East Pakistan

East Pakistan From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [hide ]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it the talk page . The neutrality of this article is disputed . (December 2013) This article's factual accuracy is disputed . (July 2013) This article needs additional citations for verification . (July 2013) Some or all of this article's listed sources may not be reliable East Pakistan পপপপপ পপপপপপপপপ ان ت س ک ا ی پ ق ر ش مFormer eastern wing of Pakistan 1955–1971 Flag Coat of arms Motto "Unity, Faith, Discipline" Anthem Pakistan Zindabad [citation needed ] Long Live Pakistan National anthem Qaumī Tarāna

Transcript of East Pakistan

Page 1: East Pakistan

East PakistanFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the

The neutrality of this article is disputed. (December 2013)

This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (July 2013)

This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2013)

Some or all of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. (July 2013)

East Pakistanপ�রব� প�কি�সতা�ন

پاکستان مشرقی

Former eastern wing of Pakistan

← 1955–1971  →

Flag Coat of arms


"Unity, Faith, Discipline"


Pakistan Zindabad[citation needed]

Long Live Pakistan

National anthem

Qaumī Tarāna

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Capital Dacca

Languages Bengali (official)




Religion Islam

Government Socialist state (1954–58)


republic (1960–69)


government (1969–71)




1960–1962 Azam Khan



1962–1969 Abdul Monem Khan



1969–1971 Syed Mohammad Ahsan



1971 Amir Abdullah Khan


Chief Minister

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1955–1956, 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar



1956–1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan




1955–1956 Amiruddin Ahmad



1956–1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq



1958–1960 Zakir Husain

Legislature Legislative Assembly

Historical era Cold War







Final settlement

22 November 1954



Bangladesh Liberation

War 26 March 1971



Indo-Pakistani War

3 December 1971




16 December 1971

Area 147,570 km² (56,977 sq


Currency Pakistani rupee

Today part of  Bangladesh

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This article is part of the series

Former administrative units of Pakistan

Original provinces[show]

Princely states [show]

One-unit provinces[show]

Other subdivisions[show]




Part of a series on the

History of Bangladesh



Classical antiquity[show]

Middle Ages[show]

Mughal Bengal[show]

Colonial Bengal[show]

Pakistan Era[show]

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 Bangladesh portal




East Pakistan (Bengali: প�রব� প�কি�সতা�ন Pūrbô Pākistān; Urdu:  پاکستان �Mas مشرقی hriqī Pākistān IPA: [məʃrɪqiː

pɑːkɪst)ɑːn]), present-dayBangladesh, was a provincial state of Pakistan that existed in the Bengal region of the

northeast of South Asia from 1955 until 1971, following the One Unit programme that laid the existence of East


In 1947, the region of Bengal under the British Empire was divided into East and West Bengal that separated

the eastern areas with a Muslimmajority from the western areas with a Hindu majority.[2] The partition of Bengal

saw the mainstream revival of Hindu–Muslim riots that drove both Bengali Muslims and Hindus further apart,

leading to more unrest in Bengal.[3] In 1947, districts of Bengal with a Muslim majority favoured the division after

approving the 3 June Plan presented by the Viceroy of India Lord Earl Mountbatten, and merged with the new

province of East Bengal of the Dominion of Pakistan.[4][unreliable source?] From 1947 until 1954, East Bengal was an

independentadministrative unit which was governed by the Pakistan Muslim League led by Nurul Amin.[4] In

1955, the Bengali Prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra devolved the province of East Bengal and established

the state as East Pakistan with Dhaka its state capital.[1] During this time, the1954 elections were held which

saw the complete defeat of Pakistan Muslim League led by the United Front coalition of the Awami League,

the Krishak Praja Party, the Democratic Party and Nizam-e-Islam.[5][6][7] The Awami League gained the control of

East Pakistan after appointing Huseyn Suhrawardy for the office of Prime minister.[8][9] This authoritarian period

that existed from 1958 until 1971, is often regarded as period of mass repression, resentment, and political

neglect and ignorance.[10][11] Allying with the population of West, the East's population unanimously voted

for Fatima Jinnah during the 1965 presidential elections against Ayub Khan.[12] The elections were widely

believed to be heavily rigged in the favour of Ayub Khan using state patronage and intimidation to influence the

indirectly elected electoral college.[12] The economic disparity, impression that West Pakistan despite being less

populated than East Pakistan was ruling and prospering at its cost further popularize the Bengali nationalism.

