English Final Project
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Topic: Media Invasion
Miss Nadia Mubashir Khan
Group MembersAmmara Mehddi Anum Razi Hajra Nawaz Iqra Tahir
Media InvasionMediaIn general, "Media" refers to various means of communication. For example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies. As media is a way through which one can communicate with the others so letters, posters, emails, public meetings are forms of media. There is also mass media whereby you communicate with a large number of people, it includes TV, News, internet etc.
Mass MediaMass media is any medium used to transmit mass communication. Until recently mass media was clearly defined and was comprised of the eight mass media industries, Books, Newspapers, Magazines, and Recordings, Radio, Movies, Television and The Internet. We are living in the age of information explosion, where the world has shrunk into a global village. The vital function of Mass Media is that it is the thinking mode of any society. Following are the types of Mass Media: (a)Print Media (b)Electronic Media (c)Interactive Media
Media In PakistanPrint mediaPakistans market for print media has undergone changes in the past decade. In 1997 the total number of daily, monthly, publications was 4,455 but by 2003, six years later, only 945 remained. however has increased in the same period. In 2003 daily distribution million. This figure includes a wide spectre of publications. significant and minor Circulation was 6.2
Television:Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) broadcasts began in 1964. Today, PTV has six channels, one of which, PTV Global, broadcasts in Europe, Asia and the US. PTV News is a dedicated news channel and PTV National sends programmes in the many different languages of Pakistan. PTVs state monopoly was ended in 2003 when the market for electronic media was liberalised. This led to the boom in new private TV channels that today transmit soaps, news, dramas, and talk shows millions of viewers. The private channels have been issued licenses for cable or satellite only, which means that PTV is the only channel that provides terrestrial services to the population. This favours PTV, as most of the rural populations do not have access to the alternative channels that send via cable or satellite. But the TV sector remains vibrant. In total Pakistan has 49 TV channels of which 15 are news channels, 32 primarily entertainment and two religious.
RadioRadio is a vibrant media in Pakistan and the dominant media in many rural areas where television does not penetrate because of the prohibitive transmission costs or simply a lack of electricity in rural households. In urban areas, radio is gaining in popularity, as people are too busy to watch television and often listen to the radio while driving to and from work. . At some point of the day, most probably while driving, we have all tuned into our favorite FM station. Whether you are enjoying the ride back home while listening to music or catching up on breaking news, it is quite common for these teasers to resonate in your car. Over the years, radio channels have saliently impacted our lives -not just for their entertainment value, but in the case of the recently mushroomed FM radio channels, by providing a forum for expression for the women in the country. Thanks to radio broadcasting, they can share their opinions, get advice about battling internal, societal demons and be heard, without having to enter the patriarchal public sphere
Importance Of Media In Pakistan Media and Judiciary are two independent pillars to save the country from sudden slippage. Judiciary put down number of good decisions in her little age of independence which is only one year. Whereas media is older than judiciary and it shows no positive alterations in people's attitude towards the ridiculous change. Hence we can say that in Pakistan the responsibility of media is much more than any media in the world, because Pakistan needs a big change and only media is now, as much powerful. At present media is the only source which is easily accessible by all walks of people through various electronic appliances i.e. TV, Radio, Internet, News Papers and now mobile phones also used by people to aware of events every time. Media affects people's perceptions and priorities their thinking about the political contents. Media shapes the public's behavior about the issues and plays vital role in highlighting certain attributes of issues. Gatekeepers of the media i.e. (editors, news editors, and other journalists) they all play central role in shaping the media agenda which becomes public agenda after sometime. Media of any country is reflection of that country. It shows that how person behave and live in their country. The way of expressing news, way of talking of politicians in political debates and discussion programs shows the behavior of people of that country. Although media's responsibility is to spread true stories but media should be careful in this regard. They have to adopt such a way in which they could aware public without impacting negatively their mind sets and make them able to protest in a true manner which could result oriented.
Role Of Media In PakistanBritish philosopher John Stuart Mill underlined the need for free speech mainly for three reasons. He believed that freedom to read or write is an important element to expose and reveal the truth, to ensure self-development and self-fulfillment of citizens and to help ensure participation of the citizens in a democracy. The Pakistani media is an enthusiastic member of the new warrior clan of the 21st century and despite belonging to war-torn country, is playing active role in keeping with the demands of the modern times. By airing divergent views and engaging in cross questioning on significant national and social issues the media reflects and informs public opinion and practically shares the task of the parliament.
Investigative reporting and live discussions can undermine the spell of many a magicians. This has facilitated public access to the hitherto unseen workings of the political and bureaucratic set-up while simultaneously highlighting the injustices suffered by the common man as a result of the shady practices of the elite. After a significant role of media in restoring the judicial crisis, media has an unprecedented ability to act as a catalyst in civil society efforts to strengthen democratic polity. The fundamental ingredient making democracy possible is the flow of information. The media ( electronic, print, cyber and internet) ensures this flow of information. If restricted, censored or hindered in any way the people will remain ignorant, ignorant of events, ignorant of their rights, their duty to the State, their needs and the role that they can play for the betterment of the society they live in and the country as a whole. Macaulay called the Press as Fourth Estate of the government, but the advent of technology the media has gained new dimension, great strength and very sharp transforming the present age into information explosion. The media plays an extremely important role in transmitting the claims of social, economic and political movements to the decision-makers and the public. A free press and electronic media is an essential attribute today of a democratic polity because only these sources of information can keep not only information flowing freely but also help maintain a constant dialogue between the policy makers and the masses. Televised news is the most powerful medium today, especially in Pakistan where the literacy rate is extremely low. Due to impact of TV channels, the people are more informed. The electronic media, along with the print media, often criticize the government for going against the spirit of the constitution, violating democratic traditions and being unaccountable to the public at large for inflation, unemployment, poverty, deterioration of the law and order situation and highhandedness against opposition. It can be used as a motivational force to bring consensus on vital issues like education and health. The truth is that the significance of the media as a medium of interconnectedness of human affairs cannot be undermined in an age of rapid globalization. It seems to have overtaken the press in forms of impact on the target population in as much as it reproduces events and characters on the screen directly and promptly. The advent of independent TV channels in the country substantially transformed our culture and political discourse. Television is far more effective pervasive, intensive and graphic than print media. Its impact on the public mind is substantially higher than that of the print media. Live coverage on television not only provides us with the most up-to-date information about events but also engages the viewer in a way that print media cannot do the in the same way. It is usually claimed that the job of the media is the dispassionate presentation of facts. The fact is that the job of the media person is not to serve as a post office but more importantly to educate the public through informed reporting so as to facilitate as objective an opinion formation as possible. A free media that works conscientiously can serve as the collective conscience at the national and international level. This, however, is often easier said than done. The reporter or journalist is after all human and endowed with biases and in some cases prejudices and as with all power bases the media too is vulnerable to the corruption of the absolute power. There will always be
those in their ranks who can be bought with cash or perks or promises of paradise. But then there will always be those who are not purchasable because they know that their reporting can make or break individuals, communities and nations -- a heavy burden indeed
"When complaints are freely heard, deeply considered, and speedily reformed, then is the utmost bound of civil liberty attained, that wise men look for."Milton
Positive Impacts:Political Analysis The skilled and bold personality of anchor person raises peoples voice and clearly asks the real point of the crisis. They analyze government actions, either in favor or against the masses and develop the opinions of the experts. Media is serving as true democratic notion of peoples participation. The general peoples criticism, analysis, and comments are added. which also act as a catharsis. The ruling feel shame while speaking bluff in live shows before the millions of the citizens. Media successfully informs the whole world against any injustice and shows world criticism which compel the government to change its autocratic orders.
