Fortigate Training

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Fortinet - World No.1 UTM

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  • 1. FortiGate Multi-Threat Security Systems Administration, Content Inspection and Basic VPN

2. Prerequisites Introductory-level network security experience Basic understanding of core network security and firewall concepts 3. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 4. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 5. Lesson 1 Overview and System Setup 6. Unified Threat Management One device Firewall, intrusion protection, antivirus and more Centralized management Page: 7 7. Fortinet Solution FortiGate platform FortiGuard Subscription Services Management, reporting, analysis products Page: 8 8. FortiGate Application-level services Antivirus, intrusion protection, antispam, web content filtering Network-level services Firewall, IPSec and SSL VPN, traffic shaping Management, reporting, analysis products Authentication, logging, reporting, secure administration, SNMP Page: 8 9. FortiGate Portfolio SOHO FortiGate 30B, 50B, 51B, 60B, 100A, 110C, 111C Protect smaller deployments Medium-Sized Enterprises FortiGate 200A, 224B, 300A, 400A, 500A, 800 Meet demands of mission critical enterprise applications Large-Sized Enterprises and Carriers FortiGate 1000A, 3016B, 3600A, 3810A, 5020, 5050, 5140 High performance and reliability Page: 9-10 10. FortiGuard Dynamic updates Antivirus, intrusion protection, web filtering, antispam Updated 24x7x365 Data centers around the world Secure, high availability locations Page: 10 11. FortiManager Manage all Fortinet products from a centralized console Minimize administration effort Deploying, configuring and maintaining devices Page: 10 12. FortiAnalyzer Centralized analysis and reporting Aggregate and analyze log data from multiple devices Comprehensive view of network usage Identify and address vulnerabilities Monitor compliance Quarantine and content archiving Page: 10 13. FortiMail Multi-layered email security Advanced spam filtering, antivirus Facilitate regulatory compliance Page: 11 14. FortiClient Security for desktops, laptops, mobile devices Personal firewall, IPSec VPN, antivirus, antispam, web content filtering FortiGuard keeps FortiClient up-to-date Page: 11 15. Firewall Basics Controls flow of traffic between networks of different trust level Allow good information through but block intrusions, unauthorized users or malicious traffic Rules to allow or deny traffic Page: 12 16. Firewall Basics Page: 12 17. Common Firewall Features Block unwanted incoming traffic Block prohibited outgoing traffic Block traffic based on content Allow connections to an internal network Reporting Authentication Page: 13 18. Types of Firewalls Packet filter firewall Inspects incoming and outgoing packets If matches rules, perform action Stateful firewall Examines headers and content of packet Holds attributes of connection in memory Packet forwarded if connection already established and tracked Improved performance Application layer (proxy-based) firewall Stands between protected and unprotected network Repackages messages into new packets allowed into network Page: 14 19. Network Address Translation Map private reserved IP addresses into public IP addresses Local network uses different set of addresses NAT device routes response to proper destination Single agent between public and private network Conserve IP addresses One public address used to represent group of computers Organization uses own internal IP addressing schemes Page: 16 20. Dynamic NAT Private IP address mapped from a pool of public IP addresses Masks internal network configuration Private network can use private IP addresses invalid on Internet but useful internally Page: 16 21. Static NAT Private IP address mapped to a public IP addresses Public address always the same Allow internal host to have a private IP address but still be reachable over the Internet Web server Page: 16 22. FortiGate Capabilities Firewall Policies to allow or deny traffic UTM Features: Antivirus Multiple techniques Antispam Detect, tag, block, and quarantine spam Web Filtering Control access to inappropriate web content Intrusion Protection Identify and record suspicious traffic Page: 17 23. FortiGate Capabilities UTM Features (continued): Application Control Manage bandwidth use Data Leak Prevention Prevents transmission of sensitive information Page: 17-18 24. FortiGate Capabilities Virtual Domains Single FortiGate functions as multiple units Traffic Shaping Control available bandwidth and priority of traffic Secure VPN Ensure confidentiality and integrity of transmitted data WAN Optimization Improve performance and security High Availability Two or more FortiGates operate as a cluster Page: 18-19 25. FortiGate Capabilities Endpoint Compliance Use FortiClient End Point Security in network Logging Historical and current analysis of network usage User Authentication Control access to resources Page: 18-19 26. FortiGate Unit Description CPU Intel processor FortiASIC processor Offload intensive processing DRAM Flash memory Store firmware images Hard drive Logs, quarantine, archives Interfaces WAN, DMZ, Internal Page: 20 27. FortiGate Unit Description Serial console port Management