[13] The support for state autonomy grew when Awami League introduced theSix point movement in 1966,

[14] and participated with full force in the 1970 general elections in which the Awami League had won and

secured the exclusive mandate of East-Pakistan.[15][16]

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After the general elections, President General Yahya Khan attempted to negotiate with both Pakistan Peoples

Party and Awami League to share power in the central government but talks were failed when President Yahya

Khan authorised an armed operation (codenameSearchlight) to attack the Awami League.[15] As response to

this operation, the Awami League announced the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 26 March

1971 and began an armed struggle against the Pakistan, with India staunchly supporting Awami League by the

means of providing arm ammunition to its guerrilla forces.[17]

East Pakistan had an area of 147,570 km2 (56,977 mi2), bordering India on three sides (East, North, and West)

and the Bay of Bengal to the South. East Pakistan was one of the largest provincial states of Pakistan, with the

largest population, largest political representation, and sharing the largest economic share.[11] A nine-month

long war ended on 16 December 1971, when the Pakistan Armed Forces were overrun inDhaka, ultimately

signing the instrument of surrender which resulted in the largest number of prisoners of war since World War II.

[17] Finally on 16 December 1971, East Pakistan was officially disestablished and was succeeded as the

independent state of Bangladesh.[17]



1 Geographical history

2 Political history

o 2.1 Language Movement and 1954 Provincial Elections

o 2.2 Martial law

o 2.3 Presidential republic and economy

o 2.4 Military government

2.4.1 Civil disobedience

o 2.5 Position towards West-Pakistan

o 2.6 Final years and war

2.6.1 Dissolution of East Pakistan

2.6.2 Surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces

3 Military

4 Governors

5 Chief Ministers

6 Provincial Symbols

7 Memorials and Legacy

8 See also

9 References

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10 External links

Geographical history[edit]

Main article: History of East Pakistan (1947–1971)

Many notable Muslim Bengali figures were among the Founding fathers of present date, State of Pakistan. The

country was born in bloodshed and came into existence on 14 August 1947 confronted by seemingly

insurmountable problems.[citation needed] As many as 12 million people Muslims leaving India for Pakistan, and

Hindus and Sikhs opting to move to India from the new state of Pakistan which had been involved in the mass

transfer of population between the two countries, and perhaps two million refugees had died in the violence that

had accompanied the migrations in the borders of West Pakistan. Pakistan's boundaries were established

hastily without adequate regard for the new nation's economic viability.[citation needed] Even the minimal

requirements of a central government, skilled personnel and officers, equipment, and a capital city with

government buildings were missing. Until 1947, the East Wing of Pakistan, separated from the West Wing by

1,600 km ofIndian territory, had been heavily dependent on Hindu management. Many Bengali Hindus left for

Calcutta after independence, and their place, particularly in commerce, was taken mostly by Muslims who had

migrated from the Indian state of Bihar or by West Pakistanis from different provinces.[citation needed]

Political history[edit]

Main articles: East Bengal, West Bengal, and Constitution of Pakistan of 1956

Bengal was divided into two provinces on 3 July 1946 in preparation for the independence, the Hindu majority

of West Bengal and the Muslim majority of East Bengal.[citation needed] The two provinces each had their own Chief

Ministers and Governors. In August 1947, the West Bengal became part of India and East Bengal became part

of Pakistan. Throughout this time, the tensions between East Bengal and the West Pakistan led to the One-Unit

policy by Bengali Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra.[citation needed] In 1955, most of the western wing was

combined to form a new West Pakistan province (which contained four provinces and four territories) while

East Bengal became the new province of East Pakistan (a single provisional state). In 1955, Bogra appointed

communist leader Abu Hussain Sarkar as Chief Minister and Amiruddin Ahmad as Governor.[citation needed]

Following the promulgation of 1956 Constitution, Prime minister Bogra appointed Bengali bureaucrat and

retired Major-General Iskander Mirza was asInterior minister and the Army Commander of army General Ayub

Khan as the Defence minister whilst Muhammad Ali remained Economic minister. The main objective of the

new government was to end disruptive provincial politics and to provide the country with a new constitution.

