Extraterrestrial environments

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  • 1. Human Utilization of Subsurface Extraterrestrial EnvironmentsExtraterrestrial EnvironmentsP.J. BostonP.BostonR.D. FrederickR.FrederickJ. J. WerkerWerkerS.M. WelchS.WelchS.L. ThompsonS.ThompsonB. B. SprungmanSprungmanV. HV. H--WerkerWerkerComplex Systems Research, Inc.Complex Boulder, COBoulder, COhttp://http://www.HighMars.org/niacwww.niac// A NIAC Phase II StudyA Study R.D. Frederick 2002R.2002

2. R.D. Frederick 2001Why Caves?Why ScienceScienceShelterShelterStuffStuff 3. Are There CavesAre CavesOn On Other Planets? 4. Collapse Pits Along Tube Path 5. Mare ImbriumMoon LavatubesRimaPosidonius 6. LavatubesLavatubeson Marson MarsImages Images NASA, MalinMalinSpace SciencesSpace Sciences 7. CerauniusPatera 8. LavatubeLavatubeCaveCaveEnvironmentsEnvironmentsSecondary mineral formations Secondary (speleothems)(speleothems) ActinomycetesActinomycetescommoncommonPermanent or transient icesPermanent ices 9. CAVE TYPEDominant ProcessesParent MaterialsEarth ExamplesPossible Extraterrestrial VariationsSolutionalDissolving rock by solventSoluble solids plus a solventClassic karst, gypsum, haliteNon-water solvents, different thermal regimesErosionalMechanical abrasion via wind, water, grinding, etc.Any solidSea coast caves, Aeolian undercuts, etc.Non-Earth erosionalprocesses, e.g. radiation sputtering, frozen volatilesTectonicFracturing due to internally or externally caused earth movementsAny rocky solidGravity sliding cavesTidal flexure from a massive primary, crater impact fracturingSuffosionalCavity construction by the fluid-borne motion of small particlesUnconsolidated sedimentsMud cavesGround ice sublimation???Phase TransitionCavity construction by melting, vaporization, or sublimationMeltableor sublimablematerials capable of solidifying at planet- normal temperaturesLava tube caves, glacial cavesPerihelionicsublimation of frozen volatiles in comets, frozen bubbles in non-water ices, non-basalt lavatubesConstructionalNegative space left by incremental biological or accretionalprocessesAny solid capable of ordered or non- ordered accretion, or biogenic processingCoralline algae towersCrystallization in non-polar ices???P.J. Boston 2003. Extraterrestrial Caves. In, Encycl.opediaof Caves and Karst, J. Gunn, ed. 10. Lessons from the Caves of EarthLessons EarthCaves are not rare!Caves Occur in every major rock typeOccur typeClimate recordersClimate recordersUnique mineralsUnique mineralsUnique biological habitatsUnique habitatsUnique preservation environmentsUnique environments 11. Caves provide a window into the subsurfaceCaves subsurfaceCaves can be radically different from surfaceCaves surfaceCave habitats nonnon--cave subsurface habitatscave habitatsCave EnvironmentsCave Environments 12. Unique Mineral FormationsUnique Formations 13. UniqueMicrobes 14. Photo by Larry McLaughlinPhoto McLaughlinPreservation EnvironmentPhysical fossilsPhysical fossilsIsotopic signalsIsotopic signalsClimate recordClimate recordGeochemical tracesGeochemical tracesIn situ In lithificationlithification 15. Trapped Particles & Volatiles? 16. R.D. Frederick 2001R.2001Life in Mars Caves?Life Traces of Ancient Life?Presence of modern life? 17. Extraterrestrial Caves as Human HabitatExtraterrestrial Habitatas Habitat 18. Extreme UVExtreme UVIonizing radiationIonizing radiationGalacticGalacticSolar flaresSolar flaresShelter on the Martian SurfaceShelter Surfaceconstruction is expensive!digging machines are expensive!expensive! DangerDangerWork loadWork loadTime factorsTime factorsPressure vesselPressure vesselSelfSelf--containedcontained 19. Radiation protectionRadiation protectionPressure vesselPressure vessel 20. VolatilesVolatilesIcesIcesMineralsMineralsAccess to deeper depositsAccess depositsStorage and processing facilitiesStorage facilitiesCave Resources 21. NIAC Phase I:Identification of