Emotions moods and_stress

Emotions, Moods and Stress

Transcript of Emotions moods and_stress

Page 1: Emotions moods and_stress

Emotions, Moods and Stress

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Why Were Emotions Ignored in OB?

• The “Myth of Rationality”– Emotions were seen as irrational– Managers worked to make emotion-

free environments

• View of Emotionality– Emotions were believed to be

disruptive– Emotions interfered with productivity– Only negative emotions were


• Now it has been accepted that emotions can’t be separated from the workplace

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What are Emotions and Moods?

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The Basic Emotions• While not universally accepted, there appear

to be six basic emotions:1. Anger

2. Fear

3. Sadness

4. Happiness

5. Disgust

6. Surprise

• All other emotions are subsumed under these six

• May even be placed in a spectrum of emotion:– Happiness – surprise – fear – sadness – anger -


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Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect

• Emotions cannot be neutral.

• Emotions (“markers”) are grouped into general mood states.

• Mood states affect perception and therefore perceived reality.

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What Is the Function of Emotion?

• Do Emotions Make Us Irrational?– Expressing emotions publicly may be damaging

to social status– Emotions are critical to rational decision-making– Emotions help us understand the world around


• What Functions Do Emotions Serve?– Darwin argued they help in survival problem-

solving– Evolutionary psychology: people must experience

emotions as there is a purpose behind them– Not all researchers agree with this assessment

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Sources of Emotion and Mood• Personality

– There is a trait component – affect intensity

• Day and Time of the Week

– There is a common pattern for all of us

• Happier in the midpoint of the daily awake period

• Happier toward the end of the week

• Weather

– Illusory correlation – no effect

• Stress

– Even low levels of constant stress can worsen moods

• Social Activities

– Physical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods

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More Sources of Emotion and Mood

• Sleep – Poor sleep quality increases negative affect

• Exercise– Does somewhat improve mood, especially for

depressed people

• Age– Older folks experience fewer negative emotions

• Gender– Women tend to be more emotionally expressive,

feel emotions more intensely, have longer-lasting moods, and express emotions more frequently than do men

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Emotional Labor- An employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work- people striving to ensure display of appropriate emotions.•Emotional Dissonance: Employees have to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another. Can be very damaging, cause stress and lead to burnout•Types of Emotions:– Felt: the individual’s actual emotions– Displayed: required or appropriate emotions• Surface Acting: displaying appropriately but not feeling

those emotions internally • Deep Acting: changing internal feelings to match display

rules - very stressful

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• BURNOUT- is a state of emotional, mental, and physical

exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. Occurs when a person feels overwhelmed and unable to meet constant demands. As the stress continues, one begins to lose interest or motivation that can lead one to take on a certain role.

• Reduces productivity and saps energy, leaves a person feeling

increasingly helpless, hopeless, cynical, and resentful. Eventually,

the person may feel like they have nothing more to give.

• More common than depression, almost exclusively associated

with work-related stressors

• Symptoms include

– Emotional and physical exhaustion

– Disturbed sleep

– Absence of any positive feelings about work

– futility

– A cynical perspective associated with work

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The Development of Burnout (from Cordes & Dougherty, 1993)

STRESSORS ORIGINATING IN THE INDIVIDUAL• high expectations of achievement• high expectations of the organisation• high involvement in job


DEPERSONALISATIONCallousness towards and withdrawal

from colleagues and clients


BURNOUT SYMPTOMS• frustration• physical exhaustion• negative feelings about job• feelings of helplessness and futility• cynicism about work• withdrawal from social interaction

STRESSORS ORIGINATING IN THE ORGANISATION• role overload• role conflict• necessity for frequent interpersonalinteractions with clients

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Affective Events Theory (AET)

• An event in the work environment triggers positive or negative emotional reactions

– Personality and mood determine response intensity

– Emotions can influence a broad range of work variables

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Implications of AET

1. An emotional episode is actually the result of a series of emotional experiences triggered by a single event

2. Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction

3. Emotional fluctuations over time create variations in job performance

4. Emotion-driven behaviors are typically brief and variable

5. Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance

• Emotions provide valuable insights about behavior

• Emotions, and the minor events that cause them, should not be ignored at work: they accumulate

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Emotional Intelligence (EI)

• A person’s ability to:– Be self-aware

• Recognizing own emotions when experienced

– Detect emotions in others– Manage emotional cues and information

• EI plays an important role in job performance• EI is controversial and not wholly accepted

– Case for EI:• Intuitive appeal; predicts criteria that matter; is


– Case against EI:• Too vague a concept; can’t be measured; its validity is



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Definition Hallmark

Self Awareness

The ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions and drives as well as their effects on others


Realistic Self development

Self-deprecating sense of humor


The ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods. The propensity to suspend judgment to think before acting

Trustworthiness & integrity

Comfort with ambiguity

Openness to change


A passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status

The propensity to suspend judgement –to think before acting

Strong drive to achieve

Optimism, even in the face of failure

Organizational commitment


The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people

Skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions

Expertise in building and retaining talent

Cross-cultural sensitivity

Service to clients and customers

Social Skills

Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks

An ability to find common group & build rapport

Effectiveness in leading change


Expertise in building & leading teams

Components of Emotional Intelligence

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How then can one improve Emotional intelligence?

