang at half past seven, and the maid answered it. On the doorstep

    stood the man, wearing a hat and heavy overcoat, and carrying his

    umbrella hooked over one arm. To her consternation, the maid noticed

    blood on his face and shirt, but he brushed her mildly aside when she

    moved towards him.

    "Don't worry," he said. "It's nothing. I'll just go upstairs and have a

    wash".

    So saying he walked into the hallway, placed his umbrella in the stand,

    and hung up his hat and coat before going up the stairs to the bathroom.

    The maid followed him up, and saw him collapse. She called an

    ambulance and the police, and the old man was taken to the Royal

    Infirmary, where he died three hours later.

    There was no mystery about the cause of death. Under the man's chin

    was a bullet wound, which tracked upwards through the mouth, through

    the severely damaged brain, and out through the left-hand side of the

    top of the skull. The exit wound was about one and a quarter inches in

    diameter, and suggested a .45 calibre bullet with 'tailwag'; powder

    stains in the mouth itself seemed to indicate that the man had placed

    the gun under his chin and pulled the trigger.

    The police went back to the hotel and, in the freshly fallen snow, traced

    bloodstained footprints across the road to a small public garden

    opposite, where on the seat of the shelter, they found a .45 revolver,

    which was later identified as the property of the dead man. In front of

    the seat was a large pool of blood, and in the roof of the shelter was a

    bullet hole surrounded by fragments of bone and brain tissue; here was

    where the act had been committed, but the time was more difficult to

    fix.

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    17/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 17

    The man had left the hotel some time the previous evening and had

    apparently spent part of the night in the shelter. At six that morning it

    had begun to snow, and a 165-yard circle of footprints and bloodstains

    leading from the shelter, out onto the grass, and back to the shelter

    again, showed that the wound must have been inflicted at around six.

    Apparently the man had shot himself at about that time, and had sat on

    the seat with his head hanging forward between his hands, dribbling

    blood onto the ground. Then he had got up, walked around in a circle,and returned to his starting point once more.

    After resting a while longer, he had finally risen to his feet, walked

    straight across the grass and across the street and rung the doorbell of

    his hotel.

    Cause of death. A history of forensic science by Frank Smyth (1980)

    gunshot wound imaging

    When bullets fired from handguns enter the body and fragment (particularly after striking bone), they can be seen on

    x-rays as scattered radio opaque fragments. However, when a semi-jacketed high velocity rifle round fragments, it is

    seen on x-ray as a snow storm of fragments. Fully jacketed rounds tend not to fragment, and do not have these

    radiological features.

    Imaging of gunshot wound victims may also show another surprise feature bullet emboli, where a bullet, or fragmentimpacts an artery or great vessel and is carried into the bloodstream to lodge at another site distant from the wound

    track. However, this is more likely to occur in distance wounds from shotguns where the pellets are embolised.

    CT/ MRI imaging

    Gunshot wounds (general) - Thali et al 2003(a)

    Shotgun entrance wound - Thali et al 2003 (b)

    Rubber bullet - Bruschweiler et al 2003

    High velocity gunshot wounds (virtual autopsy) - Levy et al 2006

    tear-gas cartridge gunshot wounds

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-opaquehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_rayhttp://astore.amazon.co.uk/forensicfiction-21/detail/0442200412
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    18/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 18

    Clarot et al (2003) reported a case of head injury caused by a tear-gas cartridge fired in a suicide. The weapon was

    an 8mm blank firing pistol loaded with a CS 8mm cartridge.

    The discharge of blank firing guns or tear-gas cartridges produces a gas jet capable of causing pronounced close

    range/ contact wounds, often more so than other gunshot wounds, where the expanding gases are able to follow the

    path of the penetrating projectile unlike in the case of blank firing weapons.

    references

    Besant-Matthews P.E. (2000), Examination and interpretation of rifled firearm injuries, Chapter 4 in Mason

    J.K., Purdue B.N. The Pathology of Trauma, 3rd Ed, Arnold Publishers

    Bruschweiler W, Braun M, Dirnhofer R, Thali MJ (2003), 'Analysis of patterned injuries and injury-causing

    instruments with forensic 3D/CAD supported photogrammetry (FPHG): an instruction manual for the

    documentation process', Forensic Science International 132:130-138

    Clarot F., Vaz E., Papin F., Clin B., Vicomte C., Proust B. (2003), Lethal head injury due to tear-gas cartridge

    gunshots, Forensic Science International 137(1):45-51

    Dana S.E., DiMaio V.J.M. (2003), Gunshot trauma, Chapter 12 in Payne-James J.J., Busuttil A., Smock W.