Economic Debate Shows governments projects internationally to get foreign investment by projecting the benefits of the enterprise. Advertising to maintain competition among various companies which facilitates the public. Like mobile phones and their lowering prices. It represents new business trends going in the world and offering the new opportunities for the investors. Performance of stock exchange keeps update the investors. Spreads technical education to learn the working of the machinery.
Bring the world at doorstep with its various trends, colors and life styles. Changes moods and behavior of people from conservative to liberal. Bold topics through dramas and talk shows to purify the society from superstitions, evils and fake stories. New household styles to upgrade the living standards. Guides the youth for new opportunities and to compete with the world in all fields of life. Creates civic sense.
Religion Clarifications Authentic information by the competent scholars instead of narrow minded and ignorant clerics who have changed the world into hell. Solutions of answers of publics questions which remain unheared and unexplained. Highlights religious events like Mohram, Eid, Mairaj and the holy Ramadan. Sectarian harmony is minimized by putting forward the views of competent and enlightened Ulamas.
Negative ImpactsPolitical gimmick Blackmailing by the media persons to get personal gains as now practically, media is not answerable before any institution. Sensationalism of news to get cheap popularity. To show one as Evil and other as Liberator by continuously repeating the comments or visuals.
Social Evils Vulgarity due to inflow of foreign culture. The English and Indian channels are affecting the moral of the youth. Time wastage due to constant watching the dramas. More materialism by diminishing simplicity.
Generation gap is increasing on account of fast approach towards life.
Religious impressionsPakistan's media should understand that it presents the country which is of high importance not only for Islamic world but also for peace in whole world. Media should become highly sensitive towards its responsibilities while presenting this country to the world and guiding the people of Pakistan to bring out the country from the sea of issues. Pakistan's media tell the world that what is Pakistan in fact, what think of Pakistani people towards world issue. It depicts the culture of Pakistan. It is its responsibility to tell the whole world that what is Islam and what are implications of Islam in Pakistan. Most of hot channels of media are highly politicized whereas they should cover cultural and religious norms and values of Pakistan. Some of the media channels are totally Islamic whereas others are highly ultra mod. This shows existence of two totally different cultures in Pakistan whereas Pakistan was achieved on the name of Islam which has one Book, one Prophet (P.B.U.H), one Allah and one culture. This type of media with totally two different sectors creating a cultural gap in Pakistan. This cultural gap is increasing hatred groups. Our media showing world existence of two totally different cultures in Pakistan and directs people to divide in two groups one with fundamental thoughts and other with secular thoughts. For a peaceful environment and a democratic culture, it is important for all media channels to preserve real culture of Pakistan which is neither extremist and, nor ultra mod
What should be the Role of Media in Pakistan?The Media mainly television has become the main storytelling vehicle and the journalists have become the key players in legend making and identity building. Professional journalists are responsible to create a sense of belonging and to encourage the youth of Pakistan to behave like a responsible Pakistani. On the contrary, Pakistani media has taken a completely new direction and is determined to create a dreadful situation in the name of freedom of press. The competition has gone so fierce that they need negative tools to increase their TRPs which results in huge revenue chunks. Is this what they are working for? The effort should be focused to support the national image rather than highlighting the most harmful and depressing news to de-motivate the common man in Pakistan. It is not good to come up with such comments that our media works as paid workers of our rivals, but sometimes, you are strained to pronounce it. Media has always been a unique and sophisticated ground to play on when we talk about image building It is good to be truthful, but when we talk about national interest, its our obligatory to be noiseless on certain instances so the issues can be sorted out within our own people without being influenced or carried away by the international community who will never come forward to extend
their support to resolve our domestic problem. They will take advantage of the situation and will work on their aged tale of divide and rule. Image building is more likely to produce desirable perceptions when action conforms to the projected images. It is important to identify a fact that that it is easy to maintain an old negative image or to gain a new negative image, but, it is extremely difficult to build a new positive image of a country. To put it in a different way that it is painless to be branded with a horrific image and very hard to rectify and heal the wound. Media are swapping diplomats. Diplomatic profession is being undercut by the arrival of global television. In this regard, diplomats are conventionally occupied in intelligence gathering, negotiation, reporting and representation. No institution is perfect in this world, so is the media, and still there is still a huge scope for improvement where media can work according to the aspirations of the people of Pakistan where they want to cultivate the attitude of Pakistan First in every Pakistani. Media is like a watchdog in a democracy that keeps government active. With the passage of time it has become a more matured and a more responsible entity. But few talk shows and programs are required to be monitored who portrays a negative image of the country in the name of autonomy of press. Government media and the private sector should remember that managing and creating a positive image building is by far a colossal task. Its no more a matter of choice, its a prerequisite in present days situation. Its about time that our media must work on the Positive Image of Pakistan
Profound Influence and Change of Behavior:The media has a great impact in the way we act and think. It can have a deep influence on the behavior of its audience. Mckee (2009) posed a thought provoking idea, he said that when people try to imitate something seen or heard, there is a difficulty in letting them distinguish between right and wrong. The teenagers of today often mimic or imitate their role models blindly. When the Korean telenovelas became a big hit over the primetime television broadcasting, little did the Filipino teens realize that their frequent visit to their hair stylists would asked them to pattern their hairstyle from Dao Ming Si or even Shan Chai (the two are among the stars in Meteor Garden). More often than not, what is highlighted in the entertainment industry is the wrongdoings of celebrities whom the young people idolize. And since they are heroes in the youths minds, they are celebrated despite the bad behavior they have been showing to the public (Mckee, 2009). This scenario is closely attributed to social psychologist, Albert Bandura, who espoused the Social Learning Theory. He explained that people learn through observing others behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. Accordingly, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.
