GEO 565 Options



GEO 565 Options. Option 1 - Term Paper Option 2 - Project (GIS analyses and map series) Option 3 - Annotated Bibliography uploaded to the web Choose which option you want by Tue., January 20th Term Papers or uploading of web site due by 5:00, Fri., March 13th NO EXTENSIONS!. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of GEO 565 Options

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GEO 565 OptionsOption 1 - Term PaperOption 2 - Project (GIS analyses and map series)Option 3 - Annotated Bibliography uploaded to the webChoose which option you want by Tue., January 20thTerm Papers or uploading of web site due by 5:00, Fri., March 13th


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GEO 565 Term Paper (1)

20 pages (double-spaced) INCLUDING figures and references

MS-word doc sent by email preferredflexible on subject matter of paperspecify and follow a scholarly journal format!!specify key wordspoints will be subtracted if these specifications are omitted

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Suggested Content

look at current uses of GIS in your area of interestother fieldsidentify potential for furthering researchresearch/management questionsdescribe a study in progress (proposal?)

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GEO 565 Annotated Bibliography (3)

MUST be web-basedDon’t know HTML? Don’t panic! Resources will be available - it’s easy!Upload your page(s) by Friday, March 13th, 5:00 p.m.See

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GEO 565 Project (2)Find your own data, do an analysis and create the maps using ArcGIS or other GIS Submit a proposal by Jan. 20th Detailed instructions and examples at Must STILL complete Labs 1-610 pages: writeup, flow chart + mapsDue 8:00 p.m., Mar. 16th - NO final exam

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What is GIS?What is GIScience?

Longley et al., Preface, Chapter 1

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Some Basic GIS Concepts...

Mapping is key but is NOT the whole story. A GIS is NOT simply for MAKING maps

maps at different scales, projections, colors

… not simply for STORING maps or images.

In fact, it stores the DATA from which these are created.

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An Analysis Tool...

for every piece of data it specifies:what it iswhere it ishow it relates to other pieces of data

things in commonsee spatial relationships or create NEW relationships

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Geographic Information SystemContainer of dataContainer of mapsInventory of geographically distributed features and facilitiesComputerized tool to automate time-consuming tasksAnalysis tools for solving geographic problemsSpatial decision support systemMethod for revealing patterns and processes in geographic information

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Geographic Information System

Organized collection ofSoftwareHardwareNetworkDataPeopleProcedures






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Major Questions for a GIS:

What exists at a certain location?Where are certain conditions satisfied?What has changed in a place over time?What spatial patterns exist?What if this condition occurred at this place? (modelling, hypothesis testing)

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For example...

Toxic Substance Locations:District 24District 16

14 George Boulevard

Proposed School Locations:124 Elm Street35 White Road

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14 George Blvd.x

Elm St.

White Rd.


o 35


School Locations

Toxic Substances

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Information on the World

How it looks – Form or PatternHow it works – ProcessKnowledge about process more valuable than form, because can be used to predictGIS combine

General scientific knowledge in softwareSpecific information in databases

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Featured in Science, vol 323, January, 2009

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Major Questions for YOU...

What ARE my questions?How much data do I need and of what quality?How can I combine my data to answer my questions?

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The Process of GIS (i.e., GIScience)

Think about a place or a topic ...Ask a question about it ...Analyze data to make a map ...Explore the patterns that appear ...Enhance the data or modify the analysis ...Ask a new question …Repeat ...

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Spatial and Non-Spatial Data

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Defining GIS

Different definitions of a GIS have evolved in different areas and disciplines.

map coordinates, database, computer-based link between them.

All GIS definitions recognize that spatial data are unique because they are linked to maps.

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Geographically-referenced data

Latitude and longitudeStreet addressx and y coordinatesRange and townshipLocation shown on a map

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The Data Model

A conceptual description (mental model) of how data are organized for use by the GIS

GISs have traditionally used either “field” or “object” data models

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A Field Data Model Uses a Raster or Grid Data Structure.





Grid extent


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Rasters are Faster...

maps directly onto computer memory structure (array). easy to understand, read, write, draw

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Rasters are Faster...

natural for scanned or remotely sensed data.continuous surfaces (e.g., topography)spatial analytical operations are faster.compression is easier

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Featured in Science, vol 323, January, 2009

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An Object Model uses a Vector (Arc/Node) Data Structure

Object data model evolved into the arc/node variation in the 1960s. Points in sequence build lines.Lines have a direction - nodes or ordering of the points. Lines in sequence build polygons.

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Object Model Featuring Arcs and Nodes















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Feature Type Single Part Multi-Part






HW A Y 10

Object/Vector Feature Types

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Vectors and Topology

Vectors without topology are “spaghetti” structures.Points, lines, and areas

stored in their own files, with links between them.stored w/ topology (i.e. the connecting arcs and left and right polygons).

