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    By: Mae G. Marcojos, RN

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    Define verbal communication and non verbalcommunication

    List down the components of communicationprocess using a diagram direction

    Discuss the ten basics for good communication Use an assertive style of communication using

    the nurses Bill of Rights as identified byHermann and differentiate between aggressive

    and passive style of communication List down common blocks to communication and

    discuss on how to improve them

    Use through examples the common patterns of

    communication networks.

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    What is Communication?

    Communication by definition is the transfer of

    information and understanding from one person

    to another.

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    Elements of Communication

    Sender

    Message

    receiver

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    The Message

    What you are trying to convey through verbal

    or non-verbal Words mean different things to different

    people.

    Nonverbal behavior

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    The Message

    1. Verbal WHAT

    2. Non -verbal HOW

    3. Communication climate Positive-enhances the message

    Negative-detracts from understanding the

    message.

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    Components

    Encoding

    Transmission.

    Decoding

    The response, or feedback

    The nurse leader or manager uses

    communication skills in all aspects of

    organizational life.

    Appropriate manner of communication process

    is essential.

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    Basics for Good

    Communication

    1. Clarify your ideas and analyze your

    thoughts. Provide an opportunity for

    questions and answers

    2. Consider the setting, both physical andpsychological

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    Climate Behavioral Characteristics

    Listening

    Empathy

    Acceptance

    Shared problem solving attitude

    Openness

    Evaluating

    Advice giving

    Superiority

    Supportive

    Climate

    Defensive

    Climate

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    Positive Climate

    The value of a positive communication climate

    is that it fosters behaviors among the leader

    and followers that lead totrustful and

    cooperative working relationships.It isa kind of climate that will foster innovationsin the work place, making change apossibility.

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    3. Consult with others when necessary to be

    exact and objective.

    4. Be mindful of the overtones as well as the

    message itself.

    5. Take the opportunity to convey something to

    help, value, or praise to the receiver.

    6. Follow up your communication

    Basics for GoodCommunication cont

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    7. Be sure your actions support your

    communication. "What I say. I do".

    8. Be an active listener. Practice what you

    preach.

    9. Give credit for the contributions of others

    when genuinely deserved.

    10. Be assertive when expressing your view.

    Basics for GoodCommunication cont.

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    Nurse's Bill of Rights by

    Herman The right to be treated with respect

    The right to be listened to

    The right to have and to express thoughts,feelings, and opinions

    The right to ask questions and to challenge

    The right to understand job expectations as wellas have them written

    The right to say "no" and not feel guilty

    The right to be treated as an equal member of thehealth team

    The right to change one's mind

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    Nurse's Bill of Rights by Herman

    cont.

    The right to ask for change in the system

    The right to have a reasonable workload

    The right to make a mistake

    The right to make decisions regarding health

    and nursing care

    The right to initiate health teaching

    The right to be a patient advocate or to help apatient speak for himself or herself

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    Assertive VS Aggressive

    direct and clear

    Listen to others

    objective words

    direct eye contact spontaneous verbal

    expressions

    well-modulated

    voice based on self-

    respect andconsideration for

    other people.

    concerned with the

    rights of one position

    loud, inappropriate,

    confronting, or hostile.

    Subjective

    Confronting,

    sarcastic,

    Verbal approach with

    an air of superiorityand rudeness

    Belittles others

    The rights of others

    not considered.

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    Passive

    Not consider any rights

    Uninvolved or unable to share

    thoughts

    withdrawn and shy orpurposefully withholding

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    Things to

    remember:

    Communication is an essential hallmark of health

    care.

    Leader and followers have a basic right to give

    and to receive information in a professional

    manner.

    Communication skills grow and develop over timeand are the means by which leadership is

    exercised.

    Communication does not necessarily mean

    agreement or harmony over every issue but is

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    Blocks to Communication

    prevent the message from being delivered or

    understood.