• Pay attention to self and other’s body language

• Listen more; speak less- develops empathy

• Get curious, not furious- Watch what you say especially when frustrated or annoyed. Reframe negative emotions into curiosity - " ... this makes absolutely no sense to me" can be replaced with, "Do you see something in this that I must be missing”

• Elicit pride in others – Reason for working together

• Remember that emotions are contagious - A dominant person's emotions (negative or positive) always influences others. Leaders should be careful to show only those emotions, which they want to see in others

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OB Applications of Emotions and Moods

• Selection– EI should be a hiring factor, especially for social

jobs. • Decision Making

– Positive emotions can lead to better decisions.• Creativity

– Positive mood increases flexibility, openness, and creativity.

• Motivation– Positive mood affects expectations of success;

feedback amplifies this effect.• Leadership

– Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.

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More OB Applications of Emotions and Moods

• Negotiation – Emotions, skillfully displayed, can affect negotiations

• Customer Services– Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers

which, in turn, affects customer relationships– Emotional Contagion: “catching” emotions from others

• Job Attitudes– Can carry over to home, but dissipate overnight

• Deviant Workplace Behaviors– Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions

that violate norms and threaten the organization)

• Manager’s Influence– Leaders who are in a good mood, use humor, and praise

employees increase positive moods in the workplace.

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Work Stress• Stress

– A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important

• Types of Stress– Challenge Stressors

• Stress associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency

– Hindrance Stressors• Stress that keeps you from reaching your goals, such

as red tape

• Cause greater harm than challenge stressors

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Demands-Resources Model of Stress

• Demands

– Responsibilities, pressures, obligations, and uncertainties in the workplace

• Resources

– Things within an individual’s control that can be used to resolve demands

• Adequate resources help reduce the stressful nature of demands

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Moderators of StressThese factors affect the way one experiences stress, how the person reacts to and deals with stress

• Personal Characteristics: –Self-efficacy: person’s belief in his or her ability to act in a certain way (to adapt to change)–Hardiness: psychological characteristics like commitment, challenge and control that help a person withstand the effects of stress–Negative Affectivity: a tendency to focus strongly on the negative aspects of work and life

• Lifestyle: Type A and Type B behaviours

• Social Support: emotional support received through interaction with other people

• Appraisal of Stress: a person’s perception of a stressor

• Life Events: significant changes at work or outside that people undergo

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A Model of Stress

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Consequences of Stress

• Stressors are additive: high levels of stress can lead to the following symptoms– Physiological

• Blood pressure, headaches, stroke

– Psychological • Dissatisfaction, tension, anxiety, irritability,

boredom, and procrastination

• Greatest when roles are unclear in the presence of conflicting demands

– Behavioral• Changes in job behaviors, increased smoking or

drinking, different eating habits, rapid speech, fidgeting, sleep disorders

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Not All Stress Is Bad

• Some level of stress can increase productivity

• Too little or too much stress will reduce performance

• This model is not empirically supported

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Coping with stress

• Emotion-focussed: reaction to the situation by attempting to remove or lower its emotional effects without actually trying to do anything about the situation itself

• Problem-focussed: action on the situation by attempting to tackle the stressors behind the problem and thereby attempting to change the situation

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Managing Stress• Individual Approaches

– Implementing time management

– Increasing physical exercise

– Relaxation training

– Expanding social support network

• Organizational Approaches

– Improved personnel selection and job placement

– Training

– Use of realistic goal setting

– Redesigning of jobs

– Increased employee involvement

– Improved organizational communication

– Offering employee sabbaticals

– Establishment of corporate wellness programs

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• Employee Assistance Program (EAP)-provide employees with

assistance for various personal problems (e.g., substance abuse,

career planning, family, financial and legal problems etc.)

Techniques used in EAP include individual level initiatives offered

to employees such as counselling & consulting services, mostly

through a consultant

• Wellness Programs- focus on an employee’s total physical and

mental conditions.

• Areas covered include workshops to quit smoking, control alcohol

use, develop a regular exercise programme, nutrition etc.

• A study of eight Canadian organisations found that every dollar

spent on their wellness programmes generated a return of $ 1.64;

and for high-risk employees like smokers, the return was nearly $ 4

(Brown, 2001)

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Summary and Managerial Implications

• Emotions and moods impact all areas of OB

• Managers must not ignore the emotions of their co-workers and employees

• Behavior predictions will be less accurate if emotions are not taken into account

• Stress can be good or bad for employees

• Despite possible improvements in job performance caused by stress, such improvements come at the cost of increased job dissatisfaction

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EI is being seen as an excellent medium to enhance the environment, culture, leadership and team dynamic within an organization.

You can buy people’s time; you can buy their physical presence at a given place; you can even buy a measured

number of muscular motions per hour. But you cannot buy enthusiasm…you cannot buy loyalty…you cannot buy the

devotion of their hearts. This you must earn!!

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For your time and attention.