FUTURE BIOFUEL POTENTIAL AND SCOPE FOR … Report-March 2015 2 Future biofuel potential and scope...
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Technical Report-March 2015
1 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum
FUTURE BIOFUEL POTENTIAL AND SCOPE FOR LIPID BASED BIODIESEL - Sandip S. Magdum
The supply of sustainable energy is one of the
main challenges that mankind will face over
the coming decades, particularly because of
the need to address climate change. Biomass
can make a substantial contribution to
supplying future energy demand in a
sustainable way. It is presently the largest
global contributor of renewable energy, and
has significant potential to expand in the
production of heat, electricity, and fuels for
transport. The share of bioenergy in the world
primary energy mix has shown in figure1.
Further deployment of bioenergy, if carefully
managed, could provide: Figure 1. Share of bioenergy in the world primary energy mix. (IEA, 2006; and IPCC, 2007)
an even larger contribution to global primary energy supply;
significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially other environmental benefits;
improvements in energy security and trade balances, by substituting imported fossil fuels with domestic biomass;
opportunities for economic and social development in rural communities; and
scope for using wastes and residues, reducing waste disposal problems, and making better use of resources.
ENERGY DEMAND AND
Technical and sustainable
biomass supply potentials
and expected demand for
biomass (primary energy)
based on global energy
models and expected total
world primary energy
demand in 2050 (Figure 2).
Current world biomass use
and primary energy demand
are shown for comparative
purposes. Adapted from
Dornburg et al. (2008) based
on several review studies.
Figure 2. Expected total world primary energy demand in 2050
Technical Report-March 2015
2 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum
Biofuel - bioethanol and biodiesel derived from plants, seem to be an elegant solution to this dilemma because they
decrease dependency on fossil fuels and only return recently sequestered carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
Nevertheless, the growing demand for biofuel to be produced from crops previously used for food has raised
concerns about the long-term economic, environmental and social viability of alternative fuels. The current standards
of technology and agricultural output are not sufficient to replace fossil fuels entirely. This challenge can ultimately
only be met by new scientific and technological solutions that allow an increase in the production of biofuels without
having a negative impact on the environment or food supply. Theoretically, biofuels could be produced from any
organic material, but most current biofuels are so-called first-generation fuels based on food crops.
However, Second-generation biofuels are derived from cellulose by enzymatic conversion and fermentation. These
processes expand the possible sources of fuel to non-edible plants and plant parts, including grass, wood and
agricultural residues, such as corn stover or sugar cane bagasse. As most methods of producing second- and third-
generation fuels are still unavailable, countries that use biofuels generally rely on various first-generation fuels
depending on the domestic climate and agricultural resources. The economics of first-generation biofuels is very
WORLDS BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT
AND PRODUCTION STATUS: For economic
development, there is a preference for countries
to utilize crops that can be grown domestically
and import when their own production cannot
meet the demand. Most of the five billion
gallons of ethanol used in the USA come from
domestically grown maize rather than the sugar-
cane-derived ethanol from Brazil's comparable
five billion gallon production although sugar
cane yields approximately three times more
energy than maize: 157.5 GJ/hectare compared
with 52.5 GJ/hectare, respectively (Figure 3).
Europe, which produces approximately 8% of
global biodiesel, largely capitalizes on its
domestically grown rapeseed, whereas China,
India, Egypt, Tanzania and Kenya are expanding
their production of jatropha to produce fuel. Figure 3. Worlds biofuel production status
The development status of the main technologies to produce biofuels for transport from biomass is shown in figure 4
Figure 4. Biofuel development status. (Source: E4tech, 2009)
Technical Report-March 2015
3 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum
INDIAS POLICY FOR BIOENERGY
DEPLOYMENT: The external costs and benefits
of energy production options are not sufficiently
reflected in energy prices, an important reason why
most bioenergy solutions are not (yet) economically
competitive with conventional fossil fuel options.
Policy support is therefore essential for almost all
bioenergy pathways. The key motivations for
bioenergy policy as stated in country summaries and
key policy documents shown in table 1.
Table 1. Key motivations for bioenergy policy in India. (Source: GBEP 2007)
BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES: There are many bioenergy routes which can be used to convert
raw biomass feedstock into a final energy product. Several conversion technologies (Figure 5) have been developed
that are adapted to the
different physical nature and
chemical composition of the
feedstock, and to the energy
service required (heat, power,
transport fuel). Upgrading
technologies for biomass
feedstocks (e.g. pelletisation,
torrefaction, and pyrolysis)
are being developed to
convert bulky raw biomass
into denser and more
practical energy carriers for
more efficient transport,
storage and convenient use in
processes. Figure 5. Schematic view of the wide variety of bioenergy routes. (Source: E4tech, 2009)
Biodiesel is the most valuable form of renewable energy that can be used directly in any existing, unmodified diesel
engine and can be produced from oilseed plants such as rape seeds, sunflower, canola and or Jatropha and microbial
lipids. Biodiesel is environmental friendly and ideal for heavily polluted cities. Biodiesel is as biodegradable as salt
and produces 80% less carbon dioxide and 100% less sulfur dioxide emissions. It can be used alone or mixed in any
ratio with petroleum diesel fuel and it also extends the life of diesel engines. As a by-product the oil cake and
glycerol are to be sold to reduce the cost of processing biodiesel to par with the oil price.