    Some common reasons for blocks to

    communication are: poor listening habits

    Psychological blocks,

    Environmental distractions Semantic barriers (Davis).

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    Blocks to communication are the reason why

    people leave meetings with half messages

    and incomplete or inaccurate information.

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    Listening Skills

    Active listening begins as you give full

    attention to the person speaking.

    This means that you listen carefully with your

    mind as well with your gestures and facialexpressions.

    Active listening will enhance the

    understanding of messages

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    Psychological Blocks

    When an individual hears something that

    produces a profound emotional reaction.

    An intense response to communicated

    message very likely will produce a block tothe rest of the message.

    Emotions are powerful forces that may

    interfere with reason and must be recognizedand respected before constructive

    communication may continue.

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    Environmental Distractions

    Considered to be a block to communication

    when it interferes with the communication

    process.

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    Semantic Barriers

    Since words are symbolic, their meaning is

    subject to multiple interpretations.

    The leader should try to be aware of the

    choice of words or phrases Using messages in the proper context will

    reduce misinterpretation.

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    Communication Networks

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    CONFLICTS

    By: Mae G. Marcojos, RN

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    Objectives:

    Identify aspects of your professional role thatpredisposes to conflict with nurse administratorsor physicians

    Analyze an ongoing conflict in your organizationand identify the manifest conflict, the felt conflict,antecedent conditions and internal and externalfactors influencing the conflict.

    Differentiate the three common methods of

    conflict resolution

    Elaborate the different ways of conflictmanagement and identify the most preferred ofconflict management

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    Conflict Resolution

    Conflict is inevitable

    In health care organizations the potential for

    conflict is HEIGHTENED. WHY?

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    What is Conflict?

    Expressed struggle between at least

    two interdependent parties, who

    perceive incompatible goals, scarce

    rewards, and interference from the otherparty in achieving their goals.

    They are in a position of opposition in

    conjunction with cooperation.

    It produces afeeling of tension,

    h i i f fli

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    5 characteristics of a conflict

    situation

    1. at least two parties are involved in some form ofinteraction

    2. difference in goals and/or values either exists oris perceived to exist by the parties involved

    3. the interaction involves behavior that will defeat,reduce, or suppress the opponent, or gain avictory

    4. the parties come together with opposing actionsand counteractions

    5. each party attempts to create in imbalance, orfavored power position (Filley, 1975).

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    Inter-group conflicts

    occur between two small groups, two large

    groups, or between a large group and a small

    group.

    Has certain predictable consequences. Cohesiveness increases, but members

    become more task oriented and less

    concerned with the needsof individualmembers.

    Autocratic group leader

    Highly structured

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    Inter-group conflicts

    Increased cohesion increase production

    Stereotyping and hostile behaviors

    destructive

    Conflict management strategiesshould therefore be used to ensure that the

    conflict will have a HEALTHY OUTCOME.

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    Personal-Group Conflicts

    Conflicts between an individual and a small

    group or between an individual and a large

    group are In this type of conflict an

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    Intrapersonal Conflicts

    Disagreement withinhim-or herself.

    May result from

    having to make achoice between twothings of generallyequal value

    Management ofintrapersonal conflictMUST COME fromthe individual

    involved.

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    Conflict Resolution Theory

    Filley 1975 argues that the conflict resolution

    process moves 6 steps:

    (1) antecedent conditions

    (2) perceived conflict

    (3) felt conflict

    (4) manifest behavior

    (5) conflict resolution or suppression

    (6) resolution aftermath

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    Antecedent Conditions

    certain conditions exist which can lead toconflict, though they do not always do so.

    Conflict may develop from a number of

    antecedent sources, including: Incompatible goals

    Distribution of scarce resources when individualshave high expectations of rewards

    Regulations, when an individuals need forautonomy conflicts with anothers need forregulating mechanisms

    Personality traits, attitudes, and behaviors

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    Antecedent Conditions con

    Interest in outcomes

    Values

    Roles, when two individuals have equal

    responsibilities but actual boundaries are unclear,or when they are required to simultaneously fill

    two or more roles that present inconsistent or

    contradictory expectations.