access USB port USB drives or modem Wireless FortiWifi devices can use wireless communications Modem Module slot bays Blade card installed in a chassis PC card slot PCMCIA card slot for expansion Page: 20-21 28. FortiGate Front View (51B) Page: 22 29. FortiGate Back View (51B) Page: 23 30. Operating Modes NAT/Route Mode Default configuration Each FortiGate unit is visible to network it is connected to Interfaces are on different subnets Unit functions as a firewall Page: 24 31. Operating Modes NAT/Route Page: 24 32. Operating Modes Transparent Mode FortiGate unit is invisible to the network All interfaces are on the same subnet Use FortiGate without altering IP infrastructure Page: 25 33. Operating Modes Transparent Page: 25 34. Device Administration Web Config Configure and monitor device through web browser CLI Command line interface Page: 26 35. Web Config Page: 26 36. Web Config Menu Page: 28 37. System Information Page: 29 38. License Information Page: 29 39. CLI Console Page: 29 40. System Resources Page: 30 41. Unit Operation Page: 30 42. Alert Message Console Page: 30 43. Top Sessions Page: 31 44. Top Viruses Page: 31 45. Top Attacks Page: 32 46. Traffic History Page: 32 47. Statistics Page: 33 48. Online Help Page: 34-35 49. Topology Viewer Page: 36 50. Command Line Interface (CLI) Page: 37 51. CLI Command Structure Commands config Objects config system Branches config system interface Tables edit port1 Parameters set ip 172.20.110.251 255.255.255.0 Page: 38-44 52. CLI Basics Command help ? config ? config system ? Command completion ? or c? config + + Recalling commands or Page: 45 53. CLI Basics Editing commands + Line continuation useat end of each line Command abbreviation get system status g sy st IP address formats 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1/24 Page: 46 54. Administrative Users Responsible for configuration and operation Default: admin Full read/write control Can not be renamed Default password blank System administrator Assigned super_admin profile Regular administrator Access profile other than super_admin Access configurable Page: 47 55. Interface Addressing Number of physical interfaces varies per model Interface addresses configurable Static DHCP PPPoE Page: 48-51 56. DNS Some functions use DNS Alert email, URL blocking, etc Lower end models can retrieve automatically One interface must use DHCP Can provide DNS forwarding Page: 52 57. Configuration Backup and Restore Different locations Local PC FortiManager FortiGuard Management Service USB disk Can be encrypted Required to backup VPN certificates Page: 53 58. Firmware Upgrades File must be obtained from Fortinet Apply upgrade Web Config CLI FortiGuard Management Service Page: 54 59. Lab Connecting to Command Line Interface Connecting to Web Config Configuring Network Connectivity Exploring the CLI Configuring Global System Settings Configuring Administrative Users Page: 55 60. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 61. Lesson 2 FortiGuard Subscription Services 62. FortiGuard Subscription Services Continuously updated security Antivirus Intrusion Protection Web Filtering Antispam Delivered through FortiGuard Distribution Network Page: 75 63. FortiGuard Distribution Network Secure, high availability data centers Updated methods Manual Push Pull Customized frequency Devices continuously updated Device connects to FortiGuard Service Point Page: 75-76 64. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers service.fortiguard.net DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate Page: 77 65. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers service.fortiguard.net DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate Page: 77 66. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers service.fortiguard.net DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate Page: 77 67. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers service.fortiguard.net DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate Page: 77 68. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers service.fortiguard.net DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate Page: 77 69. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers service.fortiguard.net DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate Page: 77 70. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers service.fortiguard.net DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate Page: 77 71. Connecting to FortiGuard Servers DNS FortiGuard Server 1 FortiGuard Server 2 FortiGate service.fortiguard.net Page: 77 72. FortiGuard Antivirus Service Latest virus defenses New and evolving viruses Spyware Malware Automated updates Page: 78 73. FortiGuard Intrusion Protection System Service Latest defenses against network-level threats Library of signatures Engines Anomaly inspection Deep packet inspection Full content inspection Activity inspection Supports behavior-based heuristics Page: 79 74. FortiGuard Web Filtering Service Hosted web URL filtering service FortiGuard Rating Server Billions of web page addresses Regulate and block harmful, inappropriate and dangerous content FortiGuard Web Filtering Service Regulate web activities to meet policy and compliance CIPA Compliance Page: 80 75. FortiGuard Antispam Service