After a revision, the Supreme Court of Pakistan declared that the Pakistan Constituent Assembly must be

called. Governor-General Ghulam Mohammad was unable to circumvent the order, and the new Constituent

Assembly, elected by the provincial assemblies, met for the first time in July 1955. Bogra, who had little support

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in the new assembly, fell in August and was replaced by Choudhry. Ghulam Mohammad, plagued by poor

health, was succeeded as governor general in September 1955 by Mirza.[citation needed]

Language Movement and 1954 Provincial Elections[edit]

The communist parties played an influential role in staging the massive protests for the Bengali Language Movement which

led the destruction ofPML in East Pakistan, 1950s.

Previously in 1952, then Chief Minister Nurul Amin who was firmly against the agitation, stated that the

communists had played an integral and major role in staging the massive protests, mass demonstration, and

strikes for the Bengali Language Movement.[18] All over the country, the political parties had favored the general

elections in Pakistan with the exception of Muslim League.[19] The military, bureaucracy and the United States

was nervous with good reasons where the support for the Soviet Union began to rise in both East and West.

[19] Finally in 1954, the legislative elections were to be held for the Parliament.[19] Unlike in West, not all of the

Hindu population migrated to India, instead a large number of Hindu population was in fact presented in the

state.[19] The communist influence deepened and was finally realised in the elections. TheUnited Front,

Communist Party of Pakistan and the Awami League returned to power, inflicting sever defeat to Muslim

League.[19] Out of 309, the Muslim League only won 10 seats, whereas the communist party had 4 seats of the

ten contested. The communists working with other parties had secured 22 additional seats, totalling 26 seats.

The right-wing Jamaat-e-Islami had completely failed in the elections.[19]

In 1955, the United Front named Abu Hussain Sarkar as the Chief minister of the State who ruled the state in

two non-consecutive terms until 1958 when the martial law was imposed.[19]

Martial law[edit]

Main article: Martial law in Pakistan

In East Pakistan, the political impasse culminated in 1958 in a violent scuffle in the East-Pakistan

parliament between the members of the Pakistan Muslim League and the East-Pakistan police, in which the

deputy speaker was fatally injured and two ministers badly wounded. Uncomfortable with the workings of

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democratic system, unruliness in the East Pakistan parliamentary elections and the threat of Baloch

separatism in West-Pakistan, Bengali President Iskandar Ali Mirza issued a proclamation that abolished all

political parties in both West and East Pakistan, abrogated the two-year old constitution, and imposed the

first martial law in the country on 7 October 1958.

President Iskander Mirza announced that "the martial law would be a temporary measure, lasting only until a

new constitution was to be drafted. On 27 October, President Mirza swore in a twelve-member cabinet that

included Army Commander General Ayub Khan as Defence Minister as well as chief martial law

administrator of the country, along with three other senior military officers in ministerial positions. The cabinet

included among the eight civilians, one of them being Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a former Karachi University lecturer.

Roughly after two weeks, President Mirza's relations with Pakistan Armed Forces deteriorated leading Army

Commander General Ayub Khan relieving the president from his presidency and forcefully exiling President

Mirza to United Kingdom. General Ayub Khan justified his actions after appearing on national radio declaring

that: "the armed forces and the people demanded a clean break with the past...". Until 1962, the martial law

continued while Field Marshal Ayub Khan purged a number of politicians and civil servants from the

government and replaced them with military officers. Ayub called his regime a "revolution to clean up the mess

of black marketing, (sic), and corruption.".

Presidential republic and economy[edit]

Main articles: 1970 Bhola cyclone, Pakistani general election, 1970, and Constitution of Pakistan of 1962

The martial law continued until 1962 when the government of Field Marshal Ayub Khan commissioned a

constitutional bench under Chief Justice of Pakistan, Muhammad Shahabuddin, containing ten senior justices,

each five from East Pakistan and five from West Pakistan. On 6 May 1961, the commission sent its draft to

President Ayub Khan who thoroughly examined the draft with consulting with his cabinet. In January 1962, the

cabinet finally approved the text of the new constitution, promulgated by President Ayub Khan on 1 March 1962

and finally came into effect on 8 June 1962. With the success of 1962 constitution, East Pakistan became

a Presidential republic and abolished all parliamentary institutions in East Pakistan. The 1962 constitution had

provided the presidential system for both provincial states (West Pakistan and East Pakistan) that each states

were given autonomy to run their separate presidential provincial governments. The responsibilities and

authority of the center and the provinces were clearly listed in the Constitution.