    Tasks, when outputs of one individual or groupbecome inputs for another individual or group, or

    outputs are shared by several individuals or

    groups.

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    Perceived Conflict

    Two or more individuals logically

    and objectively recognize that

    their aims are incompatible.

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    Felt Conflict

    Individuals experience feelings of

    threat, hostility, fear or mistrust.

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    Manifest Behavior

    OVERT action or behavior takes place

    - oppression, competition, debate, or problem

    solving.

    2 kinds of behaviors in response to perceivedand felt conflict:

    (1) Conflictive behaviors (Negative)

    (2) Problem solving behaviors (Positive)

    Conflict Resolution or

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    Conflict Resolution or

    Suppression

    the conflict is resolved or suppressed either byall parties' agreement or else by the defeat ofone party.

    Behavior directed toward the resolution ofconflict can be characterized by 3 differentcommunication strategies:

    (1) Win- LoseCommon (2) Lose- LoseAvoid

    (3) Win -Win. Suppressing but not sacrificingneeds

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    Resolution Aftermath

    Individuals experience or live with the

    consequences of the Resolution

    During this phase, participants experience

    feelings directly related to the outcomes of theresolution process.

    If the conflict is resolved in a positive or

    negative fashion

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    Conflict

    Process

    Conflict Management /Styles of

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    Conflict Management /Styles of

    Approaching Conflict/

    Do individuals have different ways of handling

    conflict?

    In addition, how do the styles employed by

    individuals affect the outcomes of theconflicts?

    I t l C fli t 5 t l b

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    Interpersonal Conflict 5 styles by

    Kilmann and Thomas (1976)

    (1) Avoidance

    (2) Competition

    (3) Accommodation unassertive but

    cooperative

    (4) Compromise not ignore neither

    struggle

    (5) Collaboration assertive andcooperative

    Effective communication

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    Compromising

    Innovative solutions are

    sacrificed in favor of quick

    solutions.

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    STAFF DEVELOPM

    Wh t i St ff D l t ?

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    What is Staff Development ?

    PROCESS directed towards the personal andprofessional growth of nurses and otherpersonnel while they are employed by a health

    care agency.

    Refers to all training and education providedby an employee to improve the occupational

    and personal knowledge, skills and attitudes of

    vested employees.

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    Staff Development

    A process consisting of orientation,in-service education and continuingeducation for the people of

    promoting the development ofpersonnel within any employmentsetting, consistent with the goals and

    responsibilities of the employment.(ANA)

    Why do we need Staff

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    Why do we need Staff

    Development?

    Social change and scientific advancement

    Advancement in the field of science like

    medical science and technology.

    To provide the opportunity for nurses to

    continually acquire and implement the

    knowledge, skills, attitudes, ideals and valued

    essentials for the maintenance of high qualityof nursing care:

    As part of an individual's long-term career growth.

    To add or improve skills needed in the short term

    Why do we need Staff

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    Why do we need StaffDevelopment? Cont.

    Being necessary to fill gap in the past

    performance

    To change or correct long-held attitudes of

    employeeNeed to increase the productivity and quality of

    the work.

    To motivate employees and to promote employee

    loyalty

    Fast growing organizations.

    Goals

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    Assist each employee (nurse) to

    improve performance in his/her

    position.Assist each employee (nurse) to

    acquire personal and professional

    abilities that maximize the

    possibility of career advancement.

    Goals

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    Objectives

    To increase employee

    productivity.To ensure safe and effective

    patient care by nurses.

    To ensure satisfactory job

    performance by personnel.

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    Objectives cont.

    To orient the personnel to careobjectives, job duties, personnel

    policies, and agency regulations.

    To help employees cope with newpractice role.