    Forensic Medicine: Clinical and Pathological Aspects, Greenwich Medical Media

    DiMaio V.J.M. (1999), Gunshot Wounds: Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics and Forensic Techniques,

    2nd Ed, CRC Press LLC

    Faller-Marquardt M, Pollack S (2002), 'Skin tears away from the entrance wound in gunshots to the head', Int J

    Legal Med 116:262-266

    Karger B, Billeb E, Koops E, Brinkmann B (2002), 'Autopsy features relevant for discrimination between

    suicidal and homicidal gunshot injuries', Int J Legal Med 116:273-278Knight B. (1996), Forensic Pathology, 2nd Ed Arnold Publishers

    Levy AD, Abbott RM, Mallak CT et al (2006), 'Virtual autopsy: preliminary experience in high-velocity gunshot

    wound victims', Radiology 240(2):522-528

    Quatrehomme G, Iscan MM (1999), 'Characteristics of gunshot wounds in the skull', J Forensic Sci 44(3):568-

    576

    Spitz W.U. (1993) (Ed), Spitz and Fishers Medicolegal investigation of death Guidelines for the application

    of pathology to crime investigations, 3rd Ed Charles C Thomas Publishers

    Thali M.J., Kneubuehl B.P., Zollinger U., Dirnhofer R (2002a), A study of the morphology of gunshot entrance

    wounds, in connection with their dynamic creation, utilising the skin-skull-brain model, Forensic ScienceInternational 125(2-3):190-194

    Thali MJ, Kneubuehl BP, Dirnhofer R, Zollinger U (2002b), 'The dynamic development of the muzzle imprint by

    contact shot: high-speed documentation utiliz ing the 'skin-skull-brain model'', Forensic Science International

    127:168-173

    Thali M.J., Yen K., Vock P., Ozdoba C., Kneubuehl B.P., Sonnenschein M., Dirnhofer R. (2003a), Image-

    guided virtual autopsy findings of gunshot victims performed with multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT)

    and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent correlation between radiology and autopsy findings,

    Forensic Science International 138(1-3):8-16

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=14642714&dopt=abstracthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=12175946&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum12175946http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=11909662&dopt=abstracthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=10408112&query_hl=4&itool=pubmed_docsumhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=16801370&dopt=abstracthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=12376836&query_hl=4&itool=pubmed_docsumhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=12376834&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSumhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=14550613&dopt=abstracthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=12711193&dopt=abstracthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tear_gas
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    19/22

    0:00/ 1:32

    Histopathology Skin --Gunshot wound

  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    20/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 20

    MT @LNelsonMD: How

    did Ricin become the

    poison of choice for

    incompetent schemers?

    flip.it/PlWik#forensic

    Richard Jones

    @forensicmed

    Show Summary

    Emotion & SCD MT

    @cabreraERDR:

    Watching FIFA

    #WorldCup? Be careful.

    Increased risk of CV

    events#FOAMed

    flip.it/r3wqD#forensic

    Richard Jones

    @forensicmed

    Show Summary

    Prof. McColl"Quality of

    resources we provide to

    students must be

    engaging, catering to the

    digital native"