During the years between 1960 and 1965, the annual rate of growth of the gross domestic product per capita

was 4.4% in the West Pakistan versus 2.6% in East Pakistan. Furthermore, Bengali politicians pushing for

more autonomy stated that much of Pakistan's export earnings were generated in East Pakistan by the export

of Bengali jute and tea. As late as 1960, approximately 70% of Pakistan's export earnings originated in the East

Wing, although this percentage declined as international demand for jute dwindled. By the mid-1960s, East

Pakistan was accounting for less than 60% of the nation's export earnings, and by the time of Bangladesh's

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independence in 1971, this percentage had dipped below 50%. This reality did not dissuade Mujib from

demanding in 1966 that separate foreign exchange accounts be kept and that separate trade offices be opened

overseas. By the mid-1960s, West Pakistan was benefiting from Ayub's "Decade of Progress," with its

successful "green revolution" in wheat, and from the expansion of markets for West Pakistani textiles, while

East Pakistan's standard of living remained at an abysmally low level. The Bengalis were also upset that West

Pakistan, because it was the seat of government, was the major beneficiary of foreign aid.

Military government[edit]

With Ayub Khan ousted from office in 1969, Commander of the Pakistani Army, General Yahya Khan became

the country's second ruling Chief Martial Law Administrator. Both Bhutto and Mujibstrongly disliked General

Khan, but patiently endured him and his government as he had promised to hold an election in 1970. During

this time, strong nationalistic sentiments in East Pakistan were perceived by the Pakistani Armed Forces and

the central military government. Therefore, Khan and his military government wanted to divert the nationalistic

threats and violence against non-East Pakistanis. The Eastern Military High Command was under constant

pressure from the Awami League, and requested an active duty officer to control the command under such

extreme pressure. The high flag rank officers, junior officers and many high command officers from the

Pakistan's Armed Forces were highly cautious about their appointment in East-Pakistan, and the assignment of

governing East Pakistan and appointment of an officer was considered highly difficult for the Pakistan High

Military Command.

Civil disobedience[edit]

East Pakistan's Armed Forces, under the military administrations of Major-General Muzaffaruddin

and Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, used an excessive amount of show of military force to curb

the uprising in the province. With such action, the situation became highly critical and civil control over the

province slipped away from the government. On 24 March, dissatisfied with the performance of his generals,

Yahya Khan removed General Muzaffaruddin and General Yaqub Khan from office on 1 September 1969. The

appointment of a military administrator was considered quite difficult and challenging with the crisis continually

deteriorating. Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, Chief of Naval Staff of Pakistan Navy, had previously

served as political and military adviser of East Pakistan to former President Ayub Khan. Having such a strong

background in administration, and being an expert on East Pakistan affairs, General Yahya Khan

appointed Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan as Martial Law Administrator, with absolute authority in his

command. He was relieved as Chief of Naval Staff, and received extension from the government. On 1

September Admiral Ahsan assumed the command of the Eastern Military High Command, and became a

unified commander of Pakistan Armed Forces in East-Pakistan. Under his command, the Pakistani Armed

Forces were removed from the cities and deployed along the border. The rate of violence in East Pakistan

dropped, nearly coming to an end. Civil rule improved and stabilised in East Pakistan under Martial Law

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Administrator Admiral Ahsan's era. The next year, in 1970, it was in this charged atmosphere that

parliamentary elections were held in the country in December 1970.

Position towards West-Pakistan[edit]


1971 documentary film about East Pakistan

The tense diplomatic relations between East and West Pakistan reached a climax in 1970 when the Awami

League, the largest East Pakistani political party, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, (Mujib), won a landslide

victory in the national elections in East Pakistan. The party won 160 of the 162 seats allotted to East Pakistan,

and thus a majority of the 300 seats in the Parliament. This gave the Awami League the constitutional right to

form an absolute government. Khan invited Mujib to Rawalpindi to take the charge of the office, and

negotiations took place between the military government and the Awami Party. Bhutto was shocked with the

results, and threatened his Peoples Party's members if they attended the inaugural session at theNational

Assembly. Bhutto was famously heard saying "break the legs" of any member of his party who dared enter and

attend the session. However, fearing East Pakistani separatism, Bhutto demanded Mujib to form a coalition

government. After a secret meeting held in Larkana, Mujib agreed to give Bhutto the office of Presidency with

Mujib as Prime Minister. General Yahya Khan and his military government were kept unaware of these

developments and under pressure from his own military government, refused to allow Rahman to become

the Prime Minister of Pakistan. This increased agitation for greater autonomy in East Pakistan. The Military

Police arrested Mujib and Bhutto and placed them in Adiala Jail in Rawalpindi. The news spread like a fire in

both East and West Pakistan, and the struggle for independence began in East Pakistan.