    To help nurses to close the gap

    between present abilities and thescientific basis for nursing practice that

    is broadening through research.

    Steps of staff development

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    Steps of staff development

    program

    Assess the educational needs of all staffmembers

    Set priority

    Develop general objectives for the staffdevelopment program

    Determine the resources needed to reach thedesired objectives

    Develop a master calendarfor an entire year Develop and maintain staff development

    record system

    Establish files on major educational topics

    Resources:

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    Resources:

    Public libraries,

    Audiovisual program in addition to many books

    and computers, research activities and

    speakers to community groups. Schools and universities

    Association Health and inter service agency

    Other nursing homes Ones own staff

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    Types of Staff Development

    Induction

    training

    Job

    orientation

    In-service

    education

    Continuing

    education

    Training for

    specialfunction

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    Induction Training

    It is a brief, standardised indoctrination

    to an agencys philosophy, purpose,

    policies and regulations given to each

    worker during her or his first 2 or 3

    days of employment in order to ensure

    his or her identification with agencys

    philosophy, goals and norms.

    Why do we need Induction

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    Why do we need Induction

    Training?

    Increased retention of newly hire

    employees,

    Improved employee morale andIncreased productivity.

    St f I d ti

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    Steps of Induction:

    1. Tour of

    facilities

    2. Introductionto the other

    employees,superiors andsubordinates.

    3. Description of

    organizationalfunctions.

    4.Departmentalvisit

    5. Orientation

    to philosophygoals andobjectives

    6. Administration policies andprocedures

    J b O i t ti

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    Job Orientation

    Individualised training programme

    intended to ACQUAINT a newly hiredemployee with job responsibilities work

    place, clients and co-workers.

    The process ofcreating awarenesswith an individual of his/her roles,

    responsibilities and relationships in the

    new work situation.

    C t

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    Components

    A new employee to his or her job

    setting to aware her job responsibility

    and expectation.

    Present employee to the job

    responsibilities of his/ her expandedand enriched role.

    The old employees to the policy

    changes.

    T f O i t ti

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    Types of Orientation

    Generalorientation

    Specificorientation

    Importance of orientation

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    Importance of orientation

    programme

    Provides essential, relevant andnecessary information

    Helps employee to gain confidence, Lessen the time for the employee to

    learn about new situations related to

    his/her job setting.Helps the new employee to develop

    a sense of belonging

    Eli i t

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    Eliminates:

    Learning by trial and error

    Passing of incorrect information by old

    employees and peers.

    Reduces misinterpretation

    Mistakes and confusion

    Apprehension

    Help new employee in solving initial problemsand adjust the new situation/environment,

    Acquaints her with personnel services readily

    with in the institution/community

    C t t f O i t ti P

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    Content of Orientation Program

    The

    organisation

    and its

    environment

    Policies,

    rules and

    regulation

    Personnel

    ServiceFunctions to

    be

    undertaken

    I S i Ed ti

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    In-Service Education

    Planned learning experience

    provided by the employing agency for

    employees.

    planned educational experience

    provided in the job setting and closelyidentified with services in order to

    help person perform more effectively

    as a person and as a worker. C t f i i d ti

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    Concept of in-service education

    Closely identified with services

    Help a persons to improve

    performance effectivelyPlanned education activities

    Provided in a job setting

    Why do we need In-Service

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    y do e eed Se ce

    Education?

    Social changes and scientific

    advancement

    Changes and advancement in thefield of service

    Increased the demand of nursing

    services.Consumer demand quality care

    Why do we need In-Service

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    y

    Education? Cont.

    Rapid changes in medical and

    nursing practice create a need for in

    service educationAs health care delivery system

    become more complex, the need for

    continues skill training also increased.

    Aims

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    Aims

    Improvement of client through upgrading

    the services rendered with scientific

    principles.

    To keep in face in changing society to theirneeds.

    Acquisition of new knowledge

    Improvement of performance

    To develop specific skills required for

    practice.

