Founding the new nation

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FOUNDING THE NEW NATION c. 33,000 B.C.- A.D.1783

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  • 1. FOUNDING THE NEW NATION c. 33,000 B.C.- A.D.1783

2. I. PEOPLING THE AMERICAS I. The Land Bridge theory. 1. End of Ice Age diminished glaciers over North America. 2. Land Bridge emerged linking Asia & NA across Bering Sea. 3. People walked across the "bridge" before the sea level rose 4. The Land Bridge occurred around 35,000 years ago. II. Many peoples A. Groups spread across North, Central, and South America. B. Tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages. Notably: 1. Incas: Peru, with elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire. 2. Mayas: Yucatan Peninsula, with their step pyramids. 3. Aztecs: Mexico, with step pyramids and huge sacrifices of conquered peoples. 3. II. EARLIEST AMERICANS Development of corn or maize around 5,000B.C. in Mexico was revolutionary in that: Didn't have to be hunter- gatherers, could settle down and be farmers. Began to establish permanent settlements 1. No large concentration of pop. Like in SA or Mesoamerica 2. Scattered pop. allowed Europeans to defeat Native Americans easier Corn arrived in the present day U.S. around 1,200B.C. from Mesoamerica 4. II. Earliest Americans Native Americans had different view of things as compared to Europeans. A.Native Americans-no man owned the land, the tribe did. (Europeans- private property) B.Indians- nature was mixed with many spirits. (Europeans- Christian and monotheistic) C.Indians- nature was sacred. (Europeans- nature and land to be subdued and put to use). D.Indians- little or no concept or interest in money. (Europeans- loved money or gold) 5. V. Columbus Comes upon a New World I. The 1st Europeans to come to America were the Norse (Vikings fromNorway). 1. 1000 AD, the Vikings landed in Newfoundland (LAnse aux Meadows) 2. No strong nation- state to support other voyages, settlements abandoned Columbus I. Convinced King and Queen of Spain to finance expedition to bypass Africa route to Asia II. 1492 discovers America Voyage eventually leads to the beginnings of a global system Europe would provide the market, capital, technology. Africa would provide the labor. The New World would provide the raw materials (gold, soil, lumber). 6. V. Columbus Comes upon a New World I. Causes biological flip-flop of Old and New Worlds. traded plants, foods, animals, germs II. Columbian Exchange: Fromthe New World (America) to the Old corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc. also, syphilis Fromthe Old World to the New cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc. devastating diseases (smallpox, yellow fever, malaria), as Indians had no immunities. The Indians had no immunities in their systems built up over generations. An estimated 90% of all pre-Columbus Indians died, mostly due to disease. 7. VII. The Spanish Conquistadores I. Spain secured claim to Americas from Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) II. 1500s dominant explorers/ colonizers of Americas III. Conquistadores explored and conquered much of N and S America I. Led to a flood of silver from SA, Mexico caused inflation in Europe A. Led to rise of capitalism and commercial banking, paid for international trade II. Encomienda system established A. Indians "commended or given to Spanish landlords B. The idea was that Indians would work and be converted to Christianity, but it was basically just slavery on a sugar plantation guised as missionary work. 8. IX. The Spread of Spanish America I. Spains empire grew quickly II. Threats from other European powers- English, French III. Spanish set up forts (presidios) to protect borders- from Florida to California IV. Rebellions in New Mexico against Spanish (Popes Rebellion 1680) V. BlackLegend: The Black Legend was the notion that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery); though true, they also brought good things such as law systems, architecture, Christianity, language, civilization, so that the Black Legend is partly, but not entirely, accurate. 9. French, Spanish and English Settlers Each co untry had diffe re nt m o tive s and se ttle m e nt patte rns French- friendly relations with Indians (comparatively), tried to convert Natives to Christianity, came in small numbers, extractive economic activity (fur trade), explored deep into continent, Catholic, had economic motives Spanish- came to conquer (conquistador), looked for and found precious minerals, tried to convert Indians, blended their culture with Native culture, explored deep into continent to look for wealth, Catholic English- came in larger groups (especially NE), settled and improved land, more religiously tolerant, wiped out Indian culture, established their own footprint, did not explore deep into continent, mostly Protestant 10. France Finds a