Reduce spam at network perimeter Global filters Sender reputation database (FortiIP) Spam signature database (FortiSig) Constantly updated Local filters Banned words Local white and black lists Heuristic rules Bayesian training (in FortiMail) Page: 81-82 76. FortiGuard Subscription Service Licensing Page: 83 77. Scheduled Updates Check for updates at defined times Once every 1 to 23 hours Once a day Once a week Must be able to connect to FortiGuard Distribution Network using HTTPS on port 443 Use override server address option may be used Page: 84 78. Push Updates FortiGuard Distribution Network notifies FortiGate units with push enabled FortiGate will request update Use push in addition to scheduled updates Receive updates sooner If configuring push through a NAT device, configure port forwarding Page: 85-87 79. Manual Updates Update antivirus and IPS definitions Download definition file Copy to computer used to connect to Web Config Page: 88 80. Caching Available for web filtering and antispam Improves performance Uses small % of system memory Least recently used IP or URL deleted when cache full Time to Live (TTL) controls time in cache Page: 89 81. FortiGuard Web Filtering Categories Wide range of categories to filter upon Specify action for each category Allow, Block, Log, Allow Override Enabled through protection profile Page: 90-91 82. FortiGuard Antispam Controls Filter email based on type IMAP, POP3, SMTP Filtering options enabled through protection profile Page: 92 83. Configuring FortiGuard Using the CLI CLI can be used to configure communications with FortiGuard Distribution Network Override default connection settings config system fortiguard Page: 93 84. FortiGuard Center Online knowledge base and resource Spyware, virus, IPS, web filtering, antispam attack library Vulnerabilities Submit spam and dangerous URLs Timely threat and vulnerability information Updated around the clock Page: 94-95 85. Lab Enabling FortiGuard Services and Updates Page: 96 86. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 87. Lesson 3 Logging and Alerts 88. Logging and Alerts Track down and pinpoint problems Monitor network and Internet traffic Monitor normal traffic Establish baselines Identify changes for optimal performance Page: 101 89. Log Storage Locations Local hard disk FortiGate must have hard disk FortiAnalyzer Device for log collection, analysis and storage System Memory Overwrites older logs when capacity reached Logs lost when FortiGate reset or loses power Syslog Forward logs to remote computer FortiGuard Analysis Service Subscription-based web service Page: 101-105 90. Logging Levels Emergency System unstable Alert Immediate action required Critical Functionality affected Error Error condition exists, functionality could be affected Warning Functionality could be affected Notification Normal event Information General info about system operations Debug Primarily used as a support function Page: 106-107 91. Log Types Traffic Traffic between source and destination interface Only generated when session table entry expires Event Management activity AntiVirus Virus incidents Web Filter Web content blocking actions Attack Attacks detected and blocked Page: 108 92. Log Types AntiSpam Records detected spam Data Leak Prevention Records data that matches pre-defined sensitive patterns Application Control IM/P2P Records IM and P2P information VoIP Logs SCCP violations Content Logs metadata Page: 108-109 93. Configuring Logging Select location and level Enable log generation Protection profile Antivirus, web filtering, FortiGuard web filtering, spam filtering, IPS, IM/P2P and VoIP Event log Management, system and VPN activities Firewall policy Log Allowed Traffic Page: 110-114 94. Viewing Log Files Log&Report > Log Access Remote or Memory tabs Local Disk if available Formatted or Raw view Select columns to display Filter messages Page: 115-118 95. Content Archiving Store session transaction data HTTP FTP NNTP IM (AIM, ICQ, MSN, Yahoo!) Email (POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Only available with FortiAnalyzer unit Summary Archives content metadata Full Copies of files or email messages Page: 119-121 96. Alert Email Send notification upon detection of a defined event Requires one DNS server configured Up to 3 recipients Page: 122 97. SNMP Report system information and forward to SNMP manager Access SNMP traps from any FortiGate configured for SNMP Read-only implementation Fortinet-proprietary MIB available Or use Fortinet-supported standard MIB Add SNMP Communities 8 SNMP managers per community Page: 123-126 98. Lab Exploring Web Config Monitoring Configuring System Event Logging Exploring the FortiAnalyzer Interface Configuring Email Alerts SNMP Setup (Optional) Page: 127 99. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 100. Lesson 4 Firewall Policies 101. Firewall Policies Control traffic passing through FortiGate What to do with connection request? Packet analyzed, content compared to policy ACCEPT DENY Source, destination and service must match policy Policy directs action Protection profile used with policy Apply protection settings Logging enabled to view connections using policy Page: 137 102. Policy Matching Searches policy list for matching policy Based on source and destination Starts at top of the list and searches down for match First match is applied Arrange policies from more specific to more general Policies configured separately for each virtual domain Move policies in list to influence order evaluated Page: 138-141 103. User Authentication to Firewall Policies User challenged to identify themselves before using policy Before matching policies not requiring authentication Available for policies with: Action set to ACCEPT SSL VPN Authentication methods Username + Password Digital certificates LDAP RADIUS TACACS+ Active Directory FSAE required Page: 142 104. Authentication Protocols Protocol used to issue authentication challenge specified Firewall policy must include protocol HTTP HTTPS Telnet FTP Page: 142 105. Creating Policies Source and destination address Schedule Service Action NAT Options Protection profile Logging Authentication Traffic shaping Disclaimers Page: 143 106. Firewall Addresses Added to source and destination address Match source and destination IP address of packets received Default of ALL Represents any IP address on the network Address configured with name, IP address and mask Also use FQDN Must be unique name Groups can be used to simplify policy creation and management Page: 144-148 107. Firewall Schedules Control when policies are active or inactive One-time schedule Activate or deactivate for a specified period of time Recurring schedule Activate or deactivate at specified times of the day or week Page: 149-150 108. Firewall Services Determine types of communications accepted or denied Predefined services applied to policy Custom service if not on predefined list Group services to simplify policy creation and management Page: 151-153 109. Network Address Translation (NAT) Translate source address and port of packets accepted by policy Page: 154 110. Network Address Translation (NAT) Page: 154 111. Network Address Translation (NAT) Page: 154 112. Network Address Translation (NAT) Page: 154 113. Network Address Translation (NAT) Page: 154 114. Network Address Translation (NAT) Page: 154 Original New 115. Dynamic IP Pool Translate source address to an IP address randomly selected from addresses in IP pool Page: 155 116. Dynamic IP Pool Page: 155 117. Dynamic IP Pool Page: 155 118. Dynamic IP Pool Page: 155 119. Dynamic IP Pool Page: 155 120. Dynamic IP Pool Page: 155 Original New 121. Fixed Port Prevent NAT from translating the source port Some applications do not function correctly if source port translated If Dynamic Pool not enabled, policy with Fixed Port can only allow one connection to that service at a time Page: 156 122. Fixed Port Page: 156 123. Fixed Port Page: 156 124. Fixed Port Page: 156 125. Fixed Port Page: 156 126. Fixed Port Page: 156 Original New 127. Virtual IPs Allow connections using NAT firewall policies Addresses in packets are remapped and forwarded Client address does not appear in packet server receives Upon reply, session table used to determine what destination address should be mapped to Page: 157-158 128. DNAT NAT not selected in firewall policy Policy performs destination network address translation (DNAT) Accepts packet from external network intended for specific address, translates destination address to IP on another network Page: 159 129. DNAT Page: 159 130. DNAT Page: 159 131. DNAT Page: 159 132. DNAT Page: 159 133. DNAT Page: 159 Original New 134. DNAT Page: 159 135. DNAT Page: 159 136. DNAT Page: 159 137. DNAT Page: 159 138. DNAT Page: 159 OriginalNew 139. Server Load Balancing Dynamic one-to-many NAT mapping External IP address translated to a mapped IP address Determine by load balancing algorithm External IP address not always translated to same mapped IP address Page: 160 140. Server Load Balancing Page: 160 141. Server Load Balancing Page: 160 142. Server Load Balancing Page: 160 143. Server Load Balancing Page: 160 144. Server Load Balancing Page: 160 145. Server Load Balancing Page: 160 Original New 146. Protection Profiles Control all content filtering Group of protection settings applied to traffic Types and levels of protection customized for each policy Enables settings for: Protocol Recognition Anti-Virus IPS Web Filtering Spam Filtering Data Leak Prevention Sensor Application Control Logging Page: 161 147. Default Protection Profiles Strict Maximum protection Scan Applies virus scanning to HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP Web Applies virus scanning and web content blocking to HTTP Unfiltered No scanning, blocking or IPS Page: 162-172 148. Traffic Shaping Control bandwidth available to traffic processed by firewall policy Which policies have higher priority? Improve quality of bandwidth-intensive traffic Does NOT increase total bandwidth available Page: 173 149. Token Bucket Filter Dampening function Delays traffic by buffering bursts Does not schedule traffic Configured rate is never exceeded Page: 174 150. Token Bucket Filter Mechanism Bucket has specified capacity Tokens added to bucket at mean rate If bucket fills, new tokens discarded Bucket requests number of tokens equal to packet size If not enough tokens in bucket, packet buffered Flow will never send packets more quickly than capacity of the bucket Overall transmission rate does not exceed rate tokens placed in bucket Page: 