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  • 1. Basin Analysis and Petroleum ExplorationENCHDr. Barry McNamaraSept 14 to Dec 7 2005

2. 2Topics for Week 1Course overviewoscope, expectations, format, grades, projects, examsInstructor and students: backgroundBasin analysisosedimentary basinsowhat is basin analysisTools of the geoscientistoplate tectonics, sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphyPetroleum systemopetroleum charge, migration, entrapmentExploration engineers and basin analysisReading material 3. 3Course Schedule and ContentClassTopicSept 14Week 1Introduction to Course and MaterialReview and discussion of conceptsSept 21Week 2Example of basin analysis: Gulf of Suez Rift BasinBasins I: description of basins, plate tectonics, basin classification andtectonic settingSept 28Week 3Basins II: basin classification (continued), basin models of subsidenceand sedimentationOct 5Week 4Basin Fill I: Stratigraphy and sedimentology; tools used, dating andcorrelationOct 12Week 5Basin Fill II: Facies models, basin mapping; sequence stratigraphyOct 19Week 6Basin Fill III: Sequence stratigraphy (continued), seismic stratigraphyOct 26Week 7Due Today: Selection of basin/petroleum system for main classprojectBasins III: Regional and global stratigraphic cyclesNov 2Week 8Mid Term Exam (tentative) Review selected basin exampleNov 9Week 9Petroleum System I: The petroleum systemNov 16Week 10Student seminarsPetroleum System II: Field size distribution, play conceptsNov 23Week 11Student seminarsSelected geologic topic: Carbonate models: basin fill and sequencestratigraphyNov 30Week 12Student seminarsCarbonate models (continued): sequence stratigraphy, reservoirdevelopmentDec 7Week 13Student seminarsBasin modeling software demonstration 4. 4Format of CourseLecture to cover most material you will see in Basin Analysis: will review material from textbook (Miall, 2000) as well as selected reading material from reference texts and assigned reading.Cover some basin examples to illustrate concepts you will see and report on in your research project.Students may be asked to discuss some of their work on their research paper as it pertains to lecture material. 5. 5Course DescriptionThe course is designed to provide a framework for understanding the geologic description of sedimentary basins, within the context of petroleum systems, with application to exploration for petroleum reservoirs. Course lectures and reading material will cover: classification of sedimentary basins and their plate tectonic settings; mechanism of subsidence and thermal history of sedimentary basins; geological and geophysical methods of basin mapping; depositional systems, basin fill and facies models; thermal maturity of source rocks; generation and migration of hydrocarbons; controls on reservoir quality in clastic and carbonate rocks; petroleum resource assessment and play concepts on basin scale. 6. 6Course Objectivesto present the concepts of Basin Analysis to exploration engineersto place Basin Analysis within the framework of tools and concepts for petroleum exploration that are in use by exploration geoscientiststo prepare exploration engineers to communicate with geoscientists to improve the decision making process in evaluating basins for petroleum explorationIndependent study of selected basins to become more familiar with basin analysis 7. 7Level of DetailTopics covered at a level sufficient to:introduce or review geoscience subjects at a level appropriate for exploration engineersincrease awareness of types of geoscience information available to describe the exploration potential of petroleum systems within a sedimentary basinemphasize the role of the exploration engineer in contributing to the exploration process of Basin Analysis 8. 8Grading of WorkExaminations:There will be one mid-term examination. The examination will be closed book. Late October/early November.Final Grades:The final grade will be determined on the basis of:Mid term exam30%Basin analysis project50%presentation: 10%written report 40%Classroom work20%Project due on Dec 14; no late projects accepted 9. 9Independent WorkA written research report (including references), and presentation of report to class by each student, will be required on a specific basin. Basin will be selected by student with approval of instructor. Reports and presentations will be marked for final grades. Format of report will follow a basin analysis.Students will be expected to participate in class discussions, to discuss the basin project they are working on as it relates to topics being covered in class, and to present interim reports on their basin analysis project as required.Readings (books, journal articles) will be assigned each week as required. 10. 10Other MaterialsReference MaterialAllen, P.A., and Allen, J.R., 1990. Basin Analysis: Principles and Applications, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 451pC. J. Busby and R. V. Ingersoll, editors, 1995. Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins, Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, 579 p.Einsele, G., 2000. Sedimentary Basins: Evolution, Facies, and Sediment Budget, 792 p.Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., 1984.Petroleum Formation and OccurrenceUseful WebsitesUSGS: This Dynamic Earth: the Story of Plate Tectonicshttp://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.htmlUSC Sequence Stratigraphy Webhttp://strata.geol.sc.edu/index.htmlUSGS: The Earths Crusthttp://quake.wr.usgs.gov/research/structure/CrustalStructureUSGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000.http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-060/index.html 11. 11InstructorDr. Barry McNamaraEducation:oBSc (84) St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova ScotiaoMSc (89), PhD (95), Reservoir Geology, University of CalgarySenior exploration geologist, Innova ExplorationoActively working to find oil and gasWork experience: Chevron, Gulf Canada, Santos, Baytex, Vintage Petroleum, Innova Exploration; Canada and AustraliaWork experience as geologist and reservoir engineer 12. 12What is Basin AnalysisBasin analysis involves making an interpretation of the formation, evolution, architecture and fill of a sedimentary basin by examining geological variables associated with the basin.Basin analysis provides a foundation for extrapolating known information into unknown regions in order to predict the nature of the basin where evidence is not available.A basin model is built on a framework of geological surfaces that are correlated within the basin. This stratigraphic framework can be expressed in terms of rock type (lithostratigraphy), fossil content (biostratigraphy), age (chronostratigraphy), or rock properties such as seismic velocity (seismic stratigraphy). 13. 13 14. 14Sedimentary BasinsSedimentary Basin: A depression in the crust of the Earth in which sediments accumulate. Formed by plate tectonic activity. Continued deposition can cause further depression or subsidence.If rich hydrocarbon source rocks occur in combination with appropriate depth and duration of burial, hydrocarbon generation can occur within the basin.approx 575 sedimentary basins identified worldwideapprox 215 known productiveapprox 360 non-productive 15. 15onshore (green) and offshore (purple)Worldwide distribution of sedimentary basins 16. 16USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000Assessed 76 geologic provinces containing 95% of non-US known petroleum reserves 17. 17Importance of Basin AnalysisOil and gas exploration is all about finding economically productive hydrocarbons. Better understanding of sedimentary basins through Basin Analysis will improve decision making for exploration projectsNew (immature, undrilled) basins can have a systematic treatment for assessment of exploration potentialRe-look at mature basins to provide new exploration targetsRequired integration of geoscientists and engineers can produce new ideas, better decisionsThe classification of basins does little to improve our hydrocarbon volume forecasting ability. (Bally and Snelson, 1980) 18. 18(Mann et al, 2001)Classification of tectonic setting of giant oil fields 19. 19Remaining Reserves of Crude Oil by Basin 20. 20World Endowment of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and NGL Liquids(Source: USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000)Note significant reserves to be added through reserve growth in established play areas and petroleum systems. 21. 21Geoscience Effort in Basin AnalysisBasin analysis for exploration can be described as the integration of the following 3 componentsControls on development of the sedimentary basinplate tectonic and paleogeographic historyStratigraphy and sedimentology of the basinbasin fillThe petroleum systemsource, maturity, migration, trap, sealSignificant geoscience effort is required to prepare each of these components of the basin analysis; multidisciplinary approach 22. 22Controls on Development of the Sedimentary Basinplate tectonic settings of basin formationbasin morphology over timelatitude of the basingeothermal gradients and heat flow profilestools in use:ogeophysical tools: seismic, gravity and magneticsointerpretation of seismic dataopalinspastic restoration of balanced restored cross sectionsosurface geologyodepositional and erosional analysis 23. 23Plate Tectonics: Review of Earth Structure(from USGS website) 24. 24Convection Engine Driving Plate Tectonics(http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/DisplayImage.cfm?ID=154) 25. 25Thickness of Crust(http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/research/structure/CrustalStructure/) 26. 26Lithospheric Plates(http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/slabs.html) 27. 27Convergent Boundary(http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/understanding.html#anchor6715825) 28. 28Specifics of Basin Fillsequence stratigraphystratigraphic interpretation, geologic timemegasequences, major unconformitiesfacies modelsbasin wide chronostratigraphic frameworktie to seismic markers 29. 29 30. 30Seismic Facies and Reservoir Architecture(Fugelli and Olsen, 2005) 31. 31Global Sea Level