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Special Considerations in Teaching Speaking and Listening.

Transcript of Eesl542 d group 1_special considerations in teaching speaking and listening

Transactional speach

Special Considerations in Teaching Listening and SpeakingDaniel BurrelIan CaldonJisook YunRenae BettenBarbara Barrera (TBA)Presentation Content:Language Accuracy and Transactional Speech.

Speaking with Stress and Intonation.

Listening for Stress and Intonation.

Listening for Comprehension.

Language accuracy and Transactional speechWhy accuracy in language is important?Students are communicating in transactional speech where the focus is on what is said or done.The message is the central focus in this type of speech.It is important to communicate this type of speech accurately.

Two types of transactional speechGiving and ReceivingFocus is on what is primarily saidAccuracy not always a priorityIf information is communicated successfullyIf information is understoodAsking for directions is an example of this type of speech

Obtaining Goods and ServicesFocus is on what is primarily saidAccuracy is importantInformation needs to be communicated successfullyInformation needs to be understoodChecking into a hotel or ordering food is an example of this type of speech

Strategies for Language AccuracyPre-teaching certain linguistic forms to be used while completing the taskMaking the task adequate for the students level in L2Managing anxiety level by allowing plenty of time for the task to be completedReinforcing the linguistic forms by repeating the taskLow-level students and Communication TasksOften rely on lexicalized systemDependent on vocabularyUse memorized chunks of languageUse both verbal and non-verbal communication strategies

Willis (1966) suggests using a cycle of activities, creating interaction that is mediated by a task and then building language awareness and language development around task performance. This can be divide into three areas:Area 1: Pretask activities

Introduction to topic and taskT helps Ss to understand the theme and objectives of the taskSs may do a pre-taskSs can be given preparation time to think about how to do the taskSs can hear a recording of a parallel task being doneIf the task is based on a text, Ss read a part of it

Area 2: The task cycle

Task.The task is done by Ss (in pairs or groups), giving Ss chance to use whatever language they already know.T walks around and monitors, encouraging Ss.T helps Ss to formulate what they want to say, but will not intervene to correct errors of form.The emphasis is on spontaneous talk and confidence building.Success in achieving the goals of the task help Ss motivation.Planning.Planning prepares for the next stage where Ss are to report briefly to the whole class.Ss draft and rehearse what they want to say or write.T goes around to advise Ss on language by making suggestions.If reports are in writing, T encourages peer editing and the use of dictionaries.The emphasis is on clarity, organization and accuracy.Individual Ss take this chance to inquire about specific language items.Report.T asks some pairs to report briefly to class in order to compare findings.T chairs, comments on the content of their reports, rephrasing but not overtly correcting them publicly.

Area 3: The language focus

Analysis.T set some language-focused tasks, based on the texts or transcripts Ss read, for example:Finding words and phrases related to the topic.Finding words ending in s.Finding all words in the simple past form.T starts Ss off, then Ss continue, often in pairs.T goes round to help; Ss can ask individual questions.In plenary, then reviews the analysis, writing relevant language on the board.Practice.T conducts practice activities as needed, based on the language analysis work already on the board.Practice activities can include:Choral repetition of identified phrases.Memory challenge games.Sentence completion.Dictionary reference with words from text or transcript.SpeakingStress and IntonationTeaching Speaking with StressWhy is it a special consideration?The learner can speak with emotion and the meaning of their words clearly understood.

To communicate more effectively when speaking.

Teaching it, speakers can become more native in their pronunciation.Teaching Speaking with Stresstime spent helping students concentrate on rhythm and the major intonational road signs is more important than any other efforts to improve their pronunciation -Gilbert 1993

The basic features of rhythm have been identified as syllable length, stressed syllables, full and reduced vowels, pause, linking and blending sounds between words, and how words are made prominent by accenting syllables andsimultaneously lengthening syllables -Wong 1987Using Stress in SpeakingHow do you know when someone sounds bored, excited, sarcastic or sad?Its in the stress they use when speaking.