    Aims cont

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    Aims cont.

    To develop right concept of client care.

    To maintain high standards of nursing

    To observe and bring change in staff members

    chances for promotion It reduces turnover, absenteeism.

    To discover potentialities, to alert personnel in

    working environment.

    T f I S i T i i

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    Types of In-Service Training

    Centralized in-service training

    one department will held

    responsibility for improvement ofknowledge, skills, practice of their

    nursing staff. They will devote full

    time for in-service activities.

    Types of In Service Training

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    Types of In-Service Training

    Decentralized in-service education

    Planned for staff members who work

    together, giving care for clients withsimilar conditions and share similar

    goals.

    Types of In Service Training

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    Types of In-Service Training

    Combined in-service approach

    higher nursing authorities and all

    staff development occurs in proposedprogramme of education. They plan,

    conduct and evaluate the programme

    and further plan their programmebasing on the need arises.

    Steps in in service education:

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    Steps in in-service education:

    Assessment:Pinpoint needs,

    prioritize needs, set training

    objectives, and develop criteria

    Implementation: Climatic check,

    actual conduction of training with

    ongoing monitoring

    Steps in in-service education

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    p

    cont.

    Evaluation: Establishment of criteria,

    pre test to the participants, post test

    following completion of the training or

    program. Observation on transfer of

    learning to the job, follow up studies

    for assessment of extent of retention

    of learning.

    Continuing Education:

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    Continuing Education:

    Continuing education is all the

    learning activities that occur after

    an individual has completedhis/her basic education.

    (COOPER)

    The education which builds onprevious education. (SHANON)

    Why do we need Continuing

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    y g

    Education?

    To ensure safe and effective

    nursing care as nurses need to

    keep abreast with interest,knowledge and technical

    advances.

    To meet the needs of population.

    To develop the nurses by

    updating their knowledge and

    Why do we need Continuing

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    y g

    Education? Cont.

    For career advancement.

    With the advancement of technology, new role

    change takes place and to play those roles,

    education is required. To acquire special skills.

    Due to shortage of nurses (because their

    movement to abroad, more hospital andtraining college), more knowledgeable person

    is required.

    Functions of Continuing

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    g

    Education:

    To meet the health needs andpublic expectations.

    To develop the practicing abilitiesof the nurse.

    To recognize gaps in knowledge.

    To test abilities of participants todo formal academic study.

    Functions of Continuing

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    Education cont.

    To improve the communication betweenthe participants, faculty, community and

    health sector.

    To shape or support university educationalpolicies and practices.

    To ensure the quality of education.

    To grant the budget for extension studies. To maintain the academic standards.

    To provide opportunities for educational

    growth.

    Functions of Continuing

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    Education cont.

    To maintain the roles as bed side nurses

    and to assume more supervisor,

    administrative, to specialize and to

    generalize the practice. To provide and prepare faculty who see

    continuing nursing education as a personal

    responsibility. To provide a variety of continuing nursing

    education opportunities of high quality to

    nurses in both education and service

    Training for Specific Function

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    Training for Specific Function

    developing expert technical or manualskills, communication and helps the

    personnel to perform their functions

    effectively.

    Objectives:

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    Objectives:

    To help the nursing personnel toperform correct methods and

    procedures with understanding.Establishing standards and quality

    of nursing services.

    Procedure to skill nurses to skillednurses.

    T f Skill

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    Types of Skills:Psychomotor skill

    Cognitive skill

    Teaching skills

    Affective skill

    Communication skill

    Supervisory skills

    Why do we need Skill

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    Training?

    Individual nurse needed to have greaterfreedom to choose the specific field of nursing

    in which she would work.

    Good work to be recognized and reward.A venues of advancement and promotion need

    to be better development

    Fear of making mistakes

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    Standards ofstaff

    developmentprogramme

    (ANA)

    Standard 1 Organization and

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    Standard 1 Organization and

    Administration

    The nursing service department

    and the nursing staff developmentunit philosophy, purpose and

    goals address the staff

    development needs of nursingpersonnel.

