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Technical Report-March 2015 1 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum FUTURE BIOFUEL POTENTIAL AND SCOPE FOR LIPID BASED BIODIESEL - Sandip S. Magdum INTRODUCTION The supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades, particularly because of the need to address climate change. Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supplying future energy demand in a sustainable way. It is presently the largest global contributor of renewable energy, and has significant potential to expand in the production of heat, electricity, and fuels for transport. The share of bioenergy in the world primary energy mix has shown in figure1. Further deployment of bioenergy, if carefully managed, could provide: Figure 1. Share of bioenergy in the world primary energy mix. (IEA, 2006; and IPCC, 2007) an even larger contribution to global primary energy supply; significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially other environmental benefits; improvements in energy security and trade balances, by substituting imported fossil fuels with domestic biomass; opportunities for economic and social development in rural communities; and scope for using wastes and residues, reducing waste disposal problems, and making better use of resources. ENERGY DEMAND AND POTENTIAL: Technical and sustainable biomass supply potentials and expected demand for biomass (primary energy) based on global energy models and expected total world primary energy demand in 2050 (Figure 2). Current world biomass use and primary energy demand are shown for comparative purposes. Adapted from Dornburg et al. (2008) based on several review studies. Figure 2. Expected total world primary energy demand in 2050
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  • Technical Report-March 2015

    1 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum

    FUTURE BIOFUEL POTENTIAL AND SCOPE FOR LIPID BASED BIODIESEL - Sandip S. Magdum

    INTRODUCTION

    The supply of sustainable energy is one of the

    main challenges that mankind will face over

    the coming decades, particularly because of

    the need to address climate change. Biomass

    can make a substantial contribution to

    supplying future energy demand in a

    sustainable way. It is presently the largest

    global contributor of renewable energy, and

    has significant potential to expand in the

    production of heat, electricity, and fuels for

    transport. The share of bioenergy in the world

    primary energy mix has shown in figure1.

    Further deployment of bioenergy, if carefully

    managed, could provide: Figure 1. Share of bioenergy in the world primary energy mix. (IEA, 2006; and IPCC, 2007)

    an even larger contribution to global primary energy supply;

    significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially other environmental benefits;

    improvements in energy security and trade balances, by substituting imported fossil fuels with domestic biomass;

    opportunities for economic and social development in rural communities; and

    scope for using wastes and residues, reducing waste disposal problems, and making better use of resources.

    ENERGY DEMAND AND

    POTENTIAL:

    Technical and sustainable

    biomass supply potentials

    and expected demand for

    biomass (primary energy)

    based on global energy

    models and expected total

    world primary energy

    demand in 2050 (Figure 2).

    Current world biomass use

    and primary energy demand

    are shown for comparative

    purposes. Adapted from

    Dornburg et al. (2008) based

    on several review studies.

    Figure 2. Expected total world primary energy demand in 2050

  • Technical Report-March 2015

    2 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum

    BIOFUEL

    Biofuel - bioethanol and biodiesel derived from plants, seem to be an elegant solution to this dilemma because they

    decrease dependency on fossil fuels and only return recently sequestered carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

    Nevertheless, the growing demand for biofuel to be produced from crops previously used for food has raised

    concerns about the long-term economic, environmental and social viability of alternative fuels. The current standards

    of technology and agricultural output are not sufficient to replace fossil fuels entirely. This challenge can ultimately

    only be met by new scientific and technological solutions that allow an increase in the production of biofuels without

    having a negative impact on the environment or food supply. Theoretically, biofuels could be produced from any

    organic material, but most current biofuels are so-called first-generation fuels based on food crops.

    However, Second-generation biofuels are derived from cellulose by enzymatic conversion and fermentation. These

    processes expand the possible sources of fuel to non-edible plants and plant parts, including grass, wood and

    agricultural residues, such as corn stover or sugar cane bagasse. As most methods of producing second- and third-

    generation fuels are still unavailable, countries that use biofuels generally rely on various first-generation fuels

    depending on the domestic climate and agricultural resources. The economics of first-generation biofuels is very

    much location-specific.