EU BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IS IN DECLINE: The year 2008 was the best year for biodiesel production in
European Union (EU) with the production growth rate increasing by more than 35 percent than previous year 2007.
In 2009 EUs biodiesel production grew by 17 percent compared to previous year. Why is biodiesel production
experiencing such a slowdown in EU? The food vs. fuel debate is certainly one of the main reasons for decrease in
production. European Union imports of biodiesel are constantly rising. In 2010 EU imported more than 1.9 million
tons of biodiesel.
BIODIESEL SCENARIO IN INDIA: As India is deficient in edible oils, non-edible oil is the main choice for
producing biodiesel. According to Indian government policy and Indian technology effects, some development works
have been carried out with regards to the production of transesterfied non edible oil and its use in biodiesel by units
such as Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Tamilnadu Agriculture University Coimbatore and Kumaraguru
College of Technology. Indian Oil Corporation has taken up Research and development work to establish the
parameters of the production of tranesterified Jatropha Vegetable oil and use of bio diesel in its R&D center at
Faridabad. The railway and Indian oil corporation has successfully used 10% blended biodiesel fuel in train running
between Amritsar and New Delhi.
Technical Report-March 2015
4 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum
CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE LIPID BASED BIOFUEL: Thus regular practice of oilseed based biodiesel
production through the plantation, oil extraction and production of biodiesel are not economically feasible yet.
Involved food - fuel conflict, seasonality and fear for diversion from regular agriculture practice makes this biofuel
route hard to follow. Biodiesel plays major role in EU plans to reduce the level of carbon emissions emitted by
transport but there are many scientists who are worried that the bigger biodiesel production would cause massive
deforestation and higher food prices. Producing lipid based biodiesel from biomass has the potential to significantly
contribute to the development of second-generation biofuels. There are two different feed-stock sources that can meet
the criterion on a sustainable basis and in substantial quantities. First is lignocellulosic biomass such as surplus crop
residues that are currently underutilized, including rice and wheat straw, corn stover, and grass straw. This biomass
source has also been recently and specifically noted as ethically responsible feedstock sources for biofuels in Science
magazine. According to the scenario illustrated in figure 6 lipid based biofuel is produced from variable sources that
are available in a given region. Wherever crop residues or even animal wastes are available, lipid can be produced
heterotrophically by oleaginous fungi, yeast, bacteria and algae. Some oleaginous organisms have a superior
capability utilizing the sugars produced from lignocellulosic materials.
Solid and Liquid Organic Waste
Figure 6. Sustainable lipid based biodiesel scenario.
Lipid based biodiesel has several inherent advantages that make it a unique candidate to serve as the intermediate
feedstock. First, lipid has a similar molecule structure to alkane, and has properties like those common to fossil fuels.
Second, lipid based biodiesel has a higher energy density compared with other biofuels such as ethanol or butanol.
Third, lipid base biodiesel contains various chain lengths and bond types can function well in a mixture as a fuel, the
compositional flexibility making it possible for aggregating the lipids produced from different organisms in the
refinery. Microbial fermentation rout of biodiesel production mandates pretreatment of biomass to produce sugar
substrates. Human and animal consumption of biomass produces solid and liquid waste, which can be used as
substrate to produce biodiesel. The biomass gasification route can also utilize for production of syngas which can be
converted in to lipid based liquid fuel.
The study of fungal wastewater to produce lipid based mycodiesel has estimated the potential of wastewater to bio-oil
synthesis for biodiesel production via fungal (M. circinelloides) route, the 100m3/day capacity plant having
wastewater with similar characteristics can produce 14.22kg of bio-oil per day and 200MLD plant can produce
28.44tons of bio-oil per day (Bhanja et al., 2014). Considering the above mentioned 98% saponifiable lipids content
with 0.87ton/m3 density of biodiesel, the theoretical biodiesel production will be 4.23gal/day and 8436.87gal/day
with potential worth of 12.57$/day and 25137.7$/day for 100m3/day and 200MLD plant, respectively (calculation
is based on reported B100 price of 2.97$/gal).