The senior high command officers in Pakistan Armed Forces, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, began to pressure

General Yahya Khan to take armed action against Mujib and his party. Bhutto later distanced himself from

Yahya Khan after he was arrested by Military Police along with Mujib. Soon after the arrests, a high level

meeting was chaired by Yahya Khan. During the meeting, high commanders of Pakistan Armed Forces

unanimously recommended an armed and violent military action. East Pakistan's Martial Law

Administrator Admiral  Ahsan, unified commander of Eastern Military High Command (EMHC), and Air

Marshal Mitty Masud, Commander of Eastern Air Force Command (EAFC), were the only officers to object to

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the plans. When it became obvious that a military action in East Pakistan was inevitable, Admiral Ahsan

resigned from his position as Martial Law Administrator in protest, and immediately flew back to Karachi, West

Pakistan. Disheartened and isolated, Admiral Ahsan took early retirement from the Navy and quietly settled in

Karachi. Once Operation Searchlight and Operation Barisal commenced, Air Marshal Masud flew to West

Pakistan, and unlike Admiral Ahsan, tried to stop the violence in East Pakistan. When he failed in his attempts

to meet General Yahya Khan, Masud too resigned from his position as Commander of Eastern Air Command,

and took retirement from Air Force.

Final years and war[edit]

See also: Bangladesh Liberation War

Separatist/nationalistic flag of East Bengal

Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan was sent into East Pakistan in emergency, following a major blow

of the resignation of Vice Admiral Ahsan. General Yaqub temporarily assumed the control of the province, as

he was made the unified commander of Pakistan Armed Forces. General Yaqub mobilised the entire major

forces in East Pakistan, and were re-deployed in East Pakistan.

On 26 March 1971, the day after the military crackdown on civilians in East Pakistan, Mujibur Rahman declared

the independence of Bangladesh. All major Awami League leaders including elected leaders of National

Assembly and Provincial Assembly fled to neighbouring India and an exile government was formed headed by

Mujibur Rahman. While he was in Pakistan Prison, Syed Nazrul Islam was the acting President with Tazuddin

Ahmed as the Prime Minister. The exile government took oath on 17 April 1971 at Mujib Nagar, within East

Pakistan territory of Kustia district and formally formed the government. Colonel MOG Osmani was appointed

the Commander in Chief of Liberation Forces and whole East Pakistan was divided into eleven sectors headed

by eleven sector commanders. All sector commanders were Bengali officers from defected Pakistan Army. This

started the Bangladesh Liberation War in which the freedom fighters, joined in December 1971 by

400,000 Indian soldiers, faced the Pakistani Armed Forces of 365,000 plus Paramilitary and collaborationist

forces. An additional approximately 25,000 ill-equipped civilian volunteers and police forces also sided with the

Pakistan Armed Forces. Bloody guerrilla warfare ensued in East Pakistan.

Dissolution of East Pakistan[edit]

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The Pakistan Armed Forces were unable to counter such threats. Poorly trained and inexperienced in guerrilla

tactics, Pakistan Armed Forces and their assets were successfully sabotaged by the Bangladesh Liberation

Forces. On April 1971, Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan succeeded General Yaqub Khan as Commander of

unified forces. General Tikka Khan led the massive violent and massacre campaigns in the region. He is held

responsible for killing hundreds of thousands of Bengali people in East Pakistan, mostly civilians and unarmed

peoples. For his role, General Tikka Khan gained the title as "Butcher of Bengal". General Khan faced an

international reaction against Pakistan, and therefore, General Tikka was removed as Commander of Eastern

front. He installed a civilian administration under Abdul Motaleb Malik on 31 August 1971, which proved to be

ineffective. However, during the meeting, with no high officers willing to assume the command of East Pakistan,

Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi volunteered for the command of East Pakistan. Inexperienced

and the large magnitude of this assignment, the government sentVice-Admiral Mohammad Shariff as second-

in-command of General Niazi. Admiral Shariff served as the deputy unified commander of Pakistan Armed

