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FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALIZATION
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Transcript of FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALIZATION - Harvard … Challenges... · FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALIZATION....

  • FEDERALISM ANDDECENTRALIZATION

  • STRUCTURE

    1. The growth of multilevel governance

    2 Comparing patterns of decentralization and 2. Comparing patterns of decentralization and

    sub-national governance

    3. The impact on democracy

    4. Case studies India and Bangladesh

    5. Pros and cons of decentralization

  • RESOURCES

    Caramani Ch 11

    Norris Ch 7

    Forum of Federations www.forumfed.org

  • 1. GROWTH OF MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE- WHY?Civil Society Public sector Private sector

    1. GROWTH OF MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE WHY?

    Supra-nationalInternational NGOs and global Multinational and regional

    International corporationsInternational NGOs and global

    networks of activistsMultinational and regional

    government

    Nation-state

    National National interest groups, non-governmental organizations,

    voluntary societies

    Nation state

    Central organs of the national legislature, core executive and

    bureaucracy, and national Privatization of state sector

    nationalized assetsyjudiciary

    Federal constitutions safeguarding states rights and autonomy over some functions

    Privatization of regional andSub-national Regional, local and community

    interest groups, non-governmental organizations,

    voluntary societies

    Political, fiscal and administrative decentralization

    to regional, local and community elected bodies

    Privatization of regional and local sector assets and

    contracting out of services

  • 2. CONCEPTS AND TYPES OF FEDERALISM Federal regimes: definitionsg An association of states, which are formed for

    certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large portion of their original independence. (K. Wheare)Th bi ti f h d l f The combination of shared-rule for some purposes and regional self-rule for others within a single political system so that neither is subordinate to the other. (Watts)

  • MULTIPLE TYPES TABLE 11.3 (LIJPHART)Type E.g.yp g

    Federal and decentralized Australia, Switzerland, Belgium, US

    Federal and centralized Austria, Venezuela, India

    S i f d l I l S iSemi-federal Israel, Spain

    Unitary and decentralized Denmark, Japan, Norway

    Unitary and centralized Costa Rica, Ireland, Jamaica, UK (?),

    France

  • TYPES OF FEDERAL AND DECENTRALIZEDREGIMES

    Type of constitution

    scal

    and

    on

    Unitary states

    (144)

    Hybrid Unions

    (22)

    Federal states

    (25)

    d E E E

    nist

    rativ

    e, fi

    sec

    entr

    aliz

    atio

    Cen

    tral

    ized Eg

    Kenya

    Zimbabwe

    Eg

    Indonesia

    Azerbaijan

    Eg

    Malaysia

    Belgium

    ree

    of a

    dmin

    polit

    ical

    de j g

    tral

    ized

    Eg

    NorwayEg

    Eg

    Canada

    Figure 7.2: Matrix of vertical power-sharing arrangements

    Deg

    r

    Dec

    ent Norway

    Denmark Italy

    Canada

    Switzerland

    g p g gNote: See the text for definitions of each type of constitution and the measures of decentralization which are used. The numbers in parenthesis represent the distribution of each type out of 191 contemporary states worldwide in 2000. Source: Norris Driving Democracy

  • FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALIZATION1 00 Can

    Type of constitution1.00

    0.80

    > Hig

    h US SwiIndia

    Can

    AustlDen

    Federal Hybrid unionsUnitary

    0.60

    cent

    raliz

    ation

    >

    SpSAfr

    Rus

    Malay

    Ger

    BrazAusArg

    Geo

    Taj SweNor

    Mong

    Mol

    LithLat

    Kyr

    Fin

    Bol

    Bela

    Aze

    0.40

    0.20ow

  • DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES

    Type of regime

    Federations (25)Decentralized unions (22)Unitary states (141)

  • TRENDS IN DEMOCRACY BY TYPE80.0

    Unitary statesType of federalism

    ocra

    cy >

    > H

    igh

    Federal statesHybrid unions

    60.0

    FH L

    iber

    al D

    emo

    Low