    Retweeted by RichardJones

    BEST

    Network

    @BEST_medical

    5h

    6 Jun

    17 Oct

    Tweets Follow

    Tweet to @forensicmed

    Tweet

    0

    https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?screen_name=forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/intent/tweet?screen_name=forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/intent/tweet?screen_name=forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/forensicmedhttp://twitter.com/search?q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.forensicmed.co.uk%2Fwounds%2Ffirearms%2Fgunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons%2Fhttps://twitter.com/BEST_medicalhttps://twitter.com/forensicmed/statuses/475035539713064960http://t.co/cbS1wq5frOhttps://twitter.com/search?q=%23forensic&src=hashhttp://t.co/cbS1wq5frOhttps://twitter.com/search?q=%23FOAMed&src=hashhttp://t.co/cbS1wq5frOhttp://t.co/cbS1wq5frOhttp://t.co/cbS1wq5frOhttps://twitter.com/BEST_medicalhttp://t.co/cbS1wq5frOhttps://twitter.com/forensicmedhttp://twitter.com/search?q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.forensicmed.co.uk%2Fwounds%2Ffirearms%2Fgunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons%2Fhttps://twitter.com/intent/tweet?original_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.forensicmed.co.uk%2Fwounds%2Ffirearms%2Fgunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons%2F&text=gunshot%20wounds%20-%20rifled%20weapons%20%3A%3A%20www.forensicmed.co.uk&tw_p=tweetbutton&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.forensicmed.co.uk%2Fwounds%2Ffirearms%2Fgunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons%2F&via=forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/intent/tweet?screen_name=forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/BEST_medical/statuses/390979474855976960https://twitter.com/forensicmed/statuses/475035539713064960https://twitter.com/forensicmed/statuses/475404432902205440https://twitter.com/BEST_medical/statuses/390979474855976960https://twitter.com/BEST_medicalhttps://twitter.com/forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/forensicmed/statuses/475035539713064960https://twitter.com/forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/search?q=%23forensic&src=hashhttp://t.co/cbS1wq5frOhttps://twitter.com/search?q=%23FOAMed&src=hashhttps://twitter.com/search?q=%23WorldCup&src=hashhttps://twitter.com/cabreraERDRhttps://twitter.com/forensicmed/statuses/475404432902205440https://twitter.com/forensicmedhttps://twitter.com/search?q=%23forensic&src=hashhttp://t.co/tFFkj78bnNhttps://twitter.com/LNelsonMD
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    21/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/wounds/firearms/gunshot-wounds-rifled-weapons/ 2

    online resources

    eMedicine firearms section

    Trauma.org Image Bank - gun shot wounds

    WebPath image - Summary Diagram of skin appearances (top) and bone defects (bottom) - illustrating skull

    bevelling out away from the direction of the bullet.

    University of Utah Forensic Anthropology - images of bone defects in the skull caused by gunshot trauma

    University of Wyoming - Quick Time 'movable' images of gunshot wounds in bone

    'Visible Proofs' Exhibition images - National Library of Medicine

    Gunshot wounds in skulls

    Virtopsy gunshot wound reconstruction to skull

    Ragsdale gunshot wounds study - with movie clip

    University of Utah Forensic Anthropology

    Skeletal effects of gunshot wounds article

    online images

    WebPath images

    contact gunshot wound to head

    contact gunshot wound to head

    contact gunshot wound with muzzle impression

    contact gunshot wound with muzzle impression

    internal bevelling to underlying skull in contact head shot

    contact range gunshot wound - low power microscopy - coagulative necrosis and black debris (gunshot

    residue) in dermis

    intermediate range gun shot wound (tattooing)

    intermediate range gun shot wound

    exit wound

    Gun shot wound histology - Virtual slide from University of Iowa

    2012 www.forensicmed.co.uk All rights reserved.

    http://www.path.uiowa.edu/cgi-bin-pub/vs/fpx_gen.cgi?slide=986&viewer=java&lay=iowahttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR022.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR041.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR038.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR021.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR019.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR020.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR113.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR037.htmlhttp://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR018.htmlhttp://www.soton.ac.uk/~jb3/bullet/gsw.htmlhttp://library.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/index.htmlhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/media/ragsdale/index.htmlhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/media/detailed/vi_c_322.jpghttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/technologies/patterns.htmlhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/technologies/patterns.htmlhttp://www.uwyo.edu/reallearning/injuries/bullet.htmlhttp://library.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/trauma/gsw/bonegunshot.htmlhttp://www-medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR049.htmlhttp://www.trauma.org/index.php?/main/imageshttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1975428-overview
  • 8/12/2019 Gunshot Wounds - Rifled Weapons __ Www.forensicmed.co

    22/22

    6/7/2014 gunshot wounds - rifled weapons :: www.forensicmed.co.uk

    Powered by Webnode

    http://www.webnode.com/