Foothold in Canada Latecomer to colonizing New World Louis XIV took interest in colonial expansion First successful colony Quebec 1609 Samuel de Champlain explore, solider, leader early French colonial efforts Colony known as New France Problems with Iroquois hampered French conquest of Ohio River Valley French colonies autocratic, no representative assemblies, no right to fair trail Favored Caribbean colonies because of sugar trade 11. New France Fans Out Most valuable resource in New France- beaver fur Fur trappers (voyageurs) trapped beaver, recruited Indians into fur business Traveled deep into wilderness, created ecological disaster by eliminating most of beaver population French Missionaries attempted to Christianize Indians Voyageurs, missionaries vital role as explorers, geographers 12. II. New France Fans Out French try to block British and Spanish expansion Detroit (1701), keep out British LaSalle claims Mississippi River Valley for France (Louisiana) French fortify posts along river to keep out Spanish, protect beaver trade Establish New Orleans (1718) to keep fur and grain flowing to mother country, keep MS River from Spanish 13. PLANTING OF THE ENGLISH IN AMERICA 1500-1733 14. I. ELIZABETHENERGIZES ENGLAND Within 100 years of Columbus landing Americas radically transformed 1600 most of North America unclaimed, unexplored In the 1500s, Britain failed to effectively colonize due to internal conflicts. Elizabeth I became queen, Britain became basically Protestant, rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified. Late 1500s English attack Spanish ships for gold (Sir Francis Drake) First English attempts at colonization (Newfoundland 1583, Roanoke 1585) failed 1588 English defeat Spanish Armada Allows English to cross North Atlantic Victory gives English reason for exploration/settlement 15. II. England on the Eve of the Empire Reasons for English colonization of the Americas A. 1500s growing population B. New enclosure laws less land for poor C. Wool industry collapsed D. Population became mobile (looking for jobs) E. Tradition of primogeniture = 1st born son inherits ALL fathers land. Younger sons tried their luck with fortunes elsewhere, like America. F. Unity under a popular monarch Early1600s, joint-stockcompanyperfected (investors put money into the company with hopes for a good return), provided financing for colonization Joint-stock companies usually did not exist long, stockholders invested to make a profit, then quickly sell for profit a few years later Charter gave settlers same rights as Englishmen Joint Stock Company (VirginiaCompany) given charter by King James I to settle in New World 16. III. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling On May 24, 1607, about 100 English settlers disembarked from their ship and founded Jamestown. Problems included: (a) the swampy site of Jamestown, poor drinking water, mosquitoes caused malaria and yellow fever. (b) men wasted time looking for gold rather than doing useful tasks (digging wells, building shelter, planting crops), (c) zero women on the initial ship. 1608 Captain John Smith took over control and whipped the colonists into shape, gave order and discipline, highlighted by his no work, no food policy. Colonists had to eat cats, dogs, rats, even other people. One fellow wrote of eating powdered wife. 1610 a relief party headed by Lord De La Warr arrived to alleviate the suffering. 1625 out of an original overall total of 8,000 would-be settlers, only 1,200 had survived. 17. IV. Culture Clash in the New World At first English seen potential allies, relations grew worse when English began to raid Indian food supplies De La Warr began total war against Indians Early 1600s clashes decimated Indians pushed them westward, removed them from ancestral lands European colonization disrupted way of life Disease took out population Trade intensified competition among tribes Tribes along Atlantic seaboard felt effects the most When colonists could grow their own food they had little use for Indians, Europeans wanted their land 18. V. Virginia Child of Tobacco Tobacco savior of Virginia Colony cash crop- Jamestown had found its gold. Tobacco created a greed for land- heavily depleted the soil and ruined the land. Representative self-government in Virginia 1619 settlers created the House of Burgesses, a committee to work out local issues. This set Americaona pathwayto self-rule 1619 first Africans sold as slaves 19. VI. Maryland: Catholic Haven I. 1634 founded by Lord Baltimore as Catholic refuge (from Protestant English) II. Second plantation colony III. Huge estates given to Catholic families, poorer, Protestants settled there also, created friction between two groups IV. Tobacco main crop, labor source was indentured servants (slaves came in late 1600s) V. Religious toleration A. Permitted freedom of worship to all Christians B. 1649- Act of