Examining How Teachers Use Mobile Devices in Their Teaching: A Multiple-Case Study
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Examining How Teachers Use Mobile Devices in Their Teaching: A Multiple-Case Study
Examining How Teachers Use Mobile Devices in
Their Teaching: A Multiple-Case Study
Min Liu, Cesar Navarrete, Erin Maradiegue, and Jennifer Wivagg
The University of Texas at AustinEdMedia 2014, Tampere, Finland
Mobile Learning• Benefits Using Mobile Technology in K-12
Education1) Flexibility and accessibility 2) Interactivity 3) Motivation and engagement
• Challenges 1) Devices are viewed as entertainment devices2) Classroom management issues3) Change of teacher-student interactions
ELL Student Support • Using Mobile Technology for English
Language Learners (ELL) Offers: 1) ELL students access to “people resources” 2)Information access to facilitate academic language learning
Method• Multi-case study: elementary, middle school,
high school• Research Context
District Student Population: 18,000ELL student: 810 (4.5%)District area: 600 sq. mi.
• Implemented a mobile initiative by providing an iPod touch for every ELL student and allow 24/7 mobile learning access
• The teachers were provided training and support
Teacher Interviews• 2010-2011: Four interviews were
conducted with the two middle school teachers
• 2011-2012: Six interviews were conducted two elementary and one high school teacher
• Interviews were conducted at different times of the school year to gain an understanding of how the teachers were using iPod Touch devices
Interview Questions:• How are you using the iPod Touch devices? • How did you use the iPod touch in your
teaching? How does that compare to student learning without the iPods?
• Do you see any challenges in using the iPod? Please explain.
• What, if any, challenges are there in developing iPod touch activities? Examples?
• How is the iPod touch used outside of the school day?
Study Participants• Teachers and their students (Pseudonyms)
Elementary: Clara and LydiaMiddle School: Virginia and ClaireHigh School: Monica
• Data SourcesMultiple interviewsClassroom observationsData collected in two-year long project
Teacher Years Teaching
Grade Levels Taught
Primary areas of
Total students taught/
managedClara 14 4-5 Math
Lydia 23 4-5 ELA History 42
26 6-8 ELA 40
7 6-8 ELA 31
Monica 10 9-12 ELA 4/20
Elementary: Clara & Lydia
Clara and Lydia- same school team teaching
• Used for reading and math skills • aligned with state test• Clara was responsible for device
management• Lydia used it with Accelerated
Reader• Audio/ visual support for reading
Elementary: Clara & Lydia
Clara: ‘Okay, get it out and start working on your times tables’ or ‘get it out and work on Divisibility’[app].”
Lydia: “There is less of me and more of them.”
Middle School: Virginia
VirginiaEnglish language learning:
reading, listening, comprehension reference tool
learning games Device as family-to-school resource:I had searches on one. It was a job inquiry. I was checking what the students were looking at and it came up, ‘job inquiry’ or ‘job application’. I went back to the kid and asked, ‘Are you filling out job applications?’ Oh no, dad was doing that.
Middle School: ClaireClaire Student language development:
audio recording readings every daygrammar skills pronunciation and fluency
Device as a “private tutor”• It always waits, patiently, for an answer. It
doesn’t judge them. It’s all that kind of stuff… I think that’s big and nobody knows that they’re asking, it’s private, it’s between them and [the iPod], so they don’t feel stupid.
High School: MonicaMonicaStudent academic language development: Small group for one-hour a day
In-class support in content courses; Reference resources; Readings with Internet resources Games apps for learning
Describing her use for reading practice:“We’re reading To Kill a Mockingbird, I’m having them look up pictures of maybe Scout or Jim… a mockingbird, so they could see what a mockingbird looks like and sounds like.”
Support easy information access and communication (Sharples, Corlett & Westmancott, 2002). Discursive learning: Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Traxler, J. (2005)Academic literacy in English and scaffold their content learning as well as language acquisition (Li & Edwards, 2010).
Language and Content Learning
Video and audio enabled devices for multimodal support (Banister, 2010) Students learned at their individual levels (Koole, 2009).
Connection of School & Home
Support of English language learners as a “Cultural tool,” that empowers the learner with a feeling of belonging is consistent with the iPod shuffle research (Craig, et al., 2007; Patten & Craig, 2007).
Mobile devices provide possibilities for student-centered learning (Hennessey, Ruthven, & Brindley, 2005; Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Glazewski, Newby, & Ertmer, 2010). Discursive learning: Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Traxler, J. (2005)
Time Challenge• Time demand in
developing proficiency and lessons
Clara: “So, it is more preparation. It is more work.”
Technical Challenges• Technical glitches had impact on
usability in schoolsVirginia describes: “I had, like 56 wireless [devices] trying to hook up to 1 hub. It overwhelmed the hub; the hub shut down and so we had to spread out all over the building, we couldn’t give them those directions, [we had to give] those steps, one by one.”
• Management of devices, charging, updates, downloads, monitoring,
Conclusion• Mobile learning can offer
1) flexibility and accessibility, 2) interactivity, and 3) motivation and engagement
• Teacher classroom use needs on-going and just-in-time support from school administration
• More empirical research is needed
Contact InformationMin Liu:
Cesar C. Navarrete: [email protected]
Liu, M., Navarrete, C. C., Maradiegue, E., and Wivagg, J. (2014). A Multiple-Case Study Examining Teachers’ Use of iPod Touches in Their Pedagogical Practices for English Language Learners,
In D. McConatha, C. Penny, J. Schugar & D. L. Bolton (Eds.) Mobile Pedagogy and Perspectives on Teaching and Learning (pp. 165-185), IGI-Global Publishing. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4333-8.ch010