Germany Sparks a New War in Europe Germany’s Lightning Attack September 1, 1939—Hitler launches...
Transcript of Germany Sparks a New War in Europe Germany’s Lightning Attack September 1, 1939—Hitler launches...
Germany Sparks a New War in Europe
Germany’s Lightning Attack September 1, 1939—Hitler launches invasion
of Poland Britain, France declare war on Germany, but
Poland falls quickly Blitzkrieg—lightning war—Germany’s new
military strategy Planes, tanks, infantry used to surprise enemy
and quickly conquer
Denmark quickly surrenders to the Nazis, and cooperates with the German occupation. However, King Christian X becomes a symbol of Danish resistance when he stays in his capital of Copenhagen and still goes on a daily horseback ride through the capital. This picture taken in 1940 is of one of those rides. He is not accompanied by any armed guard.
King Haakon of Norway (brother of Christian X of Denmark) refused to surrender to the Nazis, and was a symbol of Norwegian resistance. He escaped to London and moved the Norwegian government in exile there.
German infantry attacking through a burning Norwegian village.
German Neubaufahrzeug tanks in Oslo.
The Battle of Britain
Germany plans invasion of Britain; begins with air attacks in 1940
British use air force, radar, code-breaking to resist Germany
Battle of Britain—Air war over Britain that lasted until May 1941
Stunned by British resistance, Hitler calls off attacks
A pair of 264 Squadron Defiants. (PS-V was shot down on 28 August 1940 over Kent by Bf 109s.)
Aircraft spotter on the roof of a building in London. St. Paul's Cathedral is in the background. 306-NT-901B-3.
Standing up gloriously out of the flames and smoke of surrounding buildings, St. Paul's Cathedral is pictured during the great fire raid of Sunday December 29th." 1940. 306-NT-3173V.
Children of an eastern suburb of London, who have been made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home." September 1940. 306-NT-3163V.
89.Life in London during the war. View of a V-1 rocket (flying bomb) in flight, ca. 1944. 306-NT-3157V. The British nickname was a “Doodlebug”
A London bus is submerged in a bomb crater after a German air raid.
Soviet and German invasions, annexations, and spheres of influence in Central and eastern Europe 1939-1940
The Mediterranean and the Eastern Front
The War in the Balkans Hitler plans to invade Soviet Union; moves to
take Balkan countries Hitler invades Yugoslavia and Greece in April
1941; both fall quickly
The Eastern Front
Hitler Invades the Soviet Union Germany invades an unprepared Soviet Union
in June 1941 Soviet troops burn land as they retreat;
Germans move into Russia(Scorched Earth) Coldest winter in decades Germans stopped at Leningrad(Stalingrad),
forced to undertake long siege(200,000 Germans, 1 million Russian)
Germans almost capture Moscow, but forced to pull back
Russian soldiers prepare to attack German lines outside Leningrad.
A column of Red Army POWs captured near Minsk is marched west.
A group of Soviet POWs, taken to undefined Prison Camp
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease bill to give aid to Britain and China (1941)
Allies on the Western Front
Roosevelt and Churchill decided on a “Europe First” strategy. Didn’t want to fight an offensive war on two
fronts-Europe and the Pacific- at the same time
Russia wanted invasion of France so Germany would shift forces away from them
Britain wanted invasion of N. Africa since they were already fighting there
N. Africa and Italy
Allied forces made landing in Morocco and Algeria, and made their way East
After several defeats, British forces stopped Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Korps(tank-based division) and forced them out of Egypt
U.S. forces(U.S. II Corps) helped the combined Allied armies launch a final offensive in May 1943 General George S. Patton/General Omar Bradley
Gen. Erwin Rommel with the 15th Panzer Division between Tobruk and Sidi Omar. Sdf. Zwilling, Libya, January or November 24, 1941. 242-EAPC-6-M713a.
N. Africa and Italy
Using N. Africa as a staging area, the Allies launched an invasion of Sicily followed by S. Italy.
Successful at first, the Germans dug in 60 miles south of Rome
Mussolini resigned under pressure from his Fascist Grand Council, and Italy soon surrendered to the Allies
General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks move up." North Africa, November 1942. 208-PU-138LL-3.
Precision Bombing: Daytime bombing favored by the Americans High altitude missions dropping bombs on oil
refineries, rail yards, factories, and U-boat bases
Saturation Bombing: Nighttime raids favored by the British
Rapid release of a large number of bombs over a wide area
Purpose was to destroy civilian morale and force a surrender, maybe get some payback!
As the Americans carried out the invasion of France, Russia was chasing the Germans back through Poland towards Germany
Battle of the Bulge Last German offensive on the western front 8 German armored divisions crashed through
the lines, catching Americans by surprise Allied air support and quick action by Patton’s
3rd Army forced Germans to withdrawal from their offensive back to Germany
War in the Pacific Theater
After Pearl Harbor, the strategy of “Europe First” put Allied commanders at a disadvantage in the Pacific
Philippines Americans and Filipinos under General Douglas
MacArthur put up a good fight, but eventually had to withdraw and re-group
Bataan Death March Japanese sent 70,000 American/Filipino prisoners on a
march up the Bataan Peninsula More than 7,000 died from exhaustion and routine
executions by the Japanese soldiers
Americans chose a strategy of liberating Japanese territory far away and then using them as stepping-stones to move closer(island hopping)
Navajo code talkers Secret code that helped the U.S. transmit vital
information that was never broken by the Japanese
Americans intercepted a message detailing plans of a major offensive towards Midway islands.(US base)
Japanese hoped to destroy the U.S. Pacific Fleet
Americans sat in wait for the Japanese U.S. obtained a crucial victory that stopped
the Japanese offensive, forcing them to focus on defense
Japan never recovered from the loss All 4 Japanese carriers, a cruiser, so many
experienced pilots, and 300 aircraft
In October 1944 General MacArthur returned to the Philippines
U.S. forces retook the Mariana Islands Gave Allied forces bases from which to launch long
range B-29s on Japan Japan moved their best army units to Iwo Jima and
Okinawa, which were key islands
- Defenders dug caves, tunnels, and bunkers
- Among the bloodiest battles of the war
- 6,800 U.S. dead, 20,000 Japanese dead
Battle of Okinawa Army-Marine force of 182,000 men Japanese commander’s orders to fight to the
death More than 100,000 Japanese dead 12,000 U.S. dead
Top secret program to develop an atomic weapon capable of devastating a large area
Harnessing the power resulting from the splitting of uranium or plutonium nuclei
Japan rejected Truman’s call for an unconditional surrender, was willing to fight to the last man, woman, and child
On August 6, 1945, B-29 Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima
3 days later, U.S. drops another on Nagasaki 250,000 died(directly, radiation, or cancer)
55 million dead(30 million were civilians) Soviet Union: 24 million dead U.S. 418,000 dead Germany: 8 million dead Japan: 3 million dead China: 20 million