These sound patterns add meaning to words in English.

The pitch can rise & fall or sometimes remain flat.

The stress can be louder than other parts of a word.

The stress can be held longer in parts of a word.

Speaking of...English wordsStress is a focused soundPronouncing words using stress communicates its meaning and the speakers emotions.For Example:You need a piece of gum. (held flat tone)sarcastic tone indicating bad breath

You need a piece of gum? (raised intone)offering to share

You need a piece of gum! (raised intone)sales pitch with urgency

For example:It changes the meaning of a word.

For example, read the words below and stress the underlined syllable with a raised pitch:EnvelopeEnvelope

Stress Changes the Part of Speech

The Word: Record

Verb I need to record myself

Noun I bought a record

Teach the connection of Stress, Syllables and RhythmEvery word in English has one or more syllables.1. Teach the syllable patterns in chunks.

2. Teach the stressed sounds in sentence patterns.

3. Teach the rhythm patterns.

Teaching the Rhythm of syllablesThe features of rhythm:1. Lengthening and shortening of stressed syllables and words in meaningful units or chunks.

2. Linking and blending of segments between words.

3. Weakening of unstressed vowels.

Pronunciation of final consonants and consonant clusters will be easier to teach after having a certain control of rhythmic patterns.

From Special considerations-Pronunciation

Teaching the Use of StressIt takes time to manage stressed sounds.Students can:Ask someone to listen while they practice using stress.

Read sentences aloud and try to pick out the stressed sounds.

Listen to the words that other native speakers stress.

Listening Component on:Intonation & Stress

Special ConsiderationUnlike languages that are syllabic, English is a STRESSED language.

Languages and Difference in ArticulationSyllables in other languages.

English: Content WordsNouns

Principles Verbs


AdverbsEnglish: Function WordsUnstressed words


Auxiliary Words


ConjunctionsPedagogical ImplicationsTeaching TESOL

What do TESOL teachers do?

How do we deal with this as TESOL teachers?Teach L1 learners that stressed words are CONTENT words

How do we deal with this as teachers?Teach L1 learners that non-stressed words are FUNCTION words

How do we deal with this as TESOL teachers?Have students practice their listening skills by concentrating on the STRESSED words in conversations

ExampleFor assessing listening skillsGerman priestMartin Luther

SummaryEnglish stressed languageTeach students Content wordsTeach students strategies for identifying content words

Listening - Comprehension

Some students are visual learners. So they have difficulty in understanding a listening script because they cant see the words.

Students could not catch important information because they dont know proper strategies.

It is hard for students to grasp the topic Because students sometimes have no idea about it.Why Listening Comprehension is difficult?

Communication requires comprehension. When people make a conversation especially in person, they should know what the interlocutor is talking about. If not, it results in misunderstanding and miscommunication.

Listening comprehension is needed for speaking competency.- Learners cannot speak out about certain topics if they have never heard and understood about it.Why Listening Comprehension is important?1. Present visual materials

2. Teach listening strategy

3. Give background knowledge

Tips for Listening Comprehension

Give students a script with audio clip

Express what students listen to by doingex) pantomime, TPR

Visualize the listening with some worksheets.Example worksheet1

Tip1. Present visual materials

Students can know what strategy is appropriate depending on the type of listening by learning listening strategy.

Bottom-upDetail of the language input.Ex) Listen to sentences and identify sentence fillers such as: well, I mean, like, You know

Top-downGlobal understanding of spoken languageEx) Listen to a series of short conversations and for each one mark a picture that shows where the conversation took place

Tip2. Teach listening strategy

Give students Vocabulary Example worksheet2

Explain about the topicNutrients in foodTip3. Give background knowledgeConclusion:Special Considerations in Teaching:Listening for comprehensionListening for Stress and IntonationSpeaking with Stress and