Enabling TechnologiesInflatable cave linersInflatable linersFoamed in place airlocksFoamed airlocksInert gas pressurization MarsMars--derived breathing mixderived mixSelfSelf--deploying microrobotsmicrorobotsCommunication systemCommunication systemAutomated mappingAutomated mappingBiologically sensitive sitesBiologically sitesCave science backpackNonNon--invasive techniquesinvasive techniquesPlanetary protection protocol developmentprotocol developmentBioregenerativeBioregenerativesystemssystems(unique cave aspects)(aspects) Bioluminescence/O2 lightlight--piping systempiping system 22. NIAC Phase II:Missions to Inner SpaceMouse MissionDevelopment 2002Implementation 2003Human MissionDevelopment 2003Implementation 2003/04 23. Mouse Missionto Inner SpaceMouse MissionMouse Spaceto SpaceCEMSSCEMSSPrePre--human trialhuman trialEducationEducationMark I PrototypeMark PrototypeTrakballTrakballMousetronautsMousetronautsJoystikJoystik 24. CEMSS O2 LevelsPercent - September 27-29, 200216.7016.9017.1017.3017.5017.7017.9018.1018.30 19:3020:3021:3022:3023:300:301:302:303:304:305:306:307:308:309:3010:3011:3012:3013:3014:3015:3016:3017:3018:3019:3020:3021:3022:3023:300:301:302:303:304:305:306:307:308:309:3010:30 CEMSS Relative HumidityPercent - September 28-29, 20027072747678808284868890 18:4519:4520:4521:4522:4523:450:451:452:453:454:455:456:457:458:459:45 CEMSS TemperatureDegrees C - September 28-29, 20027.008.009.0010.0011.0012.0013.0014.0015.0016.0017.0018.0019.0020.0021.0022.0023.0024.00 0:001:002:003:004:005:006:007:008:009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:000:001:002:003:004:005:006:007:008:009:0010:00 Mouse HabPlant ChamberElectric ZoneBottom RightCave TempCEMSS CO2 Levelsppm - September 27-29, 20022004006008001,0001,2001,4001,6001,8002,000 19:3020:3021:3022:3023:300:301:302:303:304:305:306:307:308:309:3010:3011:3012:3013:3014:3015:3016:3017:3018:3019:3020:3021:3022:3023:300:301:302:303:304:305:306:307:308:309:3010:30 25. Argon-Breathing ExperimentsArgon-Experiments 26. Lemnaminor(duckweed)Azolla(waterfern)Flat Crops 27. WaterfernDuckweedRapid-growth, (mass doubles in 16-24 hrs.) Reproduce by budding or seeds/sporesWide pH Range, (5.5 7)Produces more protein per square meter than soybeans, (dried)Can purify & concentrate nutrients from wastewaterTolerates High UV levelsSymbiotically fixesnitrogen from air 28. Integrated MissionIntegrated MissionArgon breathing mixDuckweed dietValley of Fires lavatube16 December1 week 10 mice 29. Human Missionto Inner SpaceHuman MissionHuman Spaceto SpaceLiner & airlockLiner airlock11--2 week duration2 duration7% CO7% CO22, 9, 9--17% O17% O22(HM Cave, AZ)(AZ) In situIn situscience tasksscience tasks 30. Airlocks 31. Pressurized Shirt-sleeve Environment 32. SelfSelf--deploying Com Networkdeploying Network802.11 based prototype802.11 prototypeLarge, pristine cave Large, testbedtestbed ((CuevaCuevade Las de BarrancasBarrancas, NM), NM) Human cavers as microrobotsmicrorobots 33. 3-Scanner33--D LIDAR ScannerD ScannerCyrax2500 3D Laser Scanning System -CyraCorp. Courtesy Pacific Survey Supply, Medford, ORCyraxCyrax2500 2500 --CyraCyraCorp.Corp. ORCourtesy ORFastFastAutonomousAutonomousCADCAD--compatablecompatable3D point cloud3D cloudGeneral mapping & reconnaissanceGeneral reconnaissanceCustom fit inflatable cave linersCustom liners 34. R.D. Frederick 2001Earth Cave Analogs Earth For Extraterrestrial CavesFor CavesAstronaut Training Astronaut Planetary ProtectionPlanetary Protection 35. Logistics 36. LogisticsProtectionProtectionMobilityMobilityInstrumentationInstrumentationEmergency responseEmergency responseAbrading environmentAbrading environment 37. PlanetaryProtectionPotential biological sitesAseptic reconnaissanceLong-term monitoringNon-invasive techniquesChain of asepsis 38. Next? NASA ASTEP new start 1/04ISU CaveClass Project 39. Humans in Caves:The PresentThe PresentHumans in Caves:Humans The NIAC Future?