175 151. Token Bucket Filter Mechanism Page: 175 152. Token Bucket Filter Mechanism Page: 175 153. Token Bucket Filter Mechanism Page: 175 154. Token Bucket Filter Mechanism Page: 175 155. Token Bucket Filter Mechanism Page: 175 156. Token Bucket Filter Mechanism Page: 175 157. Traffic Shaping Considerations Attempt to normalize traffic peaks Prioritize certain flows over others Physical limitation to how much data can be buffered Packets may be dropped, sessions affected Performance on one traffic flow may be sacrificed to guarantee performance on another Not effective in high-traffic situations Where traffic exceeds FortiGate units capacity Packets must be received for being subject to shaping If shaping not applied to policy, default is high priority Page: 176-177 158. Disclaimers Accept disclaimer before connecting Use with authentication or protection profile Can redirect to a URL after authentication Page: 178 159. Lab Creating Firewall Policy Objects Configuring Firewall Policies Testing Firewall Policies Configuring Virtual IP Access Debug Flow Page: 179 160. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 161. Lesson 5 Basic VPN 162. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) Use public network to provide access to private network Confidentiality and integrity of data Authentication, encryption and restricted access Page: 195 163. FortiGate VPN Secure Socket Layer (SSL) VPN Access through web browser Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Windows standard Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) VPN Dedicated VPN software required Well suited for legacy applications (not web-based) Page: 195-196 164. SSL VPN Operating Modes Web-only mode Web browser only Secure connection between browser and FortiGate unit FortiGate acts as gateway Authenticates users Tunnel mode VPN software downloaded as ActiveX control FortiGate unit assigns client IP address from range of reserved addresses Page: 197-199 165. User Accounts Must have user account assigned to SSL VPN user group Users must authenticate Username + Password RADIUS TACACS+ LDAP Digital certificates User group provides access to firewall policy Split tunneling available Only traffic destined for tunnel routed over VPN Page: 200-202 166. Web-Only Configuration Enable SSL VPN Create user accounts Assign to user group Create firewall policy Setup logging (optional) Page: 204 167. Tunnel Mode Configuration Enable SSL VPN Specify tunnel IP range Create user group Create firewall policy Page: 205 168. SSL VPN Settings Tunnel IP Range Reserve range of IPs for SSL VPN clients Server Certificate, Require Client Certificate Certificates must be installed Encryption Key Algorithm Idle Time-out Client Authentication Time-Out CLI only Portal Message Advanced DNS and WINS Servers Page: 206-208 169. Firewall Policies At least one SSL VPN firewall policy required Specify originating IP address Specify IP address of intended recipient or network Configuration steps: Specify source and destination IP address Specify level of encryption Specify authentication method Bind user group to policy Page: 209 170. Firewall Addresses Web-only mode Predefined source address of ALL Destination IP address where remote client needs to access Entire private network, range of private IPs, private IP of host Tunnel model Source is range of IP addresses that can be connected to FortiGate Restrict who can access FortiGate Destination IP address where remote client needs to access Entire private network, range of private IPs, private IP of host Page: 209 171. Configuring Web-Only Firewall Policies Specify destination IP address Name Type Subnet/IP range Interface Define policy Action: SSL-VPN Add user group Page: 210-212 172. Configuring Tunnel-Mode Firewall Policies Specify source IP addresses Addresses that can connect to FortiGate Specify destination IP address Addresses clients need to access Specify level of encryption Specify authentication type Bind user group to policy ssl.root Page: 213-218 173. SSL VPN Bookmarks Hyperlinks to frequently accessed applications Web-only mode FortiGate forwards connection request to servers VPN > SSL > Portal Page: 219-221 174. Connecting to the SSL VPN https://:10443 Port customizable SSL-VPN Web Portal page displayed Bookmarks What appears is pre-determined by administrators settings in User > User Group and VPN > SSL > Portal > Settings Page: 222 175. Connecting to the SSL VPN Page: 222 176. Connecting to the SSL VPN 177. PPTP VPN Point-to-Point (PPP) authentication protocol PPP software operates on tunneled links Encapsulates PPP packets within IP packets Not cryptographically protected PPTP packets not authenticated or integrity protected FortiGate unit assigns client IP address from reserved range Assigned IP used for duration of connection FortiGate unit disassembles PPTP packet and forwards to correct computer on internal network Page: 223 178. PPTP VPN FortiGate unit can act as PPTP server FortiGate unit can forward PPTP packets to PPTP server Page: 224 179. FortiGate Unit as PPTP Server Page: 224 180. FortiGate Unit Forwards Traffic to PPTP Server Page: 225 181. PPTP Server Configuration Configure user authentication for PPTP clients Enable PPTP on FortiGate unit Configure PPTP server Configure client Page: 226 182. PPTP Pass-Through Configuration Configuration required to forward PPTP packets to PPTP server Define virtual IP that points to PPTP server Configure firewall policy Configure client Page: 227 183. IPSec VPN Industry standard set of protocols Layer 3 Applications do not need to be designed to use IPSec IP packets encapsulated with IPSec packets Header of new packet refers to end point of tunnel Phase 1 Establish connection Authenticate VPN peer Phase 2 Establish tunnel Page: 228 184. IPSec Protocols Authentication Header (AH) Authenticate identity of sender Integrity of data Entire packet signed Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Encrypts data Signs data only Page: 229 185. Authentication Header (AH) Page: 229 186. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Page: 229 187. Modes of Operation Tunnel mode Entire IP packet encrypted and/or authenticated Packet then encapsulated for routing Transport mode Only data in packet encrypted and/or authenticated Header not modified or encrypted Page: 230 188. Security Association (SA) Defines bundle of algorithms and parameters Encrypt and authenticate one-directional data flow Agreement between two computers about the data exchanged and protected Page: 230 189. Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Allows two parties to setup SAs Secret keys Uses Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) Framework for establishing SAs Two distinct phases Phase 1 Phase 2 Page: 231 190. Phase 1 Authenticate computer involved in transaction Negotiate SA policy between computers Perform Diffie-Hellman key exchange Set up secure tunnel Main mode (three exchanges) Algorithms used agreed upon Generate secret keys and nonces Other sides identity verified Aggressive mode (one exchange) Everything needed to complete exchange Page: 231 191. Phase 2 Negotiate SA parameters to set up secure tunnel Renegotiate SAs regularly Page: 232 192. Gateway-to-Gateway Configuration Tunnel between two separate private networks All traffic encrypted by firewall policies FortiGate units at both ends must be in NAT/Route mode Page: 234 193. Gateway-to-Gateway Configuration Page: 234 194. Gateway-to-Gateway Configuration FortiGate receives connection request from remote peer Uses IPSec phase 1 parameters Establish secure connection Authenticate peer If policy permits, tunnel established Uses IPSec phase 2 parameters Applies policy Configuration steps Define phase 1 parameters Define phase 2 parameters Create firewall policies Page: 234 195. Defining Phase 1 Parameters Page: 235-236 196. Authenticating the FortiGate Unit Authenticate itself to remote peers Pre-shared key All peers must use same key Digital certificates Must be installed on peer and FortiGate Page: 237-238 197. Authenticating Remote Clients Permit access using trusted certificates FortiGate configured for certificate authentication Permit access using peer identifier Permit access using pre-shared key Each peer or client must have user account Permit access using peer identifier and pre-shared key Each peer or client must have user account Page: 239 198. XAuth Authentication Separate exchange at end of phase 1 Increased security Draws on existing FortiGate user group definitions FortiGate can be XAuth server or XAuth client Page: 239 199. IKE Negotiation Parameters Page: 240-242 200. Defining Phase 2 Parameters Page: 243-246 201. Firewall Policies Policies needed to control services and direction of traffic Firewall addresses needed for each private network Policy-Based VPN Specify interface to private network, remote peer and VPN tunnel Single policy for inbound, outbound or both direction Route-Based VPN Requires ACCEPT policy for each direction Creates Virtual IPSec interface on interface connecting to remote peer Page: 247-250 202. Lab Configuring SSL VPN for Full Access (Web Portal and Tunnel Mode) Configuring a Basic Gateway-to-Gateway VPN Page: 251 203. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 204. Lesson 6 Authentication 205. Authentication User or administrator prompted to identify themselves Only allowed individuals perform actions Can be configured for: Any firewall policy with action of ACCEPT PPTP and L2TP VPNs Dial-up IPSEC VPN set up as XAuth server Dial-up VPN accepting user group as peer ID Page: 263 206. Authentication Methods Local user User names and passwords used to authenticate stored on FortiGate Remote Use existing systems to authenticate RADIUS LDAP PKI Windows Active Directory TACACS+ Page: 264-265 207. Users and User Groups Authentication based on user groups User created User added to groups User Account created on FortiGate or external authentication server User group Users or servers as members Specify allowed groups for each resource requiring authentication Group associated with protection profile Page: 266-267 208. User Group Types Firewall Access to firewall policy that requires authentication FortiGate request user name and password (or certificate) Directory Service Allow access to users in DS groups already authenticated Single sign on Requires FSAE SSL VPN Access to firewall policy that requires SSL VPN authentication Page: 268-270 209. Authentication overrides Require access to blocked site Override block for period of time Link to