Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Dyslexia Teachers
- 1. Learning Disabilities An Overview Dr. S. Sabhesan,MNAMS, PhD., Prof. & Head Department of Psychiatry, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.
2. Teacher StudentDyad.
- Learning Process.
- Role as a Parent-figure.
- Social Hierarchy Learning.
- External Emotional Anchoring.
- Motivational, feed-back and other roles.
3. Special Needs of L.D. Children
- Early decisions influence adult life skills.
- Inclusive Education and LD.
- Knowing the deficit to optimally manage LD.
- Availability of Teachers time.
- Withstand stoically for long the frustrations.
4. Normal Learning
- Processing by brain.
- Sustained attention.
- Role models.
- Peer Groups.
- An ability or set of abilities which enable an individual to solve a problem or to fashion a product, which is valued within one or more cultural settings (Gardner).
- Assessed by:
- Clinical Findings : Level of performance in different specific skills such as linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic and other dimensions.
- Adaptive Behaviour .
- Psychometric Test Performance.Eg. WAIS, Ravens Matrices, Binet-Kamat.
7. I.Q. & Sub-normality
- ProfoundBelow 20
- Delayed development.
- Global deficit.
- Diminished ability to adapt to the daily demands of normal social environment.
- Usually associated with physical or mental disorders.
9. Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills. [Developmental Dyslexias]
- Definition: Disorders of specific areas of cognitive processing in which patterns of skill acquisition are disturbedfrom early stages of development and are not due to physical impairments or lack of opportunities.
10. Types of Dyslexias
- Specific Reading Disorder.
- Specific Spelling Disorder.
- Specific Disorder of Arithmetical Skills.
- Mixed Disorder of Scholastic Skills.
- Normal Developmental Milestones
- Normal IQ.
- Impairment from early schooling years.
- Specific Disorders in Processing.
- Co-Morbid ADHD, Disorders of speech and Language Development and Conduct Disorders.
- Secondary Emotional Consequences Eg. Low Self-esteem, Poor Interpersonal relations.
- Prototype Reading Deficits include:
- Omissions, Substitutions, Distortions of words.
- False starts, Long hesitations, Inaccurate phrasing
- Reversals of words in sentences or of letters.
- Slow Reading.
- Difficulties in Reading Comprehension.
- Definition:Conscious and willful focusing of mind on one object or on one component of complex experience, simultaneously excluding other distracting mental contents. It includes fixing, focusing, sustaining and tracking components.
14. Dimensions of Attention:
- Alertness: Generalized physical and mental state of arousal; preparedness to respond.
- Selective Attention : Selection from available , competing external and internal stimuli of specific information for conscious processing.
- Concentration:Ability to sustain attention which is under control of conscious volition.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:
- Normal Development and Normal IQ.
- Soft Neurological Signs.
- Early behavioural Disturbances persistent over time.
- Impaired attention resulting in Premature breaking of tasks, Switching frequently from one to another and Easy Distraction.
- Usually associated with Hyperactivity,
- Poor impulse control,Accident proneness,
- Poor Peer Relations,
- Dissocial Behaviour.
- Conduct Disorder.
- Usually persists through adulthood.
- Family history.
17. Motivational Issues
- Definition:Refers to the force that propels one to seek a goal or satisfy a need, striving, incentive or a purpose.
18. Causes of Motivational Problems
- Physical Disabilities.
- Lack of/ Poor Role Models.
- Environmental Distractions.
19. Other Causes
- Physical Illnesses.
- Childhood Psychiatric Disorders:
- Conduct Disorders. Eg. Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
- Emotional Disorders. Eg. School Phobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, Sibling Rivalry.
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder.
- Others such as Stammering.
20. Management Team
- Teachers: Index of Suspicion.
- Doctors :Pediatricians, Neurologists &Psychiatrists.To Confirm
- Clinical Psychologist :Psychological Testing .
- Others:Optometrists, Audiometrists, SpecialEducators, Speech Therapists,Reading Instructors.Specific Areas .
21. Approach to Management:
- Pharmacological: Eg. ADHD
- Special Educational methods: Eg. Dyslexias
- Individual Psychotherapy.
- Family Interventions.
- Social Interventions.
22. The Donts
- Never mock at or be critical or be indifferent.
- Avoid prejudice and stereotypes.
- No experienced/ expressed hostility.
- No psychological rejection or peer group alienation.
- Never physically punish for his inability.
- Never forget that behaviour problem can be a manifestation of his underlying inability.
23. Role of Teachers
- Suspect the problem early There is no problem-child but only a child with problems.
- Talk to the child and get to know his difficulties, particularly in exams, with the peers and at home.
- Screen the child for possible deficits.
- Emotionally support the child.
- Involve the family and significant others in helping him out.
- If in doubt, always refer.
24. Thank You