Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E.

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Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E

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Page 1: Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E.

Era 5The Great Global Convergence

1400-1800 C.E

Page 2: Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E.

Global Convergence

Change accelerated when people, resources, and ideas from the whole world came together. That made the world more like we know it today- more modern!

Page 3: Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E.

Continuing exchanges from Era 4 into Era 5

Era 4- Known for Cultural Exchange.

Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge.

Trade introduced people to new products increasing the demand for luxuries.

Money moved across the countryside and continents in exchange for goods.

Religious ideas were hotly debated and missionaries spread religions to new lands

Ruling groups debated laws, and military struggles continued.

Page 4: Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E.

Main Topics of Era 5

The Age of Exploration (continues)

Renaissance & Protestant Reformation

Scientific Revolution

Absolutism

Enlightenment

Gunpowder Empires

Page 5: Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E.

The Age of Exploration

After 1415, European mariners made voyages across the seas toward east and west. By 1519, Spanish ships had circumnavigated the globe. Others set out in search of wealth and adventure.

Columbus 1492

Vasco da Gama 1498

Magellan 1519

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Spanish conquistadors ended Aztec and Inca rule and claimed their lands in Mesoamerica and Andean South America.

Aztec Empire

Mayan States

Inca Empire

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The Great DyingThe great dying was caused by smallpox and other

disease germs carried by the conquerors. Native Americans had no immunity to these diseases.

By some accounts, the population of the Americas fell from 22 million in 1500 to less than 1 million in 1640

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World population grew a lot during Era 5

Population change in millions, 1400-1800 CE

0

100

200

300

400

1400 CE 1600 CE 1800 CE

China

India

Europe

Sub-Saharan Africa

Latin America

• Growth differed among world regions. • The number of people in the world increased about 2 ½ times between 1400 and 1800 CE

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Trade encircled the globe

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Renaissance

The Renaissance began in Italian cities because of their access to trade routes.

Trade brought wealth to Italy.

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The Renaissance was a time where classical Greco-Roman ideas were revived.These ideas were preserved through the

middles ages by the Byzantine EmpireRenaissance means “re-birth”This was a time of political unity and cultural

creativity.

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Sciences, philosophy, and the arts flowered in Europe after 1400

Europeans had some catching up to do.

“Knowledge of the ancients” entered Europe during the 12th century. Its origins were Greek, Arabic, Chinese and India. It contained all natural sciences, math, applied sciences and philosophy.

Scholars flocked to Spain in the 1100s to translate books from Arabic to Latin.

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Printing Press

Printing technology spread from China to Europe.

Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press with moveable type could reproduce pages quickly, adding woodcut illustrations.

By the time he invented his printing press, papermaking had spread to Europe.

In the first century of printing, thousands of books were sold and added to Europe’s growing libraries.

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Printing Press

Helped develop...1. Increase in literacy

rates2. Secular (World) ideas

spread3. Books are circulated to

the public

Overall, printed material became cheaper and more available allowing for the expansion of knowledge among the middle class

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Printed Books begin to carry more information than ever

Sharp, accurate engraved illustrations helped spread innovative inventions rapidly.

Rich illustrations stimulated interest in literacy and learning.

Page numbers, indexing, and other citation systems became common.

Scientists shared detailed diagrams to replicate experiments and instruments.

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Rise of European Universities

Demand for Education stimulated the growth of European universities in major towns.

These universities introduced new knowledge into the curriculum.

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Challenges to the church

People started to question the church.

New branches of Christianity formed because people wanted to reform the church.

Martin Luther leads the protestant reformation.

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Scientific Revolution

Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler proved that the earth was not the center of the universe.

Scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the universe.

The church opposed this idea.

Galileo was threatened to be killed by the Church if he did not take back his discoveries.

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AbsolutismMonarchs claimed absolute power.

Louis XIVFrance 1643-1715

Catherine the Great Russia1762-1796

Elizabeth IEngland 1558-1603

Philip IISpain 1556-1598

Xizong Ming China 1620-1627

Shah Abbas Persia1587-1629

JahangirIndia1605-1627

Süleyman Ottoman Empire 1520-1566

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Eventually challenges to absolutism came from new elites with ideas about human rights.

Charles I 1625-1649

Charles I, beheaded in 1649 Louis XVI 1775-1793

King George III1760-1820

Rebellion in American Colonies 1776 French Revolution

1789

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Enlightenment

New challenges to absolute rule was a result of the enlightenment.

These thinkers relied on the idea of reason.

Earliest Democracies were in ancient Greece & Rome.

These traditional ideas of democracy began to reappear during this time.

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Gunpowder Empires

Era 5 was the first age of Global Empires.

Large bureaucratic states in Afroeurasia used gunpowder and artillery to expand trade and win territory in several parts of Afroeurasia.

Marco Polo brought gunpowder from Asia to Europe, which helped start European domination across the globe.

Page 23: Era 5 The Great Global Convergence 1400-1800 C.E.

Gunpowder empires in Asia, Africa and Europe honed skills in production of artillery and handguns.

Land and maritime empires battled over control of trade, resources and territory.

Persian, Indian, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese and European artisans experimented with steel production for weapons.

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States and Empires in 1519 CE

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States and Empires in 1600 CE

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States and Empires in 1714 CE

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States and Empires in 1804 CE

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Summary

Environmental change accelerated with the Columbian Exchange, intensified resource exploitation, and continuing deforestation.

World population increased owing to improved nutrition and migration. But Africa gained only slowly due to slavery, and native Americans suffered massive population losses because of Old World disease pathogens.

Science, technology and cultural development expanded with the invention of printing and new knowledge institutions- libraries, universities, and museums.

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Summary (cont.)

World trade volume increased dramatically and began to shift its center from Asia to the Atlantic region.

States increased their power with gunpowder conquests and new sources of mercantile wealth.