    Standard II Human Resources

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    Standard II Human Resources

    Qualified administrative,educational and support

    personnel are provided to meetthe learning and developmental

    needs by nursing services

    personnel.

    Standards III Learner

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    Standards III Learner

    Nursing staff development

    educators assist nursing

    personnel in identifying theirlearning needs and planning

    learning activities to meet those

    needs.

    Standard IV Program Planning

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    Standard IV Program Planning

    Provides the unit systematically,

    plans and evaluate the overall

    nursing staff developmentprogram in response to health

    care needs.

    Standard V Educational Design

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    Standard V Educational Design

    Educational offering and learningexperience are designed through

    the use of educational processand incorporate adult education

    and learning principles.

    Standard VI Material Resources

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    Standard VI Material Resources

    And Facilities

    Material sources and facilities are

    adequate to achieve the goalsand implement the functions of

    the overall nursing staff

    development unit.

    Standard VII Records And

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    Standard VII Records And

    Reports

    The nursing staff development

    unit establishes and maintains arecord keeping and report system

    Standard VIII Evaluation

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    Standard VIII Evaluation

    Evaluation is an integralongoing and systematic

    process, which includesmeasuring the impact on the

    learning

    Standard IX Consultation

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    Standard IX Consultation

    Nursing staff developmenteducators use the consultation

    process to facilitate and enhanceachievement of individual,

    departmental and organizational

    goals.

    Standard X Climate

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    Standard X Climate

    Nursing staff developmenteducators foster a climate which

    promotes open communication,learning and professional growth.

    Standard XI Systematic

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    Standard XI Systematic

    Enquiring

    Nursing staff development

    educators encouragesystematic inquiry and

    applications of the results into

    nursing practice.

    Potential difficulties in staffdevelopment & training

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    development & training

    activities:

    Lack of time

    Inadequate resources at disposal

    Under-funded training budgetsConflicting priorities

    Lack of Clarity about what should be

    done

    Potential difficulties in staffdevelopment & training activities

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    development & training activities

    cont.Failure to identify, or accept the need.

    Shortfall in training skill or experience

    Fear that trained employee will leavethe organization or will be poached by

    competitor.

    Cynical attitude to Staff development-Not directly measurable. Treated as

    Cost not investment.

    Methods of delivering staffdevelopment programme:

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    development programme:

    InductionPhysical

    tour of thefaculities

    Groupdiscussion

    SeminarHand book

    andpamphlet

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    Job orientation

    Orientation

    Seminar

    Discussion

    Hand out or book and pamphlets

    I i d ti

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    Leadership training

    Continuing education

    Skill training

    Orientation

    In-service education

    Continuingeducation

    Lecture

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    education

    DemonstrationSeminarJournal club

    Book reviewCorrespondence

    courseFormal course

    Clinical research

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    Training

    for skillDemonstration Discussion

    Role-play

    method.

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    DECISIONMAKING

    Decision Making

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    g

    Objectives: Describe the types of decisions

    Explain the mechanisms of decision-making

    Discuss the steps of logical decision-making

    Identify the factors responsible for decision-making

    Discuss the importance of decision making for

    nurse managers? Recognize the decision-making tools

    Explain the barriers for decision-making andmechanisms of overcoming it

    What is Decision Making?

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    g

    a choice made between two or morealternatives

    It is choosing the best alternative to

    reach the predetermined objective.

    Thus decision making is a process of

    identifying and selecting a course of

    action to solve specific problem

    Types of Decisions

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    yp

    Decisions made in the nursing servicecan be categorized depending upon the

    following criteria:

    How much time the manager spends inmaking decision

    What proportion of the organization must

    be involved in making decisionThe organization function/ the

    nursing/midwifery functions on which

    they focus

    3 Classifications

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    On the basis of these there arethree classifications:

    1. Ends -Means2. Administrative-Operational

    3. Programmed-Non-

    programmed

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    2. Administrative-Operational

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    p

    Administrative: made by seniormanagement, which have significantimpact throughout the organization.