Toleration, guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians, but decreed the death penalty to Jews, atheists, others who didnt believe in the divinity of Jesus C. More Catholics in Maryland than any English speaking colony in the New World 20. VII. The West Indies Way Station to Mainland America I. Decline of Spanish power led British to secure Caribbean Islands II. Sugar main crop Labor intensive, capital intensive Needed to be wealthy to start plantation Caused large numbers of slaves to be imported III. SlaveCodes established in West Indies 1700 slaves outnumber settlers 4:1 defined the legal status of slaves and the rights of the masters. They were typically strict and exacted severe punishments for offenders. IV. Sugar plantation system caused islands to depend on American colonies for food, basic supplies Smaller farmers left islands and settled in southern colonies V. 1670 group arrives in Carolina, brings slaves from Barbados Slave codes adopted in Carolina 1696 Slave codes became model for statutes governing slavery across colonies 21. IX. Colonizing the Carolinas Developed close economic ties with sugar islands Many immigrated from region , brought slave trade with them Rice major export crop African slaves had knowledge to grow rice Slaves had natural immunity to malaria Ideal laborers for rice plantations By 1710 majority of people in Carolinas were African slaves Charles Town major seaport Diverse tolerant community Attracted French Protestant refugees Caused friction with Spain 22. IX. Emergence of North Carolina Wild northern expanse of Carolina Settled more slowly because lack of good harbors Attracted outcasts and religious dissenters Raised tobacco and other crops on small farms, little need for slaves (few large plantations) Distinctive traits: irreligious, hospitable to pirates, spirit of resistance to authority, , democratic, independent minded, least aristocratic of 13 colonies 1712 separated from S.C. 23. X. Late Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony 1733-Last colony to be planted Savannah major port Founded by prison reform group, major leader James Oglethorpe Debtors from England sent there Established as buffer between English, Spanish Only colony to receive money from English government Diverse communities Religious toleration for all except Catholics Least populous colony Restrictive slavery laws 24. Plantation Colonies Agriculture export based economies Slavery in all colonies Small group owned most of the land Rural population made it hard to establish towns, schools and churches Religiously tolerant 25. SETTLING THE NORTHERN COLONIES 1619-1700 26. Overview Established different patterns of settlement than plantation/southern colonies Different economies than plantation/southern colonies Different set of values than plantation/southern colonies Distinctive regional characteristics began to develop during this time 27. II. Puritans End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth Social unrest and rise of Calvinism led to attraction to Puritanism King James I harassed Puritan separatists, went to Holland Looked for haven where they could be free to worship and live 1620- Negotiated with Virginia Company, missed destination landed in New England Leader Myles Standish Signed MayflowerCompact- set up crude government, submit to the will of the majority, first step toward self government Male settlers met in open discussion 28. II. Puritans End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth First winter took heavy toll (44 of 102 survived), nobody left colony Next year bountiful harvests, Pilgrims saw some sign of success Found economic success in fish, fur, lumber William Bradford early leader Colony never important politically or economically Significant for moral and spiritual qualities, established pattern in New England 1691- Merged with 29. III. Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth Separatist Puritans wanted purified form of Christianity, not welcome in England, still members of Church of England (Pilgrims) 1629 more moderate group secured royal charter, formed Mass. Bay Company Used charter as a form of constitution, had advantage of being out of the reach of royal authority Well equipped group settles 1630, larger scale than previous settlements John Winthrop gov. of Bay colony for 19 years (came because called by God) Important industries fishing, shipbuilding Became biggest, most influential colony in New England 30. III. Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth Benefitted from shared sense of purpose, idea of covenant with God We shall be a city upon a hill Believed they had a covenant with God, society a model to humanity 31. IV. Building the Bay Colony Common convictions shaped life All free adult males, that were members of Puritan Congregations (Congregational Church) had right to vote, participate in political life Town governments were more inclusive, all male property holders could participate, all business decided by majority vote Was not a democracy All people paid taxes Limitedendorsement of separationof churchandstate Clergy could not hold political office Congregations had right to hire, fire ministers Protestant ethic emerges- serious commitment to work, worldly pursuits Religious leaders had enormous influence, govt. duty to enforce religious rules For Puritans hellfire was very real, community pressure to act in 32. V. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth Roger Williams radical separatist, wanted clean break from English church Challenged legality of Bay Colony charter, taking land from Indians Did not want civil government to regulate religion 1635- Banished from colony Williams established religious tolerance in Rhode Island Most liberal of all colonies Opposed special privilege, provided freedom of opportunity Settlements consisted of exiles and malcontents from Bay Colony Strongly Independent colony Challenge to Puritan orthodoxy from Anne Hutchinson, holy life no sure way to salvation, why bother with following Gods laws (antinomianism) 1638- Banished from Mass. colony 33. VI. New England Spreads Out 1635 Connecticut River Valley settled, largest area of fertile land in New England 1639 Fundam e ntalO rde rs o f Co nne cticut- like a modern constitution, democratic regime controlled by substantial citizens Established unified government in CT First written constitution in America 1662- More religious colony, New Haven merged with Connecticut colony 1677 Maine- absorbed by Mass. 1679 New Hampshire became a royal colony 34. VII. Puritans vs. Indians Spread of English led to conflict with Indians Epidemics left them with no position to resist English 1637 Pequot War English destroy Pequot (in CT) led to forty years of uneasy peace English tried to convert natives, put them in praying towns (early reservations?) Only hope for resistance was in unity 1675 King Phillip (Metacom) led series of attacks on English 1676 KingPhillips Warended, slowed westward advance of English 35. VIII. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence COLONIES UNDER ROYAL CONTROL 1660 Royalists restored (Stuart Restoration) in England, Charles II takes more active role, colonies seen as economic asset 1662-Gives Connecticut a sea to sea grant, legitimized squatter settlements 1663 Rhode Island receives new charter 1684 Bay colony charter revoked, provides more royal control 1651-1696 British pass series of NavigationActs that spell out goods to be sold, and put the British government in charge of trade Policy known as mercantilism, basically political control of the economy by the state Unintended consequence smuggling became popular Restrictions on courts, press, mail, town meetings, schools; revoked land titles Tax colonies without consent, enforced Navigation Laws 36. VIII. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence 1690s Monarchs relax control of colonial trade, begin period of salutaryneglect Residue: more English officials in America, prevented rise of local leaders, beginnings of resentment by colonists 37. X. Old Netherlanders at New Netherland 1609 Henry Hudson filed Dutch claim to New York area 1623-1624 Ne w Ne the rland planted (Dutch West India Company) New Amsterdam established for fur trade, quick profit for stockholders, not democratic cosmopolitan population, landed aristocracy Land granted for people who would settle 50 people on them (patroons) 38. XII. Dutch Residues in New York Regarded by English as intruders, attacked by English navy and surrendered Became New York English had strategic harbor in middle of colonies Autocratic (self- governance) spirit remained, also influences of architecture and place names 39. XIII. Penns Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania Quakers, began in England 1600s quaked with religious conviction Refused to support Church of England with taxes, serve in military William Penn establishes an asylum in New World 1681 receives land grant from crown Welcomed all types of settlers Tolerant of Indians Wanted forward looking settlers, liberal land policy Attracted many immigrants 40. XV. The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies Middle colonies had fertile soil, known as bread colonies Rivers- ease of travel, brought people to backcountry Landholdings were intermediate in size Ethnically diverse, religious toleration Economic, social democracy found in middle colonies 41. America 1720 Population growing Permanent settlements established Transportation, communication improving British kept hands off policy Colonists developed own churches, governments, 42. AMERICAN LIFE IN THE 17TH CENTURY 1607-1692 43. II. Tobacco Economy Chesapeake good for growing tobacco exhausted soil, constant movement looking for more fertile land production depressed worldwide prices Needed labor- Indians died too