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    Being ethical or unethical

    Self-perception is often biased Managers are often biased without knowing

    Dont always go for something YOU think isright.

    Article explores four related sources ofunintentional unethical decision making

    Implicit forms of prejudiceBias that favors ones own groupConflict Of InterestTendency to over claim credit.

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    (Contd) Resultantly, these flawed judgments

    are ethically problematic. Undermine managers fundamental

    work to:

    Recruit and retain superiortalent. Boost the performance of

    individuals and teams.

    Collaborate effectively withpartners.

    For example, A disabled person isstereotypically looked down upon.

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    Sources of unintentional unethical

    decision-making

    (1) IMPLICIT PREJUDICE

    Bias that emerges fromunconscious beliefs Rooted in the fundamental

    mechanics of thought.

    Mental associations may notbe true Biases can be costly. They

    may lead to wrong decisions.

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    Examples

    Example: Christians inour society arestereotypically are

    considered to be notworthy of upper classjobs.

    Women are consideredmentally weak andperceived to be unable tohandle stress

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    (2) IN-GROUP FAVORITISM

    Bias that favors yourgroup

    People tend to do morefavors for those theyknow.

    For example: People ofsame social class,nationality, religion, race,employer etc.

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    Examples:

    The LUMS OLYMPIADTeam selection criteria bySRC Bahria University.

    Banks in America bluntlydiscriminate between black

    and white loan applicantseven though they are equallyqualified.

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    Over claiming Credit Studies show that majority

    of People consider

    themselves above others They tend to overestimate

    their contributions

    People think only of their

    own contributions, the lessfairly they judge others withwhom they work.

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    Over claiming credit can destabilized alliance.

    Unconscious over claiming can reduce theperformance and longevity of groups withinorganizations.

    Some times over claiming causesresentment, itmight translate into reduced commitment andperformance. At worst, employee may leave theorganization that, if he would feel that no one

    appreciates his contributions in theorganization.

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    Trying Harder Isnt Enough

    Must learn and understand ownbiases Collect data

    Gather data and analyze them.Observe results to determine whetheryou are biased.

    Shape your environment By working with different groups of

    people and understanding the extentof biases Broaden your decision making

    Think from various viewpoints Think from the viewpoints of all the

    individuals who are impacted

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    The Vigilant Manager

    Managers who aspire to be ethical must challengethe assumption that they are always unbiased andacknowledge that vigilance, even more than good

    intention, is a defining characteristic of an ethicalmanager

    Only those who understand their own potentialfor unethical behavior can become the ethical

    decision makers that they aspire to be.

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