authenticate presented Page: 271 210. Authentication Settings Page: 272 211. PKI Authentication Valid certificate required SSL used for secure connection Trusted certificates installed on FortiGate and client Page: 273 212. RADIUS Authentication User credentials sent to RADIUS server for authentication Shared key used to encrypt data exchanged Primary and secondary servers identified on FortiGate unit Page: 274 213. LDAP Authentication User credentials sent to LDAP server for authentication LDAP servers details identified on FortiGate Page: 275 214. TACACS+ Authentication User credentials sent to TACACS+ server for authentication Choice of authentication types: Auto ASCII PAP CHAP MSCHAP Page: 276 215. Microsoft Active Directory Authentication Transparently authenticate users Fortinet Server Authentication Extensions (FSAE) passes authentication information to FortiGate Sign in once to Windows, no authentication prompts from FortiGate Page: 277 216. FSAE Components Domain Controller Agent Installed on every domain controller Monitors user logons, sends to Collector Agent Collector Agent Installed on at least one domain controller Sends information collected to FortiGate Page: 278 217. FSAE Configuration on Microsoft AD Configure Microsoft AD user groups All members of a group have same access level FSAE only send Domain Local Security Group and Global Security Group to FortiGate Configure Collector Agent settings Domain controllers to monitor Global Ignore list Exclude system accounts Group filters Control logon information sent to FortiGate Page: 279-280 218. FSAE Configuration on FortiGate Configure Collector Agents FortiGate to access at least one collector agent Up to five can be listed Configure user groups AD groups added to FortiGate user groups Configure firewall policy Allow guests Users not listed in AD Protection profile for FSAE firewall police Page: 281 219. Labs Firewall Policy Authentication Adding User Disclaimers and Redirecting URLs Page: 282 220. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 221. Lesson 7 Antivirus 222. Antivirus Detect and eliminate viruses, worms and spyware Scan HTTP and FTP traffic Scan SMTP, POP3, IMAP Page: 289 223. Antivirus Elements File filter File pattern and file type recognition Virus scan Virus definitions kept up-to-date through FortiGuard Subscription Services Grayware Heuristics Detect virus-like behavior Page: 289-290 224. File Filter File pattern Name, extension or pattern Built-in patterns or custom File type Analyze file to determine type Types pre-configured Actions Allow Block Replacement message sent Page: 291 225. Enabling File Filtering Page: 292 226. File Name Pattern Filtering Page: 295 227. File Type Filtering Page: 296 228. File Pattern Filtering Page: 297 229. Virus Scan Virus definitions used to detect and eliminate threats Updated regularly FortiGuard Subscription Services license required Page: 298 230. Updating Antivirus Definitions Page: 299 231. Grayware Unsolicited commercial software Often installed without consent Scans for grayware in enabled categories Categories and content updated regularly Page: 300 232. Grayware Categories Adware Pop-up advertising content Browser Helper Objects Add capabilities to browser Dialers Unwanted calls through modem or Internet connection Downloaders Retrieve files Games Hacker Tools Subvert network and host security Page: 301-303 233. Grayware Categories Hijackers Manipulate settings Jokes Key loggers Log input for later retrieval Misc Uncategorized (multiple functionalities) NMT (Network Management Tool) Cause network disruption P2P File exchanges containing viruses Page: 301-303 234. Grayware Categories Plugins Add additional features to an existing application Remote Administration Tools (RAT) Remotely change or monitor a computer on a network Toolbars Augment capabilities of browser Page: 301-303 235. Spyware Component of adware Track user activities online Report activities to central server Target advertising based on online habits Page: 304-305 236. Quarantine Quarantine blocked or infected files FortiGate unit with hard drive FortiAnalyzer Files uploaded to Fortinet for analysis Page: 306-307 237. Proxies Intercepts all connection requests and responses Buffers and scans response before flushing to client Splicing Prevent client from timing out Server sends part of response to client while buffering Final part sent if response is clean FTP uploads, email protocols (SMTP, POP3, IMAP) Client comforting Prevent timeout while files buffered and scanned by FortiGate Can provide visual status to user that progress being made HTTP and FTP downloads Page: 308 238. Scanning Options Page: 309-310 239. Lab Configuring Global Antivirus Settings Configuring a Protection Profile Testing Protection Profile Settings for HTTP/FTP Antivirus Scanning Page: 311 240. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 241. Lesson 8 Spam Filtering 242. Spam Filtering Manage unsolicited bulk email Detect spam messages Identify transmissions from known/suspected spam servers Page: 321 243. Spam Filtering Methods IP address check Verify source IP address again list of known spammers URL check Extract URLs and verify against list of spam sources Email checksum check Calculate checksum of message and verify against list of known spam messages Spam submission Inform FortiGuard Black/White list Check incoming IP and email addresses against known list SMTP only Page: 322-323 244. Spam Filtering Methods HELO DNS lookup Check source domain name against registered IP address in DNS Return email DNS check Check incoming return address domain against registered IP in DNS Banned word Check email against banned word list MIME headers check Check MIME headers against list DNSBL and ORDBL Check email against configured servers Page: 322-323 245. FortiGuard Antispam Global Filters FortiIP sender IP reputation database Reputation of IP based on properties related to address Email volume from a sender Compare senders recent volume with historical pattern FortiSig Spam signature database FortiSig1 Spamvertised URLs FortiSig2 Spamvertised email addresses FortiSig3 Spam checksums FortiRule Heuristic rules FortiMail only Page: 324-325 246. Customized Filters Compliment FortiGuard Banned word lists Local black/white list Heuristic rules Bayesian FortiMail only Page: 325 247. Enabling Antispam Page: 326 248. Spam Actions Tag or discard spam email Add custom text to subject or instead MIME header and value Only discard if SMTP and virus check enabled Spam actions logged Page: 327 249. Banned Word Block messages containing specific words or patterns Values assigned to matches If threshold exceeded, messages marked as spam Perl regular expressions and wildcards can be used Page: 328-334 250. Black/White List IP address filtering Compare IP address of sender to IP address list If match, action is taken Email address filtering Compare email address of sender to email address list If match, action is taken Page: 335 251. Configuring IP Address List Page: 336-338 252. Configuring Email Address List Page: 339-342 253. MIME Headers Check MIME headers added to email Describe content type and encoding Malformed headers can fool spam or virus filters Compare MIME header key-value of incoming email to list If match, action is taken Page: 343 254. DNSBL and ORDBL Published lists of suspected spammers Add subscribed servers Define action Page: 344 255. FortiMail Antispam Enhanced set of features for detecting and blocking spam Some techniques not available in FortiGate Stand-alone antispam system Can be second layer in addition to FortiGate Legacy virus protection Email quarantine Page: 345 256. Agenda Introduction Overview and System Setup FortiGuard Subscription Services Logging and Alerts Firewall Policies Basic VPN Authentication Antivirus Spam Filtering Web Filtering 257. Lesson 9 Web Filtering 258. Web Filtering Process web content to block inappropriate or malicious content Categorized content 76 categories 40 million domains Billions of web pages Automated updates Check web addresses against list Customizable Page: 349 259. Order of Filtering URL Filtering Exempt, Block, Allow FortiGuard Web Filtering Content Exempt Customizable Content Block Customizable Script Filter Page: 349 260. Web Content Block Block specific words or patterns Score assigned to pattern Page blocked if greater than threshold Perl regular expressions or wildcards can be used Page: 350-353 261. Web Content Block Page: 352 262. Web Content Exemption Override web content block Even if banned words appear Page: 354-357 263. Web Content Exemption Page: 356 264. Enabling Web Filtering Page: 358 265. URL Filter Block specific pages Displays replacement message Text, regular expressions and wildcards can be used Page: 359-362 266. URL Filter Page: 361 267. FortiGuard Web Filter Managed web filtering solution Web pages rated and categorized Determines category of site Follows firewall policy Allow, block, log, or override Ratings based on: Text analysis Exploitation of web structure Human raters Page: 363 268. Web Filtering Categories Categories based on suitability for enterprises, schools, and home Potentially liable Controversial Potentially non-productive Potentially bandwidth consuming Potential security risks General interest Business oriented Others Page: 364 269. Web Filtering Classes Classify web page based on media type or source Further refine web access Prevent finding material Classes Cached contents Image search Audio search Video search Multimedia search Spam URL Unclassified Page: 365 270. Enabling FortiGuard Web Filtering Page: 366 271. Enabling FortiGuard Web Filtering Options Page: 367-368 272. Web Filtering Overrides Give user ability to override firewall filter block Administrative overrides User overrides Override permissions configured at user group level or with override rules User group level overrides Group of users have same level of overrides Assumes authentication enabled on policy Override rules Fine granularity Access domain, directory or category Page: 369 273. Allowing Override at User Group Level Page: 370 274. Configuring Override Rules (Directory or Domain) Page: 371-372 275. Configuring Override Rules (Category) Page: 373 276. Web Filtering Override Page Page: 375 277. Web Filtering Authentication Page Page: 375 278. Local Ratings Administrator controlled block of web sites Per protection profile basis Page: 376 279. Local Categories Administrator controlled block on group of web sites Per protection profile basis Page: 377 280. Thank you for attending .