Relationships are computed and stored

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Topology Graphic
















L e f t


R t



n o d e

T o

n o d e

1 A 0 c a

2 A B b c

3 C A b a

4 0 C d a

5 C B d b

6 B D e e

7 B 0 d c



No. of


List of


A 3 - 1 , - 2 , 3

B 4 2, -7, 5, -6

C 3 - 3 , - 5 , 4

D 1 6

2, -7, 5, 6

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“ Rasters are Faster, but Vectors are Correcter... ”

Vectors can represent point, line, and area features very accurately.Far more efficient than grids.Work well with GPS receivers.Not as good with continuous phenomena.

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Rasters and VectorsVector-based line

4753456 6234124753436 6234244753462 6234784753432 6234824753405 6234294753401 6235084753462 6235554753398 623634

Flat File

Raster-based line


Flat File

Now YOU!

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Attributes and their Types

Nominal, e.g., land cover classOrdinal, e.g., a rankingInterval, e.g., Celsius temperature

Differences make sense

Ratio, e.g., map scaleRatios make sense

Cyclic, e.g., wind direction

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Name Population

White 1250

Blue 3245

Green 2 1 1 1

Y e l l o w 5435






Attributes in a Database

Attribute data are stored logically in flat files.i.e., matrix of numbers and values stored in rows and columns, like a spreadsheet.

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Distinguishing Characteristics of a GIS vs. Other Systems

• provides algorithms for ANALYSIS of spatial data

• “spatially intelligent” - “thinks” points, lines, areas, grids are actual spots on earth’s surface - e.g., switching projections, computing distances

provides links between points, lines, areas, grids and their ATTRIBUTES in a database

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GIS “Layers,”“Themes,”“Overlays”

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Analysis or “Geoprocessing”

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GIS is a multi-Billion dollar business.

annual software revenues top $1 billion, increasing ~14% yearlyESRI and Intergraph software revenues account for 1/2 of industry totalGIS industry now at $7 BILLION

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Open Source GIS quantum GIS - qgis.orguDIG - uDIG.refractions.netGRASS -

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GIS as an approach to science

Geographic Information Science is research both on and with GIS.

“the generic issues that surround the use of GIS technology, impede its successful implementation, or emerge from an understanding of its potential capabilities.” (Goodchild, 1992)

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“GISci” “GIScience” “GIS & T”

Geographic information scienceU.S., geography, UCGISto GIS as statistics is to the statistical packages

The science behind the systemsFundamental issues arising from useThe science that is done with the technologySystematic study of geographic information using scientific methods

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A New Discipline?Symptoms of a science

journals, terms, books, conferences, departments, heroes, cultural artifactsgrand challenges

What would we say to Albert Einstein or Stephen Hawking?

“As young man, my fondest dream was to become a geographer. However, while working in the customs office I thought deeply about the matter and concluded that it was far too difficult a subject. With some reluctance, I then turned to physics as a substitute.”

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GIScience - Contributing DisciplinesGISRemote SensingCartographySurveying (Geomatics)Geodesy (GPS) Landscape Ecology

StatisticsMathematicsComputer ScienceInformation ScienceOperations ResearchManagement Science

Psychology, SociologyMore …

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GIS, GIScience, GIS & TGISystems (GIS)

Emphasis on technology and tools

GIScience (GISci), GIScience & Technology (GIS & T)

Fundamental issues raised by the use of GIS and related technologies (e.g.)

• Spatial analysis• Map projections• Accuracy• Scientific visualization

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Major Journals/Mags.

International Journal of Geographical Information ScienceCartography and Geographic Information ScienceTransactions in GIS

Geospatial Solutions GEOWorld

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Specialty Journals

Business GeographicsGIS LawMapping Awareness

GrassClippings Arc User Intergraph News GIS Asia/Pacific GIS World Report/CANADA GIS Europe

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Regular GISci Scholarly PapersPhotogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing Annals of the Association of American GeographersCartographicaComputers, Environment, and Urban SystemsComputers and GeosciencesIEEE Transactions on Computer Graphics and Applications

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Occasional GISci Scholarly PapersInternational Journal of Remote SensingLandscape Ecology Cartographic PerspectivesCartographicaJournal of CartographyGeocarto InternationalIEEE GeosciencesRemote Sensing ReviewMapping Science and Remote SensingInfoworld

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Professional OrganizationsAAG: The Association of American Geographers.GITA: Geospatial Information & Technology Assoc. (formerly AM/FM)

URISA: Urban and Regional Information Systems Association. ACSM: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.ASPRS: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.UCGIS: University Consortium for Geographic Information Science

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Willamette Valley GIS User Group

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ESRI ConferencesESRI Education and User Conferences. Every year in San Diego.

regional meetings as well

2009 Summer Internship Programcareers.esri.comApplications due March 1, 2009

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Conferences ( cont. )

GIS in Action - Oregon URISAApril 21-22 in Vancouver, WA

NE Oregon GIS Conference UCGIS Summer Meeting, Sante Fe, NM, June 22-23

Theme: Complex systems science

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GIS in Action 2009 Needs Student Volunteers!

Work registration desk, monitor roomsFree conference registrationNeed to work at least half-day shiftGreat opportunity to network with GIS professionalsContact: Anne Hillyer, [email protected], 360-619-6543

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