In a youth and violence online source, it explicitly mentioned that if the media had no influence on human behavior, whether it is reenacting violence or influencing purchasing habits, we would not see billion each year spent on advertising. The psychology of human influence by media starts in its effectiveness with print, audio, print and pictures and video. This is also reflected in the cost of advertising space paid by corporations. This is not to claim that someone who watches a violent movie will go out and commit an act of violence as a direct result. However, someone who has a predisposition to violence who watches a violent movie along with other contributing factors has the potential to act out in a violent manner. The glorification of violence in the media has contributed to the desensitization of children and youth in relation to violence in our communities. Younger children who watch violence or play violent video games without being taught the basics of reality versus fantasy can attempt to reenact the scenes or actions and not realize fully that there is no rewind button or restart button in real life. Steele (2009) stated that many people do believe that children are exposed to violence more than in the past by the time they reach eighteen years of age. His paper shed light on this, that children watch between twenty-three and thirty three hours of television each week and morning cartoons contain twenty to twenty five acts of violence per hour. This means that a child will typically see around 200,000 acts of violence by the time they are eighteen years of age. In the same manner, The American Psychological Association did a fifteen-year study (1977-1992) that agrees with the statement that violence in the media causes aggression in adolescents despite their life at home or past history of aggressive behavior. Interestingly, the study stated that it was not the most violent programs that affected children the most but the ones where violence was used as a means to deliver justice. However, El Peligro (2009) mentioned that there is no clear research that leads to a conclusion on the debate encircling violence in the media. For every test that confirms violent media causes violence there is another one to debunk it. He cited a former army psychologist Dave Grossman, who believes that Hollywood is at fault for violence desensitization and that videogames teach kids how to use a god. Moreover, Kyle (2008) said that one of the most extensively studied areas of media influence is of media forms which contain violence and aggression. As early as the 1970's, studies have shown the significant exposure to media containing violence increases the risk of aggressive behaviors. According to studies, over the years the amount of violence people watched; books read, and the games played have increased dramatically. The overwhelming consensus of studies conducted by various agencies such as the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Mental Health is that there is substantial evidence that there is a definable link between exposure to violence in the media and aggressive behavior in children. Young people who view violent events such as murder, kidnapping, or fighting tend to view the world as a scary place. These fearful feelings can cause intense feelings of anxiety at a very early age. On a separate note, media also offers a great diversion for the students of today. For it has been observed that instead of reading books, studying, engaging in social activities and playing outdoors, they end up being cooped up in their rooms watching television or if not connecting to social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter and the like. And because of these technological advancements and
availability of various gadgets, young people end up learning and reading things, which are not suitable for their age. Students are now becoming lazy by just copying the posted information from the internet. Gone are the days when books are borrowed and scanned from page to page. They are not even checking if the posted information is correct or not. Pornography may also come into the picture, which the World Wide Web is saturated with it and appears everywhere from the pop up banners that brings inappropriate content.
Impact On Society:Mass media plays a crucial role in forming and reflecting public imagination, opinion, connecting the world to individuals and reproducing the self-image of society. In the last 50 years the media influence has grown exponentially with the advance of technology, first there was the telegraph, then the radio, the newspaper, magazines, television and now the internet. Our society is centered on media, it is the most influential factor in constructing our culture, but is it a positive culture? If we examine the effect that media has on children, we can say that it breeds a harmful culture, one that throws values and morals out the window. This is because the media is profit driven and has developed its own code of ethics of "anything-goes". As a result, children are exposed to things that they should not necessarily be exposed to yet and as a result it rushes their mental development and in fact moulds their mentality. This is a scary fact because these children's minds are susceptible to the trickery of those who run the media. With the media luring in the children, they are able to sell their own value system to the kids through actors, cartoon characters, and even musicians who are puppets in the media's propaganda. They in turn tend to become role models to the kids and can influence the children and manipulate their behaviour.
The media have a strong social and cultural impact upon society. This is predicated upon their ability to reach a wide audience with a strong and influential message. Marshall McLuhan uses the phrase the medium is the message as a means of explaining how the distribution of a message can often be more important than content of the message itself. It is through the persuasiveness of media such as television, radio and print media that messages reach their target audiences. These have been influential media as they have been largely responsible for structuring people's daily lives and routines. Television broadcasting has a large amount of control over the content society watches and the times in which it is viewed. This is a distinguishing feature of traditional media which New media have challenged by altering the participation habits of the public.
Media strongly affects youth culture. The media executives are quick to defend their role in youth violence and bullying while selling millions of dollars in ads focused on youth. TV producers, network executives, motion picture companies and others in the media deny any impact of their programs on the attitudes and actions of youth. Meanwhile they continue to spend millions on special effects and marketing geared to increase appeal to youth markets. While corporations spend millions on market research and advertising to create products and campaigns targeted at a youth demographic, they still deny their ability to influence youth. If this were true to fact, would NIKE continue spending millions every year on product development, marketing and advertising? Would McDonalds still be using cartoon like characters to sell hamburgers? Would music labels be increasing the level of violence and sexual content in the music geared towards the youth audience? Would liquor companies be using youth oriented activities in their advertising? Of course it works on influencing youth and its ideals advertising would not be a multi-billion dollar a year business. If it had no influence, M-TV would not have consultant on staff spending huge amounts of money to ensure them keeping up with youth culture. The internet creates a space for more diverse political opinions, social and cultural viewpoints and a heightened level of consumer participation. They include licensing in advance;censorship of offending material before publication;seizure of offending material;injunctions against publication of a newspaper or book or of specified content;requirement of surety bonds against libel or other offense;compulsory disclosure of ownership and authority;post publication criminal penalties for objectionable matter;post publication collection of damages in a civil action;post publication correction of libel and other misstatements;discrimination in granting access to news source and facilities;discrimination and denial in the use of communications facilities for distribution;taxes;discriminatory subsidies;and interference with buying, reading and listening. Media should encourage art, science and literature but it is focusing on astrology, rebirths, religious myths, beliefs and aliens. Now days almost every news channel telecast astrological programmes where an astrologer or some baba is sitting and predicting about deaths, marriages and relationships. The funny part is that sometimes statements made by each astrologer are contradictory which confuses the audience. Superstition and myths are also encouraged as recently in one of the news channel there was programme based on a tantrik
who claimed that he can kill a person within three minutes. It was telecast but the action failed and to escape from humiliation the tantrik said that it can only be performed at night. In the 2000s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the American musical film genre.Bollywood films are mostly musicals, and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. Indeed, a film's music is often released before the movie itself and helps increase the audience The release of Aja Nachle enthused a dance craze. The teenage crowd completely overshadowed us with their enviable knowledge of Indian songs and dance moves. One such enthusiast, 14 year-old-Faiza confessed I enjoy Indian dramas and films especially the remixed songs. Television is very influential when it comes to new trends and fashion. Peoples get in touch with all the new trends related to dresses and same kind of things because of this. Programs like Kaun Banay Ga Crorepati, Tariq Aziz Show and many others are doing a good job by providing information in an entertaining way. The Public Service Messages on Television are really influential. Most importantly, by reading columns, peoples learn a lot about writing. They admit that their creative writing is good because of reading books and news papers columns. As Television is the most common and powerful media form that is why it has a number of negative influences. Some peoples really get impressed by new trends of fashion and they waste their money on those foolish things after watching them in any program or advertisements. Wasting time on surfing different channels of Television is the biggest negative point of peoples. Some times, young girls get impressed by different beauty products just because of their eye capturing advertisement campaigns and then they often get allergy. Cross-promotions between food products and popular TV and movie characters encourage peoples to eat more high calorie food. Some times young boys keep long hair and say, it is fashion, a very negative influence of media. Furthermore, the constant ambush of messages from the media especially Television to lose weight and to appear waif-like in order to meet societys expectations of the ideal woman are possibly behind youngsters little eating. The time youngsters spend using internet displaces time they could be doing physical activities. Whenever peoples get some time spare, they listen to Radio. Again, that time could have been used for any other useful activity. These were just few examples of media influence but I think, they were enough to show that how convincing and influential media is. The growth of media as an industry has accelerated over the past few years with new forms such as DVD and the internet changing the way we, the audience, consume and receive media.So concluding this topic, I would say that it is up to us that how we consume media. It has both pros and cons but let us try to focus on positive points, not the negative ones.