quickly, African slaves too expensive England had surplus of laborers, turned to indentured servitude By 1700 more than 100,000 indentured servants came to the region Eventually prime land became scarce, land owners did not want to give up land Freed workers had to hire out for 44. III. Frustrated Freeman and Bacons Rebellion Early Colonial Virginia Landless, penniless freemen Single, young No women, money Only land in backcountry Bacons Rebellion VA Gov. Berkeley- friendly policies toward Indians, monopoly on fur trade Did not retaliate after Indian attack 1676 Nathaniel Bacon and followers, attacked Indians , chased gov. from Jamestown and burned town Bacon dies from disease, Berkeley captures and hangs 20 45. Results of Bacons Rebellion Exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen/landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantations. So cio -e co no m ic class diffe re nce s/clashe s be twe e n rural/urban co m m unitie s wo uld co ntinue thro ug ho ut Am e rican histo ry. Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel- black slaves Gave right to political participation 46. VI. Southern Society Social hierarchy develops by late 1600s Plantation owners (first families of Virginia) Small farmers largest group Landless whites, many former indentured servants Oppressed black slaves Few cities, urban professional class slow to emerge Life revolved around plantation Transportation by rivers, poor roads 47. VII. The New England Family Climate healthier than south Migrated to region as families, population grew by natural increase Family stability, intergenerational continuity (concept of grandparents) 48. VIII. Life in New England Towns Tight knit society based on communities Surrounded by other colonial powers, Puritan unity of purpose Society grew in orderly fashion, distribution of land by town fathers Towns of more than 50 had to provide elementary education in Mass. Democracy in church govt, political govt. 49. XI. The Salem Witch Trails 1692 Salem, MA women accused of bewitching others, 20 put to death Resulted from social prejudices- Puritan ide as vs. Rising Yanke e co m m e rcialism (m any accuse d fro m pro spe ro us part o f to wn), m istrust o f o utside rs (Quake rs, Baptists accuse d by Puritan se ttle rs)), culturalm istrust o f wo m e n (m o st accuse d we re o ld 50. XII. New England Way of Life Lack of good farmland led to frugality of settlers Region less ethnically mixed Diversified industry, experts in ship building and commerce Slavery not profitable Saw duty to improve land, clearing, planting, building Religion, soil, climate led to purposefulness, self- reliance, resourcefulness 51. COLONIAL SOCIETY ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION CHAPTER 5 1700-1775 52. I. Conquest by the Cradle 1775- British had 32 colonies in NA 13 original colonies not the wealthiest Average age 16 Most population east of Alleghenies, Appalachian Mts. By 1775 some had moved west 90% lived in rural areas Shifted balance of power 53. II. Mingling of the Races Mostly English Germans Scots- Irish 1764- Paxton Boys protest Quaker treatment of Indians Othergroups- French Huguenots,, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, Scots-Highlanders African slave trade contributed to population diversity Laid foundations for multi-cultural 54. III. Structure of Colonial Society America land of opportunity No titled nobility Social structure very fluid By mid 1700s- class differences emerge small group of aristocrats had most power Wars in 1700s enriched a few merchants, made orphans and widows (mostly in NE) 55. VIII. Great Awakening Religion lost steam in 1700s , New ideas challenged old ways (predestination), new ideas of free will 1730s and 1740s -Great Awakening Started in Mass.- Deeply emotional sermons, well reasoned, Message of human helplessness, divine omnipotence Split congregations, increased number and competitiveness of religions Direct spirituality undermined older clergy First mass movement of American people Contributed to sense that Americans were common people united by shared experience 56. Effects of the Great Awakening and Enlightenment Ideas of Enlightenment brought over from Europe, affected American thought challenged government and religious authority Emphasized power of rational thought to explain world, appealed to urban, merchant class Led to expansion of education (colleges and universities) Ideas represented by Ben Franklin In the South Great Awakening appealed to landless whites and African Americans, questioned authority of Anglican Church and powerful economic interests 57. XI. American Colonies in 1775 By 1775 America more democratic than Europe Basically English in language and custom Protestant religion Democratic ideas of tolerance, educational advantages, equality of economic opportunity, freedom of speech, assembly and representative government emerged in this period