Forces in East Pakistan. However, General Niazi proved to be a failure and ineffective ruler. Therefore,

General Niazi and Air Marshal Enamul Haque, Commander of Eastern Air Force Command (EAFC), failed to

launch any operation in East Pakistan against Indian or its allies. Except Admiral Shariff who continued to press

pressure on Indian Navy iuntil the end of the conflict. Admiral Shariff made it nearly impossible for Indian Navy

to land its naval forces on the shores with his well effective plans . The Indian Navy was unable to access East

Pakistan and the Pakistan Navy was still offering resistance. The Indian Army, therefore, from all three

directions of the province, entered East Pakistan. The Indian Navy then decided to wait near the Bay of Bengal

until the Army reached the shore.

The Indian Air Force dismantled the capability of Pakistan Air Force in East Pakistan. Air Marshal Enamul

Haque, Commander of Eastern Air Force Command (EAFC), failed to offer any serious resistance to the

actions of the Indian Air Force. For most part of the war, the IAF enjoyed complete dominance in the skies over

East Pakistan.

Surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces[edit]

Main article: Instrument of Surrender (1971)

On 16 December 1971 , the Pakistan Armed Forces surrendered to the joint liberation forces of Mukti

Bahini and the Indian army, headed by Lieutenant-General Jagjit Singh Arora, the General Officer

Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army. Lieutenant General AAK Niazi,

the last unified commander of Pakistan Armed Forces's Eastern Military High Command, signed the Instrument

of Surrender at about 4:31 pm . Over 93,000 personnel, including Lt.General Niazi and Admiral Shariff, were

taken as Prisoner of War.

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On 16 December 1971, East Pakistan was liberated from Pakistan as the newly independent state

of Bangladesh. The Eastern Military High Command, civilian institutions and paramilitary forces were

disbanded. Bangladesh quickly gained recognition from most countries after the signing of the Shimla

Agreement between India and Pakistan. Bangladesh joined the United Nations in 1974.


Main article: Eastern Military High Command of East Pakistan

The border of -Indo-East Pakistan border showed by the U.S. Army, c. 1960.

Since its unification with Pakistan, the East Pakistan Army had consisted of only one infantry brigade, which

was made up of two battalions, the 1st East Bengal Regiment and the 1/14 or 3/8 Punjab Regiment in 1948.

These two battalions boasted only five rifle companies between them (an infantry battalion normally had 5

companies).[20] This weak brigade, under the command of Brigadier-General Ayub Khan (local rank Major-

General – GOC of 14th Army Division), together with the East Pakistan Rifles which was tasked with defending

East Pakistan during the Kashmir War of 1947.[21] ThePAF, Marines, and the Navy had little presence in the

region. Only one PAF combatant squadron, No. 14 Squadron Tail Choppers, was active in East Pakistan. This

combatant squadron was commanded by an air force Major PQ Mehdi (later four-star general). The East

Pakistan military personnel were trained in combat diving, demolitions, and guerrilla/anti-guerrilla tactics by the

advisers from the Special Service Group (Navy) who were also charged with intelligence data collection and

management cycle.

The East Pakistan Navy had only one active-duty combatant destroyer, the PNS Sylhet; one

submarine Ghazi (which was repeatedly deployed in West); four gunboats, inadequate to function in deep

water. The joint special operations were managed and undertaken by the Naval Special Service

Group (SSG(N)) who were assisted by the army, air force and marines unit. The entire service,

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the Marines were deployed in East Pakistan, initially tasked with conducting exercises and combat operations

in riverine areas and at near shoreline. The small directorate of Naval Intelligence (while the headquarters and

personnel, facilities, and directions were coordinated by West) had vital role in directing special and

reconnaissance missions, and intelligence gathering, also was charged with taking reasonable actions to slow

down the Indian threat. The armed forces of East Pakistan also consisted the paramilitary organisation,

the Volunteers from the intelligence unit of the ISI's Covert Action Division (CAD). All of these armed forces

were commanded by the unified command structure, the Eastern Military High Command, led by an officer of

three-star rank equivalent.