Impact On Pakistani culture:Media of any country is reflection of that country. It shows that how person behave and live in their country. The way of expressing news, way of talking of politicians in political debates and discussion programs shows the behavior of people of that country. Although media's responsibility is to spread true stories but media should be careful in this regard. They have to adopt such a way in which they could aware public without impacting negatively their mind sets and make them able to protest in a true manner which could result oriented. McCombs and Shaw assumed that the mass media sets the agenda for political campaigns, influencing public attitudes toward desired issues. Hence we can say that in Pakistan the responsibility of media is much more then any media in the world, because Pakistan needs a big change and only media is now, as much powerful. At present media is the only source which is easily accessible by all walks of people through various electronic appliances i.e. TV, Radio, Internet, News Papers and now mobile phones also used by people to aware of events every time. Media affects people's perceptions and priorities their thinking about the political contents. Media shapes the public's behavior about the issues and plays vital role in highlighting certain attributes of issues. Gatekeepers of the media i.e. (editors, news editors, and other journalists) they all play central role in shaping the media agenda which becomes public agenda after sometime. In Pakistan media are now independent with the emergence of new century. There are numbered of news channels that have maximum coverage throughout the country. Media contribute a lot to develop public knowledge but even after years of success, media could not alter public's attitude towards issues. Media promulgate issues in a way that it raise public immediately just after the news bulletin whereas public mostly do not know that what should be their role and reaction in that particular issue. Media should discourage smoothly such attitude of public. Demonstrations and protests are good to increase pressure towards solution of any problem but there should be a proper way to express which should result oriented. With the passage of time reputation of Pakistan's media have sullied due to its failure in thoroughly comprehending affairs. It seems that media contributes to multiply wording over issues and crisis instead of spreading true root causes and facts of the issues. Our media coverage of political issues is heavily episodic instead of thematic. There are numbered of political talk shows and debates on all news channels of Pakistan. Any issue discussed in those programs has no ending and determining words that could help people to understand that either there is solution to these issues or not? Every political program discuses same issue under different names of the program. There is no difference in the information displayed by each program even the views of politicians from different political parties give no hope and track towards the solution of issues. If these programs demonstrate issues successfully then it could help people to pressurize government in a right way to solve the issue. Media and Judiciary are two independent pillars to save the country from sudden slippage. Judiciary put down number of good decisions in her little age of independence which is only one year. Whereas media is older then judiciary and it shows no positive alterations in people's attitude towards the ridiculous change. Pakistan's media should understand that it presents the country which is of high importance not only for Islamic world but also for peace in whole world. Media should become highly sensitive towards its responsibilities while presenting this country to the world and guiding the people of Pakistan to bring out the country from the sea of issues. Pakistan's media tell the world that what is Pakistan in fact, what think of
Pakistani people towards world issue. It depicts the culture of Pakistan. It is its responsibility to tell the whole world that what is Islam and what are implications of Islam in Pakistan. Most of hot channels of media are highly politicized whereas they should cover cultural and religious norms and values of Pakistan. Some of the media channels are totally Islamic whereas others are highly ultra mod. This shows existence of two totally different cultures in Pakistan whereas Pakistan was achieved on the name of Islam which has one Book, one Prophet (P.B.U.H), one Allah and one culture. This type of media with totally two different sectors creating a cultural gap in Pakistan. This cultural gap is increasing hatred groups. Our media showing world existence of two totally different cultures in Pakistan and directs people to divide in two groups one with fundamental thoughts and other with secular thoughts. For a peaceful environment and a democratic culture, it is important for all media channels to preserve real culture of Pakistan which is neither extremist and, nor ultra mod. Francis Fukuyama, (1995) says that, A thriving civil society depends on a people's habits, customs, and ethics- attributes that can be shaped only indirectly through conscious political action and must otherwise be nourished through the increased awareness and respect for culture. In Pakistan we have no independent and transparent political system but luckily now we have the independent media. Access of media and power is far more then political parties hence media can play major role to turn the fate of society. Pakistan's culture is Islamic which gives lesson of temperateness, moderateness, rectitude and frugality. By dividing the nation in two groups of culture we are creating cultural gap which underpins the true democratic codes. Media could play a central role in streamlined the whole nation over one agenda and guide it towards one particular destination. Already existing some of extremist groups not only violate human rights but also spread wrong concepts about Islam and develop false picture of Islam and Pakistan to the world. To minimize such groups and to seldom the power of such hatred and extremist groups all Pakistani media should display true culture of Pakistan. All the news channels and drama channel should adopt national dress code of Pakistan which is both Islamic and Pakistani. Unfortunately models, actors, reporter and anchors of media channels follow such a way of speaking, negotiating and apparels which are not true picture of Pakistan and Islam. In the end I would like to summaries the whole discussion by recommending the media to enhance the knowledge of public about any issue so that they could participate shrewdly to manipulate the mess. Further media have to develop its status in the public by touching the invisible bonds of society means its culture. Although we have different cultures in our country but the origin of all the cultures is Islam. Media should communicate with the people as a part of their society. Tariqavi says, ..Stress the importance of culture, which may vary even within a country, in negotiating any complex deal you need to understand the values of the people you are dealing with, even if you do not accept their values yourself... Hence our media should take care of culture of Pakistan to integrate the people towards the prosperity and development while living within Islamic boundaries.