    WORLDS BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT

    AND PRODUCTION STATUS: For economic

    development, there is a preference for countries

    to utilize crops that can be grown domestically

    and import when their own production cannot

    meet the demand. Most of the five billion

    gallons of ethanol used in the USA come from

    domestically grown maize rather than the sugar-

    cane-derived ethanol from Brazil's comparable

    five billion gallon production although sugar

    cane yields approximately three times more

    energy than maize: 157.5 GJ/hectare compared

    with 52.5 GJ/hectare, respectively (Figure 3).

    Europe, which produces approximately 8% of

    global biodiesel, largely capitalizes on its

    domestically grown rapeseed, whereas China,

    India, Egypt, Tanzania and Kenya are expanding

    their production of jatropha to produce fuel. Figure 3. Worlds biofuel production status

    The development status of the main technologies to produce biofuels for transport from biomass is shown in figure 4

    Figure 4. Biofuel development status. (Source: E4tech, 2009)

  • Technical Report-March 2015

    3 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum

    INDIAS POLICY FOR BIOENERGY

    DEPLOYMENT: The external costs and benefits

    of energy production options are not sufficiently

    reflected in energy prices, an important reason why

    most bioenergy solutions are not (yet) economically

    competitive with conventional fossil fuel options.

    Policy support is therefore essential for almost all

    bioenergy pathways. The key motivations for

    bioenergy policy as stated in country summaries and

    key policy documents shown in table 1.

    Table 1. Key motivations for bioenergy policy in India. (Source: GBEP 2007)

    BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES: There are many bioenergy routes which can be used to convert

    raw biomass feedstock into a final energy product. Several conversion technologies (Figure 5) have been developed

    that are adapted to the

    different physical nature and

    chemical composition of the

    feedstock, and to the energy

    service required (heat, power,

    transport fuel). Upgrading

    technologies for biomass

    feedstocks (e.g. pelletisation,

    torrefaction, and pyrolysis)

    are being developed to

    convert bulky raw biomass

    into denser and more

    practical energy carriers for

    more efficient transport,

    storage and convenient use in

    subsequent conversion

    processes. Figure 5. Schematic view of the wide variety of bioenergy routes. (Source: E4tech, 2009)

    BIODIESEL:

    Biodiesel is the most valuable form of renewable energy that can be used directly in any existing, unmodified diesel

    engine and can be produced from oilseed plants such as rape seeds, sunflower, canola and or Jatropha and microbial

    lipids. Biodiesel is environmental friendly and ideal for heavily polluted cities. Biodiesel is as biodegradable as salt

    and produces 80% less carbon dioxide and 100% less sulfur dioxide emissions. It can be used alone or mixed in any

    ratio with petroleum diesel fuel and it also extends the life of diesel engines. As a by-product the oil cake and

    glycerol are to be sold to reduce the cost of processing biodiesel to par with the oil price.

    EU BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IS IN DECLINE: The year 2008 was the best year for biodiesel production in

    European Union (EU) with the production growth rate increasing by more than 35 percent than previous year 2007.

    In 2009 EUs biodiesel production grew by 17 percent compared to previous year. Why is biodiesel production

    experiencing such a slowdown in EU? The food vs. fuel debate is certainly one of the main reasons for decrease in

    production. European Union imports of biodiesel are constantly rising. In 2010 EU imported more than 1.9 million

    tons of biodiesel.

    BIODIESEL SCENARIO IN INDIA: As India is deficient in edible oils, non-edible oil is the main choice for

    producing biodiesel. According to Indian government policy and Indian technology effects, some development works

    have been carried out with regards to the production of transesterfied non edible oil and its use in biodiesel by units

    such as Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Tamilnadu Agriculture University Coimbatore and Kumaraguru

    College of Technology. Indian Oil Corporation has taken up Research and development work to establish the

    parameters of the production of tranesterified Jatropha Vegetable oil and use of bio diesel in its R&D center at

    Faridabad. The railway and Indian oil corporation has successfully used 10% blended biodiesel fuel in train running

    between Amritsar and New Delhi.

  • Technical Report-March 2015

    4 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum

    CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE LIPID BASED BIOFUEL: Thus regular practice of oilseed based biodiesel

    production through the plantation, oil extraction and production of biodiesel are not economically feasible yet.