    Usually this type of decision is concernedwith policy, resource allocation andutilization.

    Operational: are generally made bymid level and first line managers andaddress day to day operational activitiesof a particular organizational

    3. Programmed-Non -

    programmed

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    programmed

    Programmed-these are repetitiveand routine in nature. Since they can

    be programmed, procedures, rules

    and often manuals are formulated to

    cover those situations

    None programmed: unique andnon- routine

    Conditions that initiate decision

    making

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    making

    1. Opportunity/threat

    2. Crisis

    3. Deviation4. Improvement

    Ways of Decision Making

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    y g

    1. Relying on tradition: taking the samedecisions that had been undertaken whensimilar problem arouse in the past

    2. May appeal to authority and make decisions

    based on suggestions from an expert/ahigher level management

    3. Priority reasoning: based on assumption

    4. Logical decision making: is a rational,intelligent and systematic approach tondecision making

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    Factors Influencing Decision

    Making

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    Making

    1. Decision makers attribute Knowledge, experience, and

    judgmentPerception and personality

    Values and philosophy

    Factors Influencing DecisionMaking

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    g

    cont.2. The Situation Urgency of solution and time pressures

    Magnitude and importance

    Structure and uncertainty and risk

    Cost benefit

    3. Environmental ConstraintsExternal Internal

    Encouraging creativity

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    Convergent thinking-the problem is dividedinto smaller and smaller pieces to find a

    more manageable perspective.

    Divergent thinking: One's view of theproblem is expanded. The problem is

    considered in different ways

    Brain storming: under favorable

    circumstances a group working together can

    identify more ideas than an individual or the

    group of individuals working separately. It is

    a technique managers can use to create a

    Decision Making Tools

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    1. Probability theory - is the likelihood that anevent or outcome will actually occur andallow decision makers to calculate anexpected value for each alternative.

    Expected Value (EV) = Income it wouldproduce (I) x its probability of making thatincome (P).

    2. Decision tree - are graphic decision makingtools used to evaluate decisions containing aseries of . steps

    Deciding to decide

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    1. Is the problem easy to deal with

    Tip: avoid being bogged down in

    trivial details. Effective managers

    reserve decision making techniques

    for problems that require them.

    2. Might the problem resolve itselfTip: prioritize and rank problems in

    order of importance

    Deciding to decide cont.

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    3. Is it my decision Tip: the closer to the origin of the problem

    the decision is the better. Before deciding

    ask the following questions: Does the issue affect other

    departments?

    Will it have a major impact on thesuperior's area of responsibility?

    Does it need further information from

    higher level?

    3 Is it my decision cont.

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    Does it involve serious breach ofmy departments budget?

    Is this problem outside my area of

    responsibility or authority?

    If the answer to any of thesequestions is 'YES' pass it to your

    superior.

    Barriers to Effect Decision-Making

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    Making

    1. Easy recall: the more easily canrecall the event, the more frequently they

    believe it occur

    2. Easy search: not to put effort toseek information from the appropriate

    sources

    3. Misconception of chance:Most people do not understand the nature

    of random solution based on past

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    Barriers to Effect Decision-Making cont

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    Making cont.

    6. Defensive avoidance: Faced with aproblem and unable to find a good

    manager seeks a way out. He/she may

    let someone else make decisions. Thisresigned posture may prevent

    consideration of more viable alternative

    7. Panic: the manager feels pressurized

    not only by the problem but also time

    vercom ng arr ers oindividual problem solving

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    1. Setting priority

    2. Acquiring relevant information

    3. Proceeding methodically andcarefully

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    THANK YOU FORLISTENING!