Impact On Youngsters:Media strongly affects youth culture. A teenagers life has never been considered boring. From cellular phones to iPod Touch, he would present the latest Lady Gaga,
and Justin Biebers latest songs. You would also see dangling earrings to skimpy shorts and mid-rift blouses. Name the culprit its the media. Lady Gagas fashion and manner of dressing may be too much for our youth but who would want to be left behind? As the word bandwagon would apply, it simply means equipping oneself with medias hype.There are superstars from movie idols, singing sensations and a lot more to mention that introduce songs and dance crazes that become for a while part of popular culture. According to Maslog (1992) only those with integrity are likely to endure and become part of the culture. He continued by saying that the rest are thrown into the dustbin of history. Examples of the more enduring musical contributions, perhaps, are the Beatles music, the Elvis rock and the Armstrong blue. They may not sound pleasing to the ears of our youth today but these are concrete examples of medias propagation of popular culture.
On the other hand, Maslog pointed media for the proliferation of fashion. It is noticeable that every year the high caliber gurus of fashion led by Christian Dior, from their fashion olympuses in Paris, New York or London, make their latest pronouncements about the newest thing to wear for milady. And annually the mass media dutifully report these pronouncements to a female world waiting with bated breath to wear what Christian Dior thinks they should wear. It is fantastic to see how men can dictate to a world of women what they should wear year after year. Historically, we can recall how the mini skirt started in a small way in London way back in 1967. It was within five years the mini skirt enveloped the whole world, which caused a drop in textile sales, and became the symbol of the female liberation from social restrictions. In connection with this, then came the maxi, a reaction to the mini, and then the midi, a compromise. If it not the hemline it is the neckline that is going up or down. Among those who became popular icons and styles are Marilyn Monroe, the GI pin-up girl of Vietnam, popularized the plunging neckline and the cleavage. After these, came the see-throughs and the Cardigan top, which is nothing more than a loose shirt or jacket worn over hot pants or bikini wear, thanks to mass media. What will happen to the next millennium trend of fashion? Candy, Vogue, Cosmopolitan to name a few can give us the answers and for sure whatever it is the fashion pages of the newspapers, from television and movies will never tell a lie. Youths are the main targets of the sophisticated fashion.
Accordingly, the media executives are quick to defend their participation while selling millions of dollars in ads focused on youth. TV producers, network executives, motion picture companies and others in the media deny any impact of their programs on the attitudes and actions of youth. Meanwhile they continue to spend millions on special effects and marketing geared to increase appeal to youth markets. While corporations spend millions on market research and advertising to create products and campaigns targeted at a youth demographic, they still deny their ability to influence youth. If this were true to fact, would Nike continue spending millions every year on product dvelopment, marketing and advertising? Would McDonalds still be using cartoon like character to sell hamburgers? Would music labels be increasing the level of violence and sexual content in the music geared towards the youth audience? Would liquor companies be using youth oriented activities in their advertising? Of course it works on influencing youth and its ideals advertising would not be a multi-billion dollar a year business. If it had no influence, MTV would not have consultant on staff spending huge amounts of money to ensure them keeping up with youth culture (Agarwal, 2008). A coin has two sides, focusing on the positive side, media offers a lot of unquestionable effects. For one, it is through media that people get the right information. Other essential things offered by media in the form communication in society might be categorized as political, economic and social. Under political, media has the role of providing information upon which political decisions of leaders and the general public are based. The day to day affairs of the government is closely monitored by the press, corollary to this function of the mass media is the function of creating and reflecting public opinion, which holds true not only for democratic countries but for authoritarian societies as well. People are also guarded by media by serving as watchdogs of the government. While for its economic role, goods and services are better given through advertising and other vehicles for social transformation. And social role contributes to the popularization of practices that all adds to the cultural heritage of a nation.
Impact On children:Today, all members of our society are influenced both directly and indirectly by powerful media vehicles, including printed materials, television, sound recordings, and the Internet. Publicists, promoters, and sales personnel have at some point used all of these media to advocate what people should wear, what they should eat, and what values they should hold. Vivid colors and language tell us what is happening in the world and how to react to the events shown. Although much of our societys media seems dominated by superficial chitchat, hyped news events, and depictions of violence, it is also a source of education, humor, and nonviolent entertainment. Just remember that the effect of media will vary with a childs age and stage of development. Most realize that although the different media forms can be used elegantly for mediated learning, their major objectives are entertainment and product promotion. In the following section, we discuss what we broadly term the entertainment industry in its role as a general, society-wide influence on young children. We first discuss two of its primary forms, print and television, and then treat other current media under the rubric of the industry in general.
Televisions substantial impact on all growing children began in the 1950s with the proliferation of TV sets. Three generations of children have been raised with TV, and very different role models, interaction modes, and experiences are now visited on American youth. Today, more than 99% of American households contain at least one television set, and children start the viewing process early even before they reach 2 years of age. Conservative estimates are that preschool children watch nearly 3.5 hours of TV per day (Gentile & Walsh, 2002), and this average continues through age 18 (Singer & Singer, 2001). In the 21st century, however, television viewing is becoming somewhat diminished because of increased use of computer games and the Internet, and also because children now spend more time in child-care, school, and after-school-care programs. Television influences children in direct proportion to both time spent viewing and the overall effect of what is viewed (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1990). Certainly, eating habits, family interactions, and use of leisure time are considerably influenced by television (Hewlett & West, 2005; Horgen, 2005; Winn, 2002). Commercials take up 12 to 14 minutes of every hour of television, and in that time, advertisers try to influence viewers with all types of consumerism. Schools and parents are far behind advertisers in finding the most effective ways of using media. Children are especially susceptible to electronic media, and televised advertising has a huge effect. Heavy viewers are drawn to the advertised products, including unhealthy food products, and they tend to eat more snack foods and be overweight. Social interactions are also affected: Heavy viewers hold more traditional sexrole attitudes, behave more aggressively, are less socially competent, and perform more poorly in school compared to light or nonviewers. (Arendell, 1997; Desmond, 2001).
Not all TV advertising is negative, of course. There have been efforts through TV to modify behaviors such as smoking, drunken driving, and poor nutritional habits (Van Evra, 2004). How children are affected by both positive and negative advertisements also depends on such factors as parentchild interactions, how children are disciplined, and even to some degree on socialeconomic factors (Strasburger & Wilson, 2002). Advertising is not the only way in which television influences viewers. Two additional, concerns about the effects of television are the amount of violence, in both commercials and programs, and the amount of time childrens television watching takes away from more creative and intellectual pursuits. Research on the impact of television viewing on academic achievement indicates that such influence is complex in nature. Television viewing takes time away from important social interactions, such as conversation, storytelling, imaginative play, and for primary-school children, the leisure reading that promotes literacy. We must remember, however, that the amount of viewing, the kind of programs watched, IQ, and socioeconomic status are all factors that affect childrens attitude and achievement .
