Evidence Based Practices for Autism in the Early Childhood Classroom Kathy Oehler –Autism...
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Evidence Based Practices for Autism in the Early Childhood Classroom Kathy Oehler Autism Consultant and Mary Roth Lead Ally, Autism Society of Indiana Slide 2 What are Evidence Based Practices? An evidence-based practice can be defined as an instructional strategy, intervention, or teaching program that has resulted in consistent positive results when experimentally tested (Mesibov & Shea, 2011; Simpson, 2005). Slide 3 Evolution of Evidence Based Practice in Early Childhood Education Late 1980s: Developmentally Appropriate Practices (NAEYC) Early 1990s: Recommended Practices (DEC) Late 1990s: Revised Recommended Practices (DEC) 2006 +: Practice Based Research Synthesis (Research & Training Center for Early Childhood Development) 2008: 24 Evidence Based Practices for students with ASD (National Standards Project) Slide 4 Evidence Based Practices for Children with ASD http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/national-standards-project Slide 5 Using Evidence Based Practices (EBP) at School and at Home Slide 6 Behavior and Learning Evidence Based Practices: Prompting Reinforcement / Differential Reinforcement Task Analysis Functional Communication Training Discrete Trial Training Functional Behavior Assessment Naturalistic Setting Visual Supports Structured Work Systems Slide 7 EBP: Prompting How do I do it? If the child doesnt respond within 2 3 seconds, use a prompt. Full Physical Prompt: Hand over Hand Prompt: Partial Prompt: Visual Prompt / Cue: Verbal Prompt: Slide 8 EBP: Prompting Prompting keeps students engaged (and reduces tune out time Prompting reduces frustration (and reduces negative behavior!) Prompting increases rate of learning (by insuring a correct answer EVERY time) Slide 9 Prompt Fading It is essential to NOT have children become dependent on prompts. Any prompts used are gradually removed as the child becomes successful until he can respond correctly with no prompts Slide 10 EBP: REINFORCEMENT How do I do it? Slide 11 Rules for reinforcement - 1 Avoid use of escape as the reinforcer. Dont say, If you do this, then you get to go play! Instead, give the reinforcer more often, for smaller tasks. Help the child see that doing the task itself is a way to get something good. Slide 12 Rules for reinforcement:2 Last behavior reinforced is the behavior that will emerge again SO Do not end a session with non-compliant behavior Slide 13 Rules of Reinforcement 3: Two Critical Components: 1)Pair yourself with the reinforcer, so YOU are the source of good things. 1)Talk less! Pair the reinforcer with Compliant Behavior, rather than repeatedly giving verbal directions. Slide 14 Rules of Reinforcement 4: A child should never gain access to a reinforcer with negative behavior Do not give attention to trantruming behavior Never allow the child to escape or avoid a demand (adult can change the demand) Slide 15 Schedules of Reinforcement How often do I reinforce? FOR NEW BEHAVIORS Continuous: positive reinforcement after EVERY correct response. But mix it up praise, tickle, cuddle, give a treat. Make sure the child knows he has done something good. Slide 16 Schedules of Reinforcement: For established behaviors (like hanging up backpack / coat) Intermittent: Praise and reinforce, but not every time. Intermittent reinforcement is very effective in maintaining established behaviors Slide 17 EBP: Task Analysis How do I do it? Every task consists of many little steps. It is essential that we recognize and teach each step. Example: Wash your hands Turn on water Put your hands in water Put soap on your hands Rub your hands together Rinse your hands Turn off water Dry your hands Go back to your seat Slide 18 EBP: Task Analysis After you break the task down, make a picture schedule of each step. Slide 19 EBP: Functional Communication Training Behavior is a form of communication for children. If they cant talk it out, they will act it out. Bad behavior is communication! Slide 20 EBP: Functional Communication Training How do I do it? Teach a replacement behavior. Teach the child a different way to tell you what he wants. For example: If he bites his hand when he doesnt get to watch TV, Teach him to sign or give you a picture of the TV. Teach the new communication when you can reinforce it by turning on the TV. Practice / reinforce; Practice / reinforce! Slide 21 EBP: Discrete Trial Training How do I do it? Teach everything in small chunks. Prompt for success every time. Praise and reinforce every time. Review and practice 1000 times a day, in many different settings! Slide 22 EBP: Discrete Trial Training Include Computer Aided Instruction: iPad app: ABC Tracer (Lite version is free for ABC and 1,2,3; full version $2) Teaches top to bottom letter formation with dotted lines to follow. Reinforcing sounds when kids stay in the lines. Other literacy activities included. Slide 23 EBP: Functional Behavior Assessment How do I do it? Antecedent: what happened right before the behavior. Behavior: what was the behavior Consequence: what happened right after the behavior What was the function of the behavior? What was the child trying to get: attention? Escape? A desired item? Whats the new plan? - may involve changing the environment, timing, or task demand. May involve teaching a new way to ask or protest. Slide 24 EBP: Functional Behavior Assessment Set the child up for success. Have him do sensory motor exercises BEFORE he works. 