    Involved food - fuel conflict, seasonality and fear for diversion from regular agriculture practice makes this biofuel

    route hard to follow. Biodiesel plays major role in EU plans to reduce the level of carbon emissions emitted by

    transport but there are many scientists who are worried that the bigger biodiesel production would cause massive

    deforestation and higher food prices. Producing lipid based biodiesel from biomass has the potential to significantly

    contribute to the development of second-generation biofuels. There are two different feed-stock sources that can meet

    the criterion on a sustainable basis and in substantial quantities. First is lignocellulosic biomass such as surplus crop

    residues that are currently underutilized, including rice and wheat straw, corn stover, and grass straw. This biomass

    source has also been recently and specifically noted as ethically responsible feedstock sources for biofuels in Science

    magazine. According to the scenario illustrated in figure 6 lipid based biofuel is produced from variable sources that

    are available in a given region. Wherever crop residues or even animal wastes are available, lipid can be produced

    heterotrophically by oleaginous fungi, yeast, bacteria and algae. Some oleaginous organisms have a superior

    capability utilizing the sugars produced from lignocellulosic materials.

    Sunlight

    Sunlight

    Biomass

    Pretreatment

    Human Use

    Gasification

    Sugar

    Solid and Liquid Organic Waste

    Intermediate

    Algae

    Fungi

    Yeast

    Bacteria

    Biodiesel

    Lipids

    Liquid Fuel

    Biofuel

    Aviation fuel

    Other Products

    Mycodiesel

    Figure 6. Sustainable lipid based biodiesel scenario.

    Lipid based biodiesel has several inherent advantages that make it a unique candidate to serve as the intermediate

    feedstock. First, lipid has a similar molecule structure to alkane, and has properties like those common to fossil fuels.

    Second, lipid based biodiesel has a higher energy density compared with other biofuels such as ethanol or butanol.

    Third, lipid base biodiesel contains various chain lengths and bond types can function well in a mixture as a fuel, the

    compositional flexibility making it possible for aggregating the lipids produced from different organisms in the

    refinery. Microbial fermentation rout of biodiesel production mandates pretreatment of biomass to produce sugar

    substrates. Human and animal consumption of biomass produces solid and liquid waste, which can be used as

    substrate to produce biodiesel. The biomass gasification route can also utilize for production of syngas which can be

    converted in to lipid based liquid fuel.

    The study of fungal wastewater to produce lipid based mycodiesel has estimated the potential of wastewater to bio-oil

    synthesis for biodiesel production via fungal (M. circinelloides) route, the 100m3/day capacity plant having

    wastewater with similar characteristics can produce 14.22kg of bio-oil per day and 200MLD plant can produce

    28.44tons of bio-oil per day (Bhanja et al., 2014). Considering the above mentioned 98% saponifiable lipids content

    with 0.87ton/m3 density of biodiesel, the theoretical biodiesel production will be 4.23gal/day and 8436.87gal/day

    with potential worth of 12.57$/day and 25137.7$/day for 100m3/day and 200MLD plant, respectively (calculation

    is based on reported B100 price of 2.97$/gal).

  • Technical Report-March 2015

    5 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum

    COST AND PRICES:

    a) Historical alternative fuel prices from previous reports: The figure 7 illustrate the historical prices for the alternative fuels included in these reports (specifically natural gas, propane, ethanol (E85), and biodiesel) relative to

    gasoline and diesel. These graphs include prices collected as part of the current Price Report activity, which began in

    September 2005. Natural gas (in GGE), propane, and ethanol (E85) have been graphed against gasoline prices, while

    natural gas (in DGE) and biodiesel have been graphed against diesel prices.

    Figure 7. Historical prices for the alternative fuels

    b) Average Price comparisons of conventional fuel and

    alternative fuel: Overall

    nationwide average prices for

    conventional and alternative

    fuels are shown in Graph. As

    this illustrates, alternative fuel

    prices relative to conventional

    fuels vary, with some

    (biodiesel) higher fuel.

    Biodiesel prices are higher

    than regular diesel.

    Figure 8. Average Price comparisons of conventional fuel and alternative fuel

    c) Illustration of Energy content for fuel: The standard lower

    heating values for fuels are

    shown in figure 9.