Impact On Education:Although teachers have no doubt become weary of students texting, tweeting, and updating their Facebook pages when they should be focused on learning, the downside of social media to the field of education is small in comparison to its potential benefits. Educators with a finger on the pulse of current cultural trends can easily spot ways to utilize social media within the classroom as a way to engage students on level they can not only relate to, but that will pique their interest. And it can offer a wide range of options for integrating lessons in any subject with the technology of today and tomorrow, giving students the skills they will need for future success as well as a new creative outlet for their particular talents and inclinations. Teachers who utilize social media in the course of education will see an increase in participation and collaboration in the classroom and probably a rise in grades to go along with it. In terms of getting your students to show an interest, social media can prove an excellent tool in your arsenal. Kids who are already using social networking will no doubt be pleased by the opportunity to display their expertise and use their knowledge in order to excel. They will be more interested in whatever you?re trying to teach simply because they are familiar with (and enjoy) the medium. Those who have not integrated social media into their lives (probably because their parents have kept them away from it) will likely be excited to get connected, as their classmates are. Social media is a great way to get kids engaged with a subject and help you to connect with students on their level.
It can also allow students the opportunity and the means to interact with one another in a more collaborative way. One of the many ways that children learn is socially, and they can learn a lot from each other even as you teach them the ins and outs of mathematics, history, science, or language. In many ways, the ability to interact with peers is just as important as learning the facts that you impart daily. The advantage of group activities is that students are able to find ways to work together and use their strengths to help others to succeed. Social media helps them to do this on two levels. First, they are able to participate in team-work, which allows them to gain a better understanding of both the subject (through peer explanation) and the medium they?re using. And second, they have a chance to shine and gain social recognition through self-expression and their own contributions to the final result of a particular project. In short, using social media as a means to further education is a great way to get kids involved and help them to interact. Even students who are unfamiliar with social networking or those who balk at group activities can find interest through this form of learning and interaction. And it can bring benefits to you, as well. Not only will you feel great about connecting with your students and seeing them get excited about the subject, you will also learn a new skill and probably garner a deeper understanding of a topic you teach by seeing it explained in a different way.
Impact On Learning:In order to understand the actual and potential relationships between media and learning, we must first understand why we have thus far failed to establish a causal connection. In large part, this failure is due to the fact that our theories, research, and designs have been constrained by vestiges of the behavioral roots of instructional technology. Both traditional instructional design models and comparative media studies rest on the assumptions of the behaviorist paradigm: media "stimuli" are described according to the surface features of their technologies, and their effect on learning is assessed by using "responses" on a test. Missing from this approach are any descriptions of the cognitive, affective, or social processes by which learning occurs. Also missing are descriptions of the underlying structures and functions of various media that influence these processes. Clark's delivery truck is an apt metaphor for this approach. The medium itself is only an inert conveyer of an active stimulus to which the learner makes a behavioral response. But today we understand that learning is not simply a passive response to instruction's "delivery." Rather, learning is an active, constructive, cognitive, and social process by which the learner strategically manages available cognitive, physical, and social resources to create new knowledge by interacting with information in the environment and integrating it with information stored in memory.From this perspective, knowledge and learning are the result of a reciprocal interaction between the learner's cognitive resources and aspects of the external environment.Moreover, this interaction is strongly influenced by the extent to which internal and external resources fit together. Consequently, to understand the role of media in learning, we must fundamentally change our traditional approach to this issue: We must ground a theory of media in the cognitive and social processes by which knowledge is constructed.
We must define media in ways that are compatible and complementary with these processes. We must conduct research on the mechanisms by which characteristics of media might interact with and influence these processes. We must design our instruction in ways that embed the use of media in these processes.
Through Books:The most common medium encountered in school learning is still the book. As a learning medium, the book can be characterized by the primary feature of its technology (that is, stability), by its symbol systems (printed text, pictures, and graphics), and by the way it influences specific processes (reading). The primary symbol system used in books and other print media consists of orthographic symbols that, in Western culture, are words composed of phonemic graphemes, horizontally arrayed from left to fight. In most printed school media, this arrangement is stableunlike the marquee in Times Square, for example, which uses the same symbol system but a different and transient technology. The stability of the medium has important implications for how learners process information from books and magazines: it aids in constructing meaning from the text. In general, reading progresses in a forward direction and at a regular rate as the reader moves along, readily constructing a mental representation that relates the information in the text to an existing mental model. But on occasion, reading processes interact with prior knowledge and skill in a way that relies heavily on the stability of text to aid comprehension and learning. While poor readers are often thwarted by the effort required to decode the text,fluent readers use the stability of the text to avoid reading failure: encountering longer or novel words, these readers will slow their rate, go back to review a word as an aid to recalling a meaning for it, or review a phrase or sentence to determine the meaning of the word from context.Even readers with highly developed reading skills and elaborate memory structures rely on the stable structure of print to process large amounts of text in familiar domains: a study by Charles Bazerman, for example, revealed a strategy by which seven physicists read selectively and for a particular purpose by scanning print rapidly and using certain words to trigger decisions either to skip over familiar information or to move back and forth carefully within a text and across texts to add to their understanding of their field. Most readers, then, use the stability (technology) of the printed text to process (read) its content (symbol system) and thereby construct or elaborate on a mental model. What happens when pictures or diagrams are introduced into this medium? What is the cognitive effect of these symbol systems in combination with text? And how does the stability of these symbols, as presented in books, interact with processing? A large body of traditional research suggests that using pictures in combination with text generally increases recall, particularly for poor readers, if the pictures illustrate information central to the text, when they represent new content that is important to the overall message, or when they depict structural relationships mentioned in the text.Analyzing this research according to the perspective of this column suggests that the use of both symbol systems in a stable medium facilitates a particular kind of processing, particularly for learners who have little prior knowledge of the topic.
Several studies indicate that readers use pictures to create or to evoke preliminary mental models that guide subsequent reading and assist in the construction of more elaborate and interrelated models. Other studies suggest that the use and effectiveness of pictures are related to prior knowledge: more knowledgeable readers tend to build mental models from existing knowledge and to elaborate on them using information from the text, while less knowledgeable readers tend to rely more heavily on pictures or diagrams to construct mental representations of new information. Younger children, who may not have sufficient prior knowledge from which to generate elaborate mental models, may benefit most from pictures to aid this process.The stability of the medium allows the kind of serial, sequential, back-and forth processing between specific information in the text and components of the pictures that facilitates the construction and elaboration of mental models.
