Enforcing punishment

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  • 1. A presentation on Operant Conditioning

2. * What does it mean?* Positive Reinforcement* Negative Reinforcement* Positive Punishment* Negative Punishment* Working Together * 3. * 4. * Hearing how punishment can be positive or how reinforcement can be negative might sound a bit confusing, but once it is broken down, you can see how it all works together. This presentation will explain how each combination of positive and negative with reinforcement or punishment.* 5. * 6. * 7. * Positive Reinforcement is one of the better known forms of Operant Conditioning because many people do it instinctively. Each time you congratulate someone or tell them thank you, you are using Positive Reinforcement. Positive Reinforcement is the act of adding stimuli to attempt to increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.* 8. * Telling someone Good Job* Rewarding a child for behaving by giving them a treat* Petting a dog for obeying a command* Giving a good worker a raise* 9. * 10. * Negative Reinforcement is the oddball of the four, which is the act of removing a stimulus to try to increase the likelihood of an action or behavior being repeated in the future. Typically, these refer to methods of removing pain or discomfort. They may seem odd, but the following examples may help to explain it. * 11. * Rewarding a child asking politely for the Television to be turned down by doing so* Applying a heated patch to a sore muscle* Having your hair cut when it becomes so long it obscures your vision* Taking medicine to relieve a headache* 12. * 13. * Punishment, contrary to Reinforcement, seeks to decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Positive Punishment seeks to do so by adding unpleasant stimuli to try to decrease the likelihood of an action being repeated. Most people have probably experienced this as a child, but here are some examples just in case. * 14. * Spanking a child for screaming at their parents* Scolding an employee for not performing their job well enough* Giving additional chores to a teenager who routinely skips curfew* 15. * 16. * Anyone whos been grounded can tell you that Negative Punishment is not fun. Negative Punishment seeks to remove stimuli in an attempt to decrease the chance of a certain behavior being repeated and, depending on the stimulus removed, can prove extremely effective. * 17. * Revoking Internet privileges from a child* Reducing a bad workers paycheck* Expelling a trouble making student* Pointedly ignoring someone who is being annoying * 18. * 19. * Now, one may think that it would be best to stick to one form Operant Conditioning, such as only Negative Reinforcement, but when attempting more complex behavioral modifications, youll often find that it isnt enough, especially when attempting to teach a behavior that the individual does not initially wish to do. This is because, sometimes, the cost of the behavior is not worth the reward of the Reinforcement or avoiding the Punishment. Here is an example of a situation that many parents can find themselves in.* 20. * The couples teenage child is getting bad grades in school* The childs teachers regularly give tests* The parents want to use a form of Operant Conditioning to try to improve their childs study habits* For sake of the example, lets say the child has is looking forward to a game that is coming out soon* 21. * Lets assume at first the parents decide to try using Positive Reinforcement. The parents might try giving the child extra money for getting good grades on his tests. Now this would likely work well at first, since he would want the extra money for the game. However, once he has the game, the motivation of the extra money, the reward, may not be worth the time spent studying for the tests, the cost. * 22. * Now, lets assume they instead decide to try Negative Punishment. The parents tell the child that unless he begins making better grades, they will take away his video games. This will work just after his new game comes out because he will want to play it, but once he beats the game, the motivation of getting to play his video games may not work as well, possibly causing him to slack off the studies for other activities, such as going to the movies. * 23. * Clearly, Punishment and Reinforcement have limits to how well they preform alone. Now, picture how it might work if they used both of the previous methods together. Before getting the game, he would be motivated by the promise of extra money. After getting it, he would be motivated by the desire to not loose the game. Since new games routinely come out, this cycle would likely continue to work for some time. Though they can work apart, Punishment and Reinforcement work best together.* 24. * Psychsmart by McGraw-Hill* ITELECOM Intelligent Telecommunicationss Youtube Channel* Wikipedia*