Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): Adapts speed...

download Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): Adapts speed based

of 25

  • date post

    11-Jul-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): Adapts speed...

  • AVL List GmbH (Headquarters)

    Public

    Energy-Efficient Cooperative

    Adaptive Cruise Control Dr. Stephen J. Jones, AVL List GmbH stephen.jones@avl.com +43 664 850 9172

    N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla, R. Patil, E. Kural, A. Massoner, AVL List GmbH

    A. Grauers, Chalmers University of Technology

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 2Public

    Energy-Efficient CACC Contents

    1. Introduction to Predictive Energy Management

    2. Traffic Light Assistant

    3. Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

    a) Problem Overview

    b) Model Predictive Control

    c) Results

    4. Summary & Conclusion

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 3Public

    Introduction 4 Pillars of ADAS/AD Engineering Services

    Trusted Engineering Service Provider & Development Partner at ADAS & Autonomous Driving with long term references at several OEMs

    System Design system engineering,

    use & test cases, architecture, component & function

    specification

    Tailored Control & SW Development

    concept & series development customer features, modification/

    adaptation

    Advanced Predictive Functions improving vehicle attributes e.g. energy or fuel efficiency

    Calibration, Testing & Validation

    derivative integration, optimization & assessment, testing from lab, XiL to road

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 4Public

    Introduction Market Drivers / Customer Requirements

    ▪ Accident free driving active safety functions e.g. emergency braking, lane keeping assistant

    ▪ Driver relief & comfort functions e.g. parking assistant, adaptive cruise control

    ▪ Connectivity e.g. smart phone interaction, real time traffic information, V2X, cloud computing

    ▪ Fuel/energy efficiency e.g. EV driving range, Fuel saving by predictive functions & platooning

    ▪ Operating cost: Driver substitution as TCO argument at mainly transport & shared mobility business

    Key importance

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 6Public

    Introduction Predictive Energy Management Leveraging ADAS Data

    PREDICTIVE CHARGING TRAFFIC LIGHT

    ASSISTANT

    PREDICTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT

    PREDICTIVE ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL

    ECO ROUTING

    COASTING ASSISTANT

    Sources: www, AVL

    PREDICTIVE GEARSHIFT

    ADAS/AD HMI

    CONNECTED

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 7Public

    Energy-Efficient CACC Contents

    1. Introduction to Predictive Energy Management

    2. Traffic Light Assistant

    3. Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

    a) Problem Overview

    b) Model Predictive Control

    c) Results

    4. Summary & Conclusion

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 8Public

    Market Example: TLA Audi

    • Audi announces first V2I service in 10 US cities (as of 19/11/18) with Traffic Light information system. System available in 2017 on Q7, A4 & A4 Allroad.

    • Current system: Real-time communication with city’s traffic management system, displays traffic light status (red/orange/green) & “time-to-green”.

    • Future dvpt: integration of system with start/stop function, Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA), optimized navigation routing & other predictive services.

    https://media.audiusa.com/en-us/releases/241#gallery

    https://media.audiusa.com/en-us/releases/92https://www.audi-mediacenter.com/en/audimediatv/video/audi-connect-online-traffic-light- information-2543

    https://media.audiusa.com/en-us/releases/241#gallery https://media.audiusa.com/en-us/releases/92 https://www.audi-mediacenter.com/en/audimediatv/video/audi-connect-online-traffic-light-information-2543

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 11Public

    Market Example: TLA Jaguar Land Rover

    • GLOSA (Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory) system: V2X communication with traffic lights to advise driver of optimal approach speed to avoid having to stop at traffic light junctions.

    • “Prevents drivers from racing to beat lights & improves air quality by reducing harsh acceleration or braking near lights.”

    • Trials on Jaguar F-Pace.

    • Works in conjunction with other ADAS: Adaptive Cruise Control, Intersection Collision Warning.

    https://media.jaguarlandrover.com/news/2018/11/jaguar-land-rover-gets-green-light-solve-150-year-old-problem?q=&start=0&brand=corporate

    https://media.jaguarlandrover.com/news/2018/11/jaguar-land-rover-gets-green-light-solve-150-year-old-problem?q=&start=0&brand=corporate

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 13Public

    ▪ Uses V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) data to intelligently approach multiple Traffic Light (TL): • Goal to find most energy efficient velocity.

    ▪ Model Predictive Control (MPC) formulation: • Receding horizon approach. • Real-time optimization by cost function minimization & constraints.

    Traffic Light Assistant (TLA) AVL’s TLA Visualized

    C2I

    Communication

    Digital Map

    GPS Navigation

    System

    Electronic

    Horizon

    Recommended cruising speed

    Vo=

    40km/h

    Optimal speed profile

    System

    activation

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 14Public

    Energy Savings*

    Time Savings*

    17% 3.8%

    Battery SoC as metric of EV energy savings

    Traffic Light Assistant Results of AVL’s 1st Gen. TLA for 4WD EV in 2013

    * Depends on test case, baseline, etc.

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 15Public

    Energy-Efficient CACC Contents

    1. Introduction to Predictive Energy Management

    2. Traffic Light Assistant

    3. Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

    a) Problem Overview

    b) Model Predictive Control

    c) Results

    4. Summary & Conclusion

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 16Public

    Energy-Efficient CACC Contents

    1. Introduction to Predictive Energy Management

    2. Traffic Light Assistant

    3. Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

    a) Problem Overview

    b) Model Predictive Control

    c) Results

    4. Summary & Conclusion

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 17Public

    Energy-Efficient CACC – Problem Overview What is Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control?

    Cruise Control (CC): Longitudinal speed control with set speed defined by human driver.

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): Adapts speed based on distance to & speed of preceding vehicle, e.g.

    measured using on-board sensors such as RADAR or Camera.

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC): ACC extension supported by communication with

    surrounding traffic & infrastructure, possibly also other off-board data sources e.g. cyclists, pedestrians.

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

    Ego vehicle Preceding

    vehicle(s)

    Cruise Control (CC)

    Ego vehicle

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC)

    Ego vehicle Preceding

    vehicle(s) Infrastructure

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 18Public

    Energy-Efficient CACC – Problem Overview Inputs & Constraints

    Ego vehicle Preceding vehicles

    … …

    Following vehicle

    Infrastructure-to-vehicle

    (I2V)

    Radar

    Traffic light

    1

    Traffic light

    2

    Vehicle-to-Vehicle

    (V2V)

    V2V / I2V

    Vehicle following known path

    Route contains altitude, curvature, traffic lights, ...

    Includes time-dependent constraints such as traffic

    light signal phases

    Holistic approach needed!

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikström, A. Ferreira Parrilla | DS | 28 February 2019 | 19Public

    Energy-Efficient CACC – Problem Overview Approach

    ▪ Holistic & full range predictive speed control strategy (CACC) including ego-vehicle & its static

    & dynamic powertrain characteristics, uses V2X derived RT traffic, infrastructure & route data.

    ▪ Optimizes in real-time trade-off between energy efficiency, driver comfort & safety.

    Velocity 𝒗

    Acceleration 𝒂

    Powertrain Model

    Gear 𝑮

    Road Inclination 𝜽

    Ego Vehicle Preceding Vehicle

    V2X (Vehicle to Anything)

    On-Board Sensors

    (e.g. radar)

    Traffic Light

    Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V)

    Energy savings up to 30%*

    Energy Consumption Map computed Online in real-time Optimization

    Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I)

    Inertia, Drag, Rolling Res., Gravity

    * Depends on test case, baseline, etc.

  • Stephen Jones, N. Wikstr