Through Television:Televisionor any video mediumdiffers from books in several ways that may affect cognitive structures and processes. First, the technology of these media makes both their verbal and visual symbol systems transient rather than stable. Linguistic information can be orthographic (as in captioned films); but more often it is oral and, like the images on the screen, disappears quickly. Because of this transience, and because the two symbol systems are presented simultaneouslylearners may process the information in video media very differently from the way they process similar information in books and magazines. It is also possible that the symbol systems and their transient nature affect the mental representations that learners create. A number of studies have found that viewers allot their attention to television in various and predictable ways. This research indicates that visual attention increases from very low levels during infancy to a maximum in the late elementary school years,and that the nature of this attention is influenced by several factors. Even though they may appear distracted at times, children continually monitor the audio portion of a television presentation at a superficial level, and their visual attention is triggered by particular audio cues: women's and children's voices, peculiar voices, sound effects, and auditory changes. Features associated with continued visual attention are special visual effects, pans, and high physical activity; visual attention frequently decreases with the use of men's voices, long zooms, and inactivity.These "formal features"come to be seen by children as corresponding to the meaningfulness of the content, and it is this meaningfulness that subsequently guides and maintains visual attention. For example, children's viewing experience may lead them to perceive that men's voices generally correspond to content that is adult-oriented and therefore less interesting and meaningful to them. Several aspects of video media seem to have particular effects on learners' cognitive mechanisms: the simultaneous presentation of auditory and visual information, the processing pace required by transient presentations of information, and the ways in which dynamic qualities might affect a learner's mental models. Most studies of the roles of audio and visual presentations show that the combined use of the two symbol systems results in more recall than visual-only and audio-only presentations.Additionally, several studies suggest that each source provides information that retains some of the characteristics of the original symbol system: children recall sounds and expressive language from the audio track and visual details from the visual track.It also appears that the representations derived from the visual
symbol systems are more elaborate, making the visual component of the presentation particularly memorable.Audio may be sufficient for those who are knowledgeable about a topic and can draw on previous knowledge for their mental models, but the visual symbol systems supply important situational information for those who are less informed. An important aspect of video is its transience. Only limited research has addressed the effect of pace on comprehension,but this aspect of video presentations clearly distinguishes them from print and may interact with learning in significant ways. With books, the reader sets his or her own cognitive pace (i.e., words per unit of time) to accommodate personal requirements for comprehension. With video, the pace is set by someone other than the learner, and the presentation (i.e., words or visual elements per unit of time) progresses without regard to individuals' cognitive requirements. Analyzing this situation from the perspective of this article suggests several avenues that researchers might pursue to understand the effect of such pacing on comprehension: because viewers use their prior knowledge to process words and ideas, knowledgeable learners are probably able to process information at the pace it is presented partly because they can use their long-term memories to supplement information they might have missed. If the topic is unfamiliar, however, and little information exists in long-term memory to supplement viewing, the pace may exceed the learner's capacity to process. Further, because the information is transient, a learner cannot regress over it to refresh short-term memory. The cascading comprehension failure that has been documented in such situations might well be explained through research that focuses on these cognitive dimensions. There is a third aspect of the ways in which video media might affect learningthe ways in which their dynamic qualities interact with a learner's mental models. Understanding this aspect requires some additional information on the nature and uses of mental models. According to various authors,mental models consist of sets of mental entities that are connected by relationships and procedures and can be "run" in ways that have some similarities to the running of a computer program. For example, a mental model of a media center would include information about the roles of the staff, the nature and location of the collection, the rules and Procedures for circulation, and so on; the library media specialist trying to solve a problem-for example, determining how to introduce a new electronic catalog to teachers and students-could "run" this model to make inferences about what would and should happen in such an introduction. "Running the model" would thus help the library media specialist design a solution to the problem at hand. In this way, mental models are themselves dynamic, since they include mechanisms for moving from one representation of information to anotherfor example, from a mental model of the library media center without an electronic catalog to one of the library media center with such a resource. Because of this dynamism, the moving, transient nature of video presentations may help learners build the dynamic properties of their mental models. A film about the Battle of Gettysburg, for example, might be especially effective in helping students understand not only specific battlefield conditions but how those conditions changed over the three days of fighting and transformed what might have been a Confederate triumph into a Union victory. By helping the student understand the transformation of information (for example, the state of the battle) from one situation (its state on July 1) to another (its state on July 3), the film might promote the creation of a mental model that includes a sophisticated awareness of this transformation as well as of simple facts. Again, lack of research in this area means that these contentions are only speculative; they suggest, however, that the technology of video media (dynamic, transient) and their simultaneous presentation of two symbol systems exert a strong influence on learners' mental models and the processes used to construct them.
Through Computer/Internet:Computers can be distinguished from the two previous formats by what they can do with informationthat is, by their ability to process symbols and symbol systems. The prototypic "information processors," computers can transform information in one symbol system to that in another and they can "proceduralize" information.In its transforming function, a computer with a voice synthesizer can change typed text (i.e., print) into speech; using an integrated software package, it can transform numerical values into charts and graphs. In its proceduralizing function, a computer can operate on symbols according to specified rules: for example, it can rotate a graphic object on the screen according to the laws of physics. Through both functions, a computer can help students construct links between symbolic domainslike graphs and equationsand the realworld phenomena they represent. So it is the processing capabilities of the computer, rather than its symbol systems per se, that enable this medium to make its primary contribution to students' construction of their mental models. Students are frequently unable to connect their symbolic learning in school to "real world" situations,(but the transformational capabilities of the computer can help them make this connection. For example, several studies have shown improvement in graph-interpretation ability for students working in microcomputer-based laboratories.These laboratories use sensors connected to a computer to collect data (e.g., on temperature and motion); the computer transforms the data, displaying the information as graphs rather than numbers. The transformation capabilities of the computer thus make immediate and direct the connection between the graphic symbols and the world they represent. Seeing this connection aids in the development of students' ability to read graphsthat is, to transform a graph into a description of what it means in the "real world." Perhaps even more importantly, the processing capabilities of the computer can help novices build and refine mental models to be more like those of experts. Much of the research in this area has involved physics, in which series of studies have established the nature of experts' knowledge: it is extensive, organized into large chunks that are structured around the laws of physics, and includes information both about the formal laws of physics themselves and about how and under what conditions these laws apply. Novices' knowledge, however, is not only less extensive but is organized differently: it might include only physical objects like blocks and pulleys, fragments rather than interrelated sets of concepts, and "laws" that are incomplete or otherwise incorrect.When trying to solve problems, then, novices often construct mental models that are incomplete, inaccurate, or otherwise insufficient. How might the processing capabilities of computers be used by novices to aid them in building more expert-like models? First, the computer can graphically represent the formal, abstract entities that novices do not normally include in their models. The computer, for example, can use an arrow to represent "force"that is, an influence that changes the movement or shape of an objecta construct that has no concrete referent in the physical world. Second, the computer can proceduralize the relationships among these graphic (and other) symbols and display the results of those procedures. It can change the shape or direction of the arrow to represent what actually occurs, according to the laws
of physics, when force is increased, decreased, or applied from different directions. Furthermore, the computer allows learners to manipulate these symbols and observe the consequences, successful or unsuccessful, of their decisions. Through a series of such experiences, novices may become aware of the inadequacies of their own mental models and move progressively toward more elaborate, integrated, and accurate ones. Thus, the processing capabilities of the computer can influence the mental representations and cognitive processes of learners. Their transformation capabilities can connect symbolic expressions (such as graphs) to the actual world. Their proceduralizing capabilities can allow students to manipulate dynamic, symbolic representations of abstract, formal constructs that are frequently missing from their mental models in order to construct more accurate and complete mental representations of complex phenomena.