1. Rub My Hands On My Legs-10 times. 2. Push My Hands Together & Release 10 times. 3. Open and close Fingers 10 times. 4. Place my hands on the chair seat, then raise my bottom off the seat 10 times. 5. Deep Breathe in slowly through my nose, then blow out through my lips. Repeat 5 times. Slide 25 EBP: Functional Behavior Assessment Documentation: Your data is your friend. It doesnt have to be fancy, but it needs to be kept daily. What is the target behavior? Whats the baseline? How many responses did the child give? How many were right? Slide 26 EBP: Naturalistic Interventions How do I do it? Generalize across environments: Work on each skill in a variety of settings, not just at the table. If you are working on a new skill, practice it in different rooms, during different activities, at different times of the day, etc. Slide 27 EBP: Naturalistic Interventions How do I do it? Generalize across people: Make sure the skill is taught and practiced with lots of different people especially with peers. Slide 28 EBP: Visual Supports How do I do it? A picture is worth a thousand words. Talk less! Examples: Slide 29 EBP: Visual Supports How do I do it? Examples: Visit the Visual Supports section at:http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/index.php?pa geId=3613.Visual Supportshttp://www.iidc.indiana.edu/index.php?pa geId=3613 Slide 30 EBP: Structured Work Systems How do I do it? Use pictures. Make sure the child can see: What do I need to do? (a job) What do I do when I am finished? (a reinforcer) Slide 31 EBP: Structured Work Systems Always work toward independent task completion. Slide 32 If its not working, ask yourself: Setting (sensory): Is the room noisy? Is there clutter in his workspace? Seating (motor): Is he uncomfortable? Does he need a different place to work? Task (organization): Is the task too big? Do you need to break it down into smaller chunks? Slide 33 If its not working, continued: Timing (organization): Is the wait time too long between directive / writing / reinforcement? Directions (language): Was there too much talking? Does he need a prompt? Attention (sensory): Did you get his attention before giving the task? Slide 34 The most important Evidence Based Practice is The home / school connection. Our children benefit when everyone works together. Slide 35 Challenges for Families Parents blame themselves Society blames parents Professionals blamed parents through the 1970s Grandparents dont understand Siblings feel left out, carted around, responsible Financial burden Stress on marriage Embarrassment dont want to tell anyone or ask for help Slide 36 Understanding Parents The parent is raising a whole child and is responsible for every aspect of that childs life The students behavior may be very different at home It is easy to lose sight of the big picture during everyday struggles It is hard for us to imagine our children with disabilities as adults Slide 37 Dont Wake Up Mama Bear It is instinctive to protect ones children, particularly if they seem vulnerable People cannot think clearly when they are emotional Parents may take your comments as an indictment of their parenting Slide 38 Teaching Parents Ask, How are things going at home? Try to show parents how a strategy (visual support, reinforcement) you are using in the classroom can be used at home Explain what the real-world significance will be to the student as an adult As resources allow, provide visual supports for home and community (church, etc) use Slide 39 Additional Resources Suggest a computer lab where caregivers can make visual supports HANDS in Autism will mail basic visual supports (www.handsinautism.org) Social Stories TM and social narratives Lending libraries Slide 40 Autism Society of Indiana www.inautism.org The Autism Resource Network of Indiana (ARNI) www.arnionline.org Brought to you by the Indiana Inter-Agency Autism Coordinating Council (IIACC), which Autism Society of Indiana leads Find Local Resources to find providers in your area SuperSearch feature for information, providers View several topics from the home page Event Calendar Legislative and other News Slide 41 Autism Society of Indiana www.inautism.org The Autism Resource Network of Indiana (ARNI) www.arnionline.org Resource Map to find providers in your area SuperSearch feature for information, providers Topics from the home page Event Calendar Legislative and other News IIACC Slide 42 Autism Society of Indiana www.inautism.org Autism Society of Indiana Allies help parents, educators