Tenure Governor of East Pakistan[1] Political Affiliation

14 October 1955 – March 1956 Amiruddin Ahmad Muslim League

March 1956 – 13 April 1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq Muslim League

13 April 1958 – 3 May 1958 Hamid Ali (acting) Awami League

3 May 1958 – 10 October 1958 Sultanuddin Ahmad Awami League

10 October 1958 – 11 April 1960 Zakir Husain Muslim League

11 April 1960 – 11 May 1962 Lieutenant-General Azam Khan, PAMilitary Administration

11 May 1962 – 25 October 1962 Ghulam Faruque Independent

25 October 1962 – 23 March 1969 Abdul Monem Khan Civil Administration

23 March 1969 – 25 March 1969 Mirza Nurul Huda Civil Administration

25 March 1969 – 23 August 1969 Major-General Muzaffaruddin,[22] PA Military

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23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PAMilitary Administration

1 September 1969 – 7 March 1971 Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, PNMilitary Administration

7 March 1971 – April 1971 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PAMilitary Administration

April 1971 – 31 August 1971 Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, PAMilitary Administration

31 August 1971 – 14 December 1971 Abdul Motaleb Malik Independent

14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971

Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, PA

Military Administration

16 December 1971 Province of East Pakistan dissolved

Chief Ministers[edit]

Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan[1] Political Party

August 1955 – September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Shramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal

September 1956 – March 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League

March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Shramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal

March 1958 – 18 June 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League

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18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Shramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal

22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958 Governor's Rule

25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958

Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League

7 October 1958 Post abolished

16 December 1971Province of East Pakistan dissolved

Provincial Symbols[edit]

The main four provincial icons were the Oriental Magpie-Robin, Royal Bengal Tiger, Banyan tree[citation needed] and

the Water Lily, some of these were nationalized by Bangladesh in 1972.

Provincial bird of East Pakistan, Oriental Magpie-Robin


Provincial Animal, Royal Bengal Tiger


Page 18: East Pakistan

Provincial Tree, Banyan


Provincial flower, Water Lily

Memorials and Legacy[edit]

See also: Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction

The trauma was extremely severe in Pakistan when the news of secession of East Pakistan as Bangladesh

arrived — a psychological setback,[23] complete and humiliating defeat that shattered the prestige of Pakistan

Armed Forces.[23][24][25] The governor and martial law administrator Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan

Niazi was defamed, his image was maligned and he was stripped of his honors.[23] The people of Pakistan

could not come to terms with the magnitude of defeat, and spontaneous demonstrations and mass protests

erupted on the streets of major cities in (West) Pakistan.[23] General Yahya Khan surrendered powers to Nurul

Amin of Pakistan Muslim League, the first and last Vice-President and Prime minister of Pakistan.[23]

Prime minister Amin invited Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (sworn as President, later Prime minister) and the Pakistan

Peoples Party to take control of Pakistan, and in a color ceremony where Bhutto addressed his daring speech

to his nation via national television.[23] At this ceremony, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto waved his fist in the air and pledged

to his nation to never again allow the surrender of his country like it happened with East Pakistan; therefore, he

launched and orchestrated the large-scale atomic bomb project in 1972.[26] In memorial of East Pakistan,

the East-Pakistan diaspora in Pakistan established the East-Pakistan colony in Karachi, Sindh.[27] In

accordance, the East-Pakistani diaspora also composed patriotic tributes to Pakistan after the war; songs such

as Sohni Dharti (lit. Beautiful land) and "Jeevay, Jeevay Pakistan (lit. long-live, long-live Pakistan), were

composed by Bengali singer Shahnaz Rahmatullah in 1970s and 1980s.

To Western observers, the loss of East Pakistan was a blessing[26]— but it was a trauma that was not seen as

such; even today it is still not seen that way.[26] In a book, "Scoop! Inside Stories from the Partition to the

Present", written by Pakistan-born Indian politician Kuldip Nayar, it is noted that "Losing East Pakistan and

Page 19: East Pakistan

Bhutto's releasing of Mujib did not mean anything to Pakistan's policy - as if there was no liberation war.

[28] Bhutto's policy, and even today, the policy of Pakistan continues to state that "she will continue to fight for

the honor and integrity of Pakistan. East Pakistan is an inseparable and inseverable part of Pakistan".[28]

See also[edit]

Stranded Pakistanis

Dominion of Pakistan

West Pakistan

East Bengal

Pakistan Movement

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

The Blood telegram

List of East Pakistan first-class cricketers


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United Kingdom: HarperCollins. pp. 213 pages. ISBN 978-8172236434.