Through Multimedia:Little research has been done on learning with multimedia environments, primarily because the field is still evolving and most efforts within it are focused on development. However, multimedia present the possibility of combining in a single instructional environment all the technologies, symbol systems, and processing capabilities of the individual media described above. Examining how we might use each of these aspects individually and in various combinations to facilitate learning is an important direction for current and future research. Computer technology plays a central role in multimedia environments: the computer coordinates the use of various symbol systems and processes information it receives, collaborating with the learner to make subsequent selections and decisions. This role is essentially the same whether the specific multimedia format in use is interactive video or hypermedia. One of the best known examples of the interactive video environment is the "Jasper Woodbury Series,"which provides realistic contexts to help middle-school students learn complex problem solving in mathematics. Each videodisc provides a series of stories about Jasper Woodbury (who is approximately the same age as the target students) that contain both the problems to be solved and data that can be used in the solutions. In one story, for example, Jasper takes a used boat for a "test drive" and decides to buy it. The problem, briefly stated, is that the boat's running lights do not work and Jasper must determine if he can get the boat to his home dock before sunset. Students work in groups to determine the solution, encouraged by the teacher to generate subordinate questions and to identify the information needed to solve them. They review segments of the videodisc to search for information and to separate relevant from irrelevant facts; use the facts to solve the subordinate problems; and then relate these partial solutions to the overall problem. Early research on the influence of "Jasper Woodbury" on learning is encouraging. What contribution did the videodisc make to this learning? Several contentions are suggested. First, the capability of the video to use multiple symbol systems to present complex, dynamic social contexts and events might have helped students construct rich, dynamic mental models of the situations. The detailed, dynamic nature of these models might have allowed students to draw more
inferences than they could from mental models constructed from text or still pictures.(38) As we have already noted, such structures are more memorable than those constructed with text(39) and rely less on information in students' heads(40) which is likely to be incomplete or inaccurate for students with limited prior knowledge. The video also preempts demands on reading ability, allowing students who have not yet automated their reading skills to focus their cognitive resources on the problem-solving task. Second, the videodisc contains a great deal of information crucial to the solution of the problem: information about distances, available money, and other relevant conditions is embedded in objects and maps and in what people say, do, and think as the story is enacted. The random access capabilities of the computer-controlled videodisc allow students to pause, review, and search for information they may have missed or forgotten. Identifying needed information and extricating it from a context is an important component of learning to solve problems, and the ability to do so contributes to successful transfer and performance in actual situations. Finally, and most important, the visual and social nature of the story, as presented in this environment, is likely to activate relevant prior knowledge that students can use to solve the problem. Further, because of the scope of detail and relationships the environment provides, students are likely to find many ways to connect their new learning to their existing representations. 'This, in turn, increases the likelihood that similar situations will evoke the appropriate solution procedures in the future. Over time and similar experiences, these learned strategies will become connected to a range of mental representations, promoting transfer of the strategies to a variety of problem situations. As a distinct type of multimedia, hypermedia shares the technology and symbol systems of interactive video environments but embodies processing capabilities that suggest an important difference for learning. The nonlinearity of hypermediathat is, the capability of this technology to allow learners to create associational links within and across text, images, and other symbol systems facilitates cognitive flexibility because it allows a topic to be explored in multiple ways using a number of different concepts and themes.(42) This exploration should result in the development of integrated, flexible knowledge structures interconnected by crisscrossing conceptual themes that facilitate the use of this knowledge to solve a wide range of problems. Each concept can subsequently be used in many different ways, and the same concept can apply to a variety of situations. Some hypermedia systems allow learners to add their own information and construct their own relationships. As Gavriel Salomon points out, such systems can reflect the processes learners use when constructing interrelationships in their own mental models and thus encourage them to think not only about ideas but about how they are interrelated and structured.( More important, such systems can provide explicit models of information representation that learners can use as guidelines for constructing their own internal models. While there has been only limited research in hypermedia to date, preliminary findings are encouraging.Despite the appeal of hypermedia, however, it is important to note some potential disadvantages for learning as well. In hypermedia environments, users are frequently required to decide what information to select and in what order; building such sequences is likely to be particularly difficult for novices, who lack the extensive and well-organized mental representations that would allow them to locate appropriate information and integrate it with their prior knowledge,
experience, and opinions. Getting "lost in hyperspace" and failing to find or recognize relevant information are other potential problems, particularly for novices, as is spending inordinate time and cognitive energy processing information that is not relevant to their purposes. In summary, the technology of integrated multimedia environments brings together the symbolic and processing capabilities of all the various media described above. Interactive videodisc environments may help learners build and analyze mental models of problem situations, while hypermedia environments may help learners build links across information presented by different symbol systems and construct meaning based on these links. Plausible rationales have been given for the expected effectiveness of such environments, but much more research is needed to understandlet alone forge the relationships that proponents of these environments hypothesize.
ConclusionThis is an era of satellite televisions, internet connectivity, and mobile telephony.To summarize, media can help stabilize and strengthen the country by playing educational and informative role and by imparting knowledge to the masses as knowledge is power and only a well-informed society can develop a positive approach towards fife. The objective of media freedom can be realized only when public trust and confidence reposed in the media is respected and protected by the media itself by acting as a true watchdog, keeping an eye on the government on behalf of the public. The role of the media thus is the pursuit of truth, to constantly transmit the reality and uncover the beneath and the underlying facts of things, develop a just society that will abide by the rule of law and govern by the ethics of human rights, develop & encourage the idea of world citizenship. Changing the mentality of the people to be more permissive, understanding and educative is of course a very difficult task for human rights workers and civil society members, however it is for these groups to bring to the surface societal evils that hinder the development and the growth of our society in a peaceful environment, making modifications and changes within our systems. It is for the media to remind constantly to the ruling powers their role of governing the world justly and fairly, as they have the privilege & the opportunity to make history by creating world order and a global society with universal human rights values and the rule of democracy. Freedom of conscience, of education, of speech, of assembly, is among the very fundamentals of democracy and all of them would be nullified if freedom of the press be successfully challenged, maintained US president Roosevelt.
In sum, media works in innumerable ways in our society. It serves as a tool for news, promotion, and information. It is one gigantic factor in our environment that
influences decisions and acts to inspire our youth. Lastly, people must be vigilant to minimize if not avoid the negative influences in media by being responsible towards one self and others especially the youth who are the easy targets by the media.
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