    (Transportation Energy Data

    Book 26)

    Figure 9. Illustration of Energy content for fuel

  • Technical Report-March 2015

    6 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum

    d) Energy Generation BTU/$: Energy Generation by Gasoline,

    Ethanol, Diesel and Biodiesel

    per $ spent on them has been

    shown in figure 10. In the

    graph, petroleum prices are

    going to be increase, so

    Gasoline and Diesel

    BTU/$ value decreased in

    future. In case of Ethanol

    production, there is hope to

    reduce its production cost, but

    in comparison, Biodiesel

    having 35% high heat energy

    value than Ethanol. In future

    there is much scope and

    potential to reduce biodiesel

    value, so its BTU/$ value will

    increase mostly than others. Figure 10. Energy generation comparisons of conventional fuel and alternative fuel

    e) Current diesel and biodiesel price comparison: In figure 11,

    comparisons of diesel, oil seed

    biodiesel, algal biodiesel,

    current ligno-cellulosic lipid

    based mycodiesel and aim to

    produce lipid based biodiesel

    fuel prices can be analyzed.

    The lipid based biodiesel would

    be produced at price 2.5

    $/gallon.

    Figure 11. Price comparisons of diesel and forms of biodiesels with lipid based biodiesel.

    f) Biodiesel Energy Generation BTU/$: The figure 12 shows,

    targeted and estimated value of

    lipid based biodiesel production

    will reduce up to 2.5$/gallon and

    this achievement will give

    higher bio-energy extraction and

    per $ yield. These data include

    prices collected as part of the

    Price Report activity, 2011.

    Figure 12. Energy generation comparisons of conventional fuel and alternative fuel

  • Technical Report-March 2015

    7 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum

    SWOT analysis of Indian Biofuel Market:

    STRENGTH

    Fast growing economy with investment capacity for large-scale projects

    Large agricultural sector that produces significant amounts of residues

    Good infrastructure in regions with high residue potential

    State initiatives for first-generation and second-generation biofuel promotion, plus public and private funding for second-generation biofuel RD&D

    WEAKNESS

    Biofuel-specific infrastructure (fuel stations, flex fuel vehicles, etc.) is currently non-existent

    No experience with second-generation biofuels

    No additional cropland available for bioenergy crops

    OPPORTUNITY

    Smallholders could benefit through co-operatives that organize provision of residues

    Laws to encourage direct foreign investment that could be favorable for the development of second-generation production

    Improvement in rural income and employment generation

    Private investment in biofuel sector

    THREAT

    Subsidies needed in the short term to promote second-generation biofuels

    Fossil fuel is subsidized by the state and is thus more competitive than biofuel

    Bureaucratic hurdles still exist for new projects despite government support initiatives

    CONCLUSION: Biodiesel is the fastest growing biofuel but from a lower base than ethanol. As Biodiesel production depends on oil

    based feedstock and land availability even more than bioethanol production. Current cost of production is major issue

    with considering; current production would cause massive deforestation and higher food prices. Our advanced

    conceptual processes can hold the potential to increase Biodiesel production, as it can use any second generation

    feedstock with high energy extraction. The current focus need to be on application of developed technology to utilize

    cheap biomass and biowaste as feedstock to produce cost effective biodiesel, thus competing economically with

    petroleum resources. Wide use of biodiesel in India is going to be a reality in the days to come.

    REFERENCES:

    Bhanja, A., Minde, G., Magdum, S., & Kalyanraman, V. (2014). Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal

    Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil

    Production. Biotechnology research international, 2014.

    Dornburg, V., Faaij, A., Langeveld, H., van de Ven, G., Wester, F., van Keulen, H., van Diepen, K., Ros, J., van Vuuren, D., van den Born, G.J., van Oorschot, M., Smout, F., Aiking, H., Londo, M., Mozaffarian, H.,

    Smekens, K., Meeusen, M., Banse, M., Lysen E., and van Egmond, S. 2008. Biomass Assessment:

    Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and

    economy. Report 500102 012, January 2008.

    E4tech. 2009. Internal Analysis, www.e4tech.com

    IEA. 2006. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2006. Paris.

    IPCC. 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change. Working group III, Chapter 4 of the 4th Assessment Report.

    The Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP), 2007.

    http://www.e4tech.com/