Technical Report-March 2015
5 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum
COST AND PRICES:
a) Historical alternative fuel prices from previous reports: The figure 7 illustrate the historical prices for the alternative fuels included in these reports (specifically natural gas, propane, ethanol (E85), and biodiesel) relative to
gasoline and diesel. These graphs include prices collected as part of the current Price Report activity, which began in
September 2005. Natural gas (in GGE), propane, and ethanol (E85) have been graphed against gasoline prices, while
natural gas (in DGE) and biodiesel have been graphed against diesel prices.
Figure 7. Historical prices for the alternative fuels
b) Average Price comparisons of conventional fuel and
alternative fuel: Overall
nationwide average prices for
conventional and alternative
fuels are shown in Graph. As
this illustrates, alternative fuel
prices relative to conventional
fuels vary, with some
(biodiesel) higher fuel.
Biodiesel prices are higher
than regular diesel.
Figure 8. Average Price comparisons of conventional fuel and alternative fuel
c) Illustration of Energy content for fuel: The standard lower
heating values for fuels are
shown in figure 9.
(Transportation Energy Data
Figure 9. Illustration of Energy content for fuel
Technical Report-March 2015
6 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum
d) Energy Generation BTU/$: Energy Generation by Gasoline,
Ethanol, Diesel and Biodiesel
per $ spent on them has been
shown in figure 10. In the
graph, petroleum prices are
going to be increase, so
Gasoline and Diesel
BTU/$ value decreased in
future. In case of Ethanol
production, there is hope to
reduce its production cost, but
in comparison, Biodiesel
having 35% high heat energy
value than Ethanol. In future
there is much scope and
potential to reduce biodiesel
value, so its BTU/$ value will
increase mostly than others. Figure 10. Energy generation comparisons of conventional fuel and alternative fuel
e) Current diesel and biodiesel price comparison: In figure 11,
comparisons of diesel, oil seed
biodiesel, algal biodiesel,
current ligno-cellulosic lipid
based mycodiesel and aim to
produce lipid based biodiesel
fuel prices can be analyzed.
The lipid based biodiesel would
be produced at price 2.5
Figure 11. Price comparisons of diesel and forms of biodiesels with lipid based biodiesel.
f) Biodiesel Energy Generation BTU/$: The figure 12 shows,
targeted and estimated value of
lipid based biodiesel production
will reduce up to 2.5$/gallon and
this achievement will give
higher bio-energy extraction and
per $ yield. These data include
prices collected as part of the
Price Report activity, 2011.
Figure 12. Energy generation comparisons of conventional fuel and alternative fuel
Technical Report-March 2015
7 Future biofuel potential and scope for lipid based biodiesel - Sandip S. Magdum
SWOT analysis of Indian Biofuel Market:
Fast growing economy with investment capacity for large-scale projects
Large agricultural sector that produces significant amounts of residues
Good infrastructure in regions with high residue potential
State initiatives for first-generation and second-generation biofuel promotion, plus public and private funding for second-generation biofuel RD&D
Biofuel-specific infrastructure (fuel stations, flex fuel vehicles, etc.) is currently non-existent
No experience with second-generation biofuels
No additional cropland available for bioenergy crops
Smallholders could benefit through co-operatives that organize provision of residues
Laws to encourage direct foreign investment that could be favorable for the development of second-generation production
Improvement in rural income and employment generation
Private investment in biofuel sector
Subsidies needed in the short term to promote second-generation biofuels
Fossil fuel is subsidized by the state and is thus more competitive than biofuel
Bureaucratic hurdles still exist for new projects despite government support initiatives
CONCLUSION: Biodiesel is the fastest growing biofuel but from a lower base than ethanol. As Biodiesel production depends on oil
based feedstock and land availability even more than bioethanol production. Current cost of production is major issue
with considering; current production would cause massive deforestation and higher food prices. Our advanced
conceptual processes can hold the potential to increase Biodiesel production, as it can use any second generation
feedstock with high energy extraction. The current focus need to be on application of developed technology to utilize
cheap biomass and biowaste as feedstock to produce cost effective biodiesel, thus competing economically with
petroleum resources. Wide use of biodiesel in India is going to be a reality in the days to come.
Bhanja, A., Minde, G., Magdum, S., & Kalyanraman, V. (2014). Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal
Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil
Production. Biotechnology research international, 2014.
Dornburg, V., Faaij, A., Langeveld, H., van de Ven, G., Wester, F., van Keulen, H., van Diepen, K., Ros, J., van Vuuren, D., van den Born, G.J., van Oorschot, M., Smout, F., Aiking, H., Londo, M., Mozaffarian, H.,
Smekens, K., Meeusen, M., Banse, M., Lysen E., and van Egmond, S. 2008. Biomass Assessment:
Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and
economy. Report 500102 012, January 2008.
E4tech. 2009. Internal Analysis, www.e4tech.com
IEA. 2006. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2006. Paris.
IPCC. 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change. Working group III, Chapter 4 of the 4th Assessment Report.
